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pi Jill I. }iS ■ ■•'.■■-•■■' ■«flr"^- 




QUUU^««40 I 




ft 



THE 



PENNY CYCLOPEDIA 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



FOR THE 



DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



VOLUME VII. 
CHARLESTON COPYHOLD. 



LONDON: 
CHARLES KNIGHT AND Co., 22, LUDGATE STREET. 

HDCCCXXXVII. 



Price Seven Shillingt imd Siivenre, bound in cUttif 



OOZWMITTBB. 

OhMrmmm—tin Ric)>l Mod. LORD BROUORAU, r.It.3.. Utnbtr af the MMloakl IMIMM •/ Fmoc*. 

yUa-CluBrman—iOHS WOOD. Kiq. 

rmtKidr-WILLIAM TOOKE, Bh|.. ».P., F.R.8. 



vr. *ll#n. Rhi., F.R. inil R.A.B. 
Cii|)l. ?. BHiifort. UN.. PH. iiid K.A.S., 
Hyrlro^iiphR Irj ttie AdmiriltT. 

0. llurniiv., M I). 

Peter Stnffgrd Csriy, Eiq., A.M. 

WILIlum Uoill'on, Kaq. 

II. I>. Craig, Rnq. 

J. Krrdrricli Dunlell, Rtq. F.D.S. 

J. F. lliTln, E.q.,F.ri.S. 

H. T. UeliBecli*. Eiq., F.R.S. 

The nighl Han. LoM Dramin. 

Hamael Duckivorth, Eiq. 

Ilie KiiiliL Krr. Ill* illi>li(i|< ot Iturhkm. D.D. 

The niKhl Hiin, Vinrount Klirlngtiin, M.P. 

Sir HvDty Kllii. PHn. Llh. Udt. Uiii. 

T. F, Rill., K.^i„ A.M., F.K.A.3 

John Rlllnt'an. U.tl., f.R.S. 

Thomu Fm leaner. Rw). 

1. L. Uoldamld, Etq., F.R. and R.A.3. 



B. OORipeili, Riq., F.R. and R.A.9. 

a. B, nrrenoush, Eiq., F.B. «nd L.5. 

M. D. KIJl, Emi. 

RoiiUiid HIIJ. Kiq., F.R.A.S. 

Rl(jhl Hon. lilr J. r. Hubhoult, B»l ,H.P. 

DiTiil Jnidlne, Eiq., A.U. 

HeiirrB Kcc, Riq. 

TtinniH HrwItL K«j, Bn., A.U. 

J. T. Liader, Rtq..U.P. 

George C. Lewln. Kaq., A.U. 

ThoDiu Henry Lleter. Hnq. 

Jimn Loch, Kiq., U.P.. F.G.S. 

Georite Lont, K>q., A.M. 

J. W. I.ubback, Eiq., A.M., V.R., R.A. ind 

L s.s. 
H. Milrien. R>q. A.U. 
A. T. Mdhln. K«i„A.U. 
Junei Uianlnt, £«]. 
J. Hermio MerlTiIc, £iq., A.U., P.A.H. 



Sir ^Vll][■m Uolnwarlh, Bart., U.F. 

The Rlfht Hon. Lord Niigcni. 

W. H. Ord, Eiq. U.P. 

Tht RlRht IIuu. Sir Htnty Pardell, Itr.rl., 

■I. I* 
Or. Rnget. Sec. R.a., F.R. A. 9. 
Edvard Roihllly. Eiq.. A.U. 
Tbe Rifhl Hon. Lord John RohcU, U.T, 
air U. A. Shee, F.R.A., F.U.^. 
John Aliel 6ai\lh, Enq., U.P. 
Th* Rlifhi Hon. Karl Silencer 
Jnlin Taylor, Eiq, F.R..S. 
Dr. A. T. 'IHoniioii, F.L.S, 
Thomii VardoB. Eiq. 
H. Wiymiiiith, F.hq. 
J. WhliVaw, Eiq., A.U., F.R.S. 
John Wrxtteiley. Kaq., A.U., F.K.A.S, 
Tbotna* Wyae, Eaq., U.P. 
J. A. Yat«, litq. 



dSm. Sluforith i rt Rw. J. P. Jonei, 
Afgtaia—Ktt. K. Wllllaoia, 

Rri. W. Johnion. 

Mr. Miller. 
AtMMTiim—l. 9. KInf iton. Kaq. 
SnrnirnpJa.— — BancrafV Kaq. 

WllilmnGtlbble.Riiq. 
Ae'/iiJ— ])r. Drumniond, 
SMiri'n—ltt^r. \V. Leigh. 
Birmi'ay'rriin— J.Cor(ie,Eiq.F.R.S. CAaJmoK. 

Paal Mnon Jamea, Ritq., TrMnrer. 
ff'fi(/Kirr — Wm. Forater. Riq. 

Jamri Wililgmi. Kaq. 
Uriilal—i. N. Saiidrii. F.nq.. Ckairmmn, 

i. Reynalili. Riq., Treatunr. 

I. H. Ritlln. Rar|.. F.L.S., Sierttvrf. 
Cnlculla~Lori Wm. Rentlnck. 

Sir Rilnuid Ryan. 
. sir U.H.Uilk>n. 

Jnme* Yoimg. R«q. 

C. EI. Cameron, l-^q. ' 

t^nnfTiriye-^Hri. Jqiiiei Roifilead, TkrA. 

Rev. Pror.Heiiilov. M.A.. F.L.S. lill.S. 

Ri'iF. l^onurd Jenyna, M. A., F.L.S. 

RcT. John J.udge, M.A. 

Rf>. Geo. Pra>'0>li,ni.A.,F.[t.S.ft1,S. 

». W . Roth m an . F »q . , M . A . , t-Ml. A . S.*H.^. 

Hef. Prof. HedgKkx. hl.A., K.R.3.AG.S, 

ProrrHOr Smyth, M.A. 

Kr>. C, Tlilrlivall, M.A. 
i'tintfrUurti — John Hrent, Ei^q., Ahlf rman. 

William Maatrrs. Eaq. 
Cna(iia.~\Vm. Jardlne, Eaq., Pmidnl. 

Iloberl liifll*. Ki^H rraotarer. 

ReT. C, ItrlditniDn. ) 

ReT. 1.;. Gutilaff, tStCTttarU: 

J. U. Uurrl>ou, Eaq.. J 
TarAl^ia— ReT. J. Hlacknell, M.A. 
Carfiifa— Thorn ai Barm, M.t)., P.R.3.E. 
CBrnariHin— R. A. Poolr, Eaq. 

William Robert!, Eiq. 
Ctfffer— Hayei Lyon. Eiq. 

Henry Polti, R>>q. 
C'*lcAeirar— John Forbei, U.I}., F.R.J. 

C. C. I>*ndy, Knq. 
CoditTm,^li~iUw. J. Whltrldg*. 
Corjk — Joha Crawford, Eiq. 

Mr. Plato Pelrldea. 
CavtnlTif — Arthur Gregory, Eaq. 



XiOOA:^ OOKKITTBES. 

l>mArf A— Joha Madocka, luq. 

Thomu Kvanii. Eaq. 
0>ri|i— Joseph Striitl, Eaq. 

EdiTird Sirutl, Eaq., U.P. 
Drtonpart and .s'tuniAini)* — Johg Cole, Kaq,' 

— NorniaD, Kaq. 

Lt.CoI. C. Hamilton Smith, F.R.S. 
PaWa—T. L>rummoDd. Eaq. R.E.. F.R.A.S. 
BdM>ir^-~i\T C. Bell. F.R.S.L. and E, 
Jflmria— Joa. Wedgwood, Ktq. 
Srittr—3. TyrreH, Eaq. 

John UIKord. Eaq. (Coosir.) 
(lIOMgaic—K. Fin I ay, feaq. 

Frofeaaor Mylne. 

Aleiander UcGrlKor, Kaq. 

Chirln Tea nan c. Knq. 

Jaoiea Cow per, Eaq. 
0£dmorydiia^>0— Ur. Mnlkln, Cowhrldge. 

W. Wllllama, Eaq., AberperKwrn. 
tlaenut'/—?. C. Lukli, Eiq. 
HuH~3. C. Parker, Eaq. 
Ktighlis, I'oriliiUre— Rev. T. Uncy, M.A. 
Ltamingian Spa — 1>r. Loudon, il.ii. 
Ltedt—i. Marahall, Eaq. 
/,evai— J. W, Wonllgar, Eaq, 
l.imthck~Wm. O'Brien. Eaq. 
l.inrp»i>lI.iH!.At.—W.W.Canit,%»n. (.'A. 

J. Uulleneui, Eaq., 7r#iiHrvr. 

RtT. W. Shepherd. 
J.utUnr—r. A. Knight, Rao., P.H.S. 
Uufri'd— Slgnor A. Uunoi de Sotumayor. 
MMdetAtail—a. Omlden, Eaq., F.1,.3. 
MaU it nu Clement T. Smyth, Kaq. 

John Caie, Eaq. 
ValHMhlrfR' R. Thomaa, Riq. 
Uanelmtcr Loe. J:~Q. W. Wood. Eaq., Vk. 

Benjamin Heywood. Eaq., Treaiarer. 

T. W. WinaUnley, Req., Uon. Ute. 

Sir G. FhllluB, Hart., M.P. 

Ben}. GotI, Kaq. 
JTiuW— Re*. Ororre WaddinftOB, U.A. 
MertAyr Tydntl— J. J.Qdeal. Eaq, UP. 
AHmhinkamiilon—Jebn G. lUIl, Eaq. 
Itanmviilh — J, U. Uogcridgf, Eaq. 
ff«(A— Jnhn Rowland. £aq. 
A'eiccnitlt—RtT. W. Turner. 

T. Sopwith, Em]., F.Q.S. 
Niwparl. liUaf Ifrir*'— All. Clarke, Eaq. 

T. Cookt, Jan.. Eaq. 



R. Q. XirhiMlriek, Kaq. 
KittpOTi PfnM—J. Millar, El'q. 

KeiBtowii, ituHltumtri/tiiri—'M. PugJi, Eaq. 
JVurnneA— Richard Bican, Eaq. 
Orirtt, Euei—Dr. Curliell, U.l>. 
0^tri~Di. DaBbeny, F.it..S. Pro,', or Cham; 
BeT, Prof. PowelL 
ReT, John Jordan, B.A. 

E. W. Hea^, Eaq., U.A. 
Ptmamg—Sit B, H. Malkin. 
I'ailA, HuMgary — Count Siethenyl. 
J'ijrmoKM— H. Woollronibe, Knq , F.A,!I.. t'A. 

Snow Harrlt, Kan., F.H.S. 

K. Uoorc, U.l)., F.L.S.. !i«r(f«ry. 

G. Wlghlwltk, Kaq, 
Prtiltlji'-Ui. A. \V. Ua*1ci, U.U 
AtfHiii— RiT. H. P. Hamllloii, M,A., K.II.S, 
and G.3. 

He*. P, Kwarl. M.A. 
AaMea— Rer. Ilie Warden at 

Hiimplirryi Jouei, Eiq. 
Krrfe, /. af «i>*r— Sir Rd, Simeon, 111., UP. 
S'llllbiuy - ReT. J. Barfl t. 
Shefirlil—^. li. Abraham, Faq. 
Sliri:la<i .Vitlii:~G. P. Ilut-oiijha, Kaq. 
.Itrea'ilarv-R. A.Slaney, Eaq.. U.P. 
Sualh PeHerlBH—Jobn NJrholelti, Kiq. 
S/. Atap^ — Rfv. Grurge Strong. 
MueApvrl— H. Maralaiid, Eaq., TVeonirr. 

Hinry CDppai:k. Kaq, Stcrtlmrj. 
Taaiilcci—UtT. W. ETana. 

John Rundlr, Eaq. 
IVanr-- Richard Taunton. U.l). 

Heiiry Srwell Stukea, Kaq. 
THnt,nigi IFr/lt— L>r. Veala. M.U. 
Cffanbr— RobMt Blurlon, Em. 
Warm c*— Dr. Conolly. 

The IUt. William Field, (/.(uni'a^.a.) 
WWer/orJ— Sir John Newiiott, Bl. 
Wolvrrkmwiplvn — J. Pearaon, Eaq. 
■ft-reailer— Or. Haalloga, U.l). 

C. H. Hebb. Eaq. 
IffMAam— ThoniM Fdiwoilh, Kaq 

J. E. Bowman, Eaq., F.L.S., Tre.iiarn-. 

Majnr WIIJlaiD l.loyri. 
Tarmomtk—C. E. Rumbotd, Eaq. M.P. 

DawioD Turner, Eaq. 
I'll-*— Rer. J. Kiiirick. U.A, 

I. Pbllllpa, Eaq., F.R.B., F.Q S. 



THOUAS COATES, Eaq, Seentarg, No. t), Llncoln'a lua Firtda. 




lAndaa: Prnlcdbr Williih Ckowri and Suhh. »i«,hI;,i,i Ktrrel. 



THE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA 



or 



THE SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF 
USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



C H A 

CHARLESTON, the largest city in tlietlate of South 
Caniltna. is iitu&t«d in the i-aunty uf CIibtWaIor, upon a 
ntrrow tonguvor IsnO formed by ibe confluent of iIig 
nv*n A*hley »nd Coi>|»er. in Si" 47' N. lit. and T'i' 48' W. 
long. The hwbour. wliioh is spacious and cannon it^iiU i» 
formed by tlio msluury of IHp Iwo rivvixaiul prututleJ from 
lti« AlUntip by SulIiTaii's IkUixI on llii; N. and Vulty Iilaad 
on IIhi S. TIm! vntrannv, wliicli i« b«twe«n these isUnd*. is 
olMtru«t«il by a ran|[e of sand-bnuks, which in.ikc tlitue 
rliKnn«U by whii^h vatscb of coniidrrattta burthen may 
untor the port, but lb* |MB»igii is rendered to dilticitll and 
tinecrtaiD by thu tides aod Hid khiflmg of the sands, thai it 
i» cuslomsry Tor all vessel*, indudmg «ven con»tniit Iradcra 
to ifae port, to be taken in by licensed pilot*. 

CharlflBlon wns foundoi) in IfiSO, tcvitnleen yean alter 
tb« granlirijg of tlie caloiiy by Cliarlnll. la the Earl of 
Clarendon. Fur rsitlicr mate than a century it was itie capital 
of' itio province, Oilurabia. now the seat of iiuvernniifiiC. ni>t 
having Iwen founded until IVHT. Tlivtawn in rrjtularly 
Uid out in parallel sIrMU vxtendtitK belwvcti the tno rivera 
and cnuedby oilier »IrctU atti(;hi nniilet. The houses 
nre for tho 1D0«1 part ipacioua and lofty, and funiishtid willi 
t>alcani«s and v«rsndfttu, in order to protect the lutciior 
from the «un. Tb* «lf«ot» are genor&liy narrow and un- 
paml, and tho Mil being aandy. conitldcmhie annoyance b 
oxiwrtonoed in vrlndyvcnther from dual andund. Tosliel- 
ler tbo paawn([cr* Irora the aun. rairt of a tree called the 
* pride of India' are planted on each aide of the street*; 
tbii tree does rtol ^rrow to any coniid«nibl« heielii, but its 
IraiMbeBDrvi tprct^ingandiisfolingctliick, and it pouessei 
the Ibrther atlvaiitagc of nut liatbourio^; insecti. 

The town contains a citjr-ball. cxchatigB, ruatoin*bouie, 
gaard-hoaaet. theam, orpban-house, limpiul. olnii-houab. 
two •mnala, two maiiets. a collegv, and nineteen places of 
public worahin. The yellow fovrr tiaa made fVequent ta- 
tagM in Cbarleaton. but iu effecta have b»en cbiefly confined 
10 Ktransera. and c&pe«ally thoso front moro nonbem rli- 
aalea. The place ts not contiilDrwl unliea-lthy by natives. 

Tke popolaiioo of the city, in 17!>Q, was 16.35?, of whom 
'iHA wnre alaTet. In tho next forty yean the niimher of 
iiiliabitanu bas iwaily doubled. a> appeaxa from thu foUotr- 
ing itBtement: 

Fn* WhlUi- tVM PrnMi 
IUm. YrmMitu «(««l->u. SW>f» Tttel 

lUO .. . 18.;iS 

Utf . S»G3 . S705 . 1472 . 11,671 . 31.711 

IS3« . SS»» . »330 . 1475 . I2.6i-t . 35.396 

1830 . e3M . 6»l»2 . 3IU7 . li,U* . 30,g89 

T1ie*« niitnbondo not includotbc population of ibcsuburba, 

which ill 1830 araounled to IU,0S4. 

CUarU-stuii ia a piano of very oonaiilcrable trade. A gnwt 
pert of tbc cotton and nearly all the rice oxportod from tho 
■tale are ahipped tnm this port. Tho amount of rc^t^tered 
■nd laMoaetl tonnage belonging to tlvc pori in IRJS was 
I3.7»» loM, of which 75H tjni vote cniplojod in the eoart- 
Itig tttit, liw lonaage af »t«am-veuelB in the wme year 



C H A 

was I8S0. Tn tlie year emlnl 30th SepUmbeTi lS3i, the 
vcs&cIb that entered and left ihe port 1ft the proiecution of 





1ub»4l , 


OuCVKpl*. 


Slil|« 


T«u. 


Wnjfi. 


TolH. 


AuKticui 




lis 






Vt.TIO 


TMal . . . 


<J3 


&3,Mi 


at* 


w.i:» 



Til* Irwlu of Charleston iti t!i» two prinnipnl articles of 
ex]url duiinif iliu Insl i^vuit veari has bcon at. folluwa^the 
season for nhippuig wtluii ana nco i.i consiilorud to Le^iti on 
th« 1st of OatoUer, and to end on Ihe Ist of Apiil rulli>'»iiig 



T«n. 






AttIt-W 



OHluU. 



KipartL 



£|mIu ou Iuib4. 



UluJ. 



L'|l1ll>4- 



I4.*i.'|l cl.'-ii' '- 
18M-.-13.'i:,*Hll.l.l.3;:> ■ 

]SM.'M|i;,a(>u li*. :!»,■- !■ • 
ia3*-)aii,WJi»4. •»«>!', 1.- r, 
tSlAM ie,Mai*a.0ili94.MnJ ». 



Lt( i:-f..- 




1 !«tj n'.ma 



Tho exprxts nf tho two shipptitg lensuris eniltng April I. 
I83S, and IS3G, ncmilUtrihiiicd na f'>llowit : 



Co*Blri«t aaillSffU. 



LHerHil .... 

LMilan 

GRvant MMlUI>«cMr 

lUvi- 

OlterruiUlaFnim 
llolUnd . . . . 
K«Ui :■( r.trvfa . . 
Oiliri Furvliii Piirtt , 
Wast Ind^ , . « • 

tmli In tba t'ullnli 
)tutn . . . ( 

Tuul . . . 



In Ai.fll 1, U». 



Cwtinn. 



ItlaaL 



W 

10« 



7.** 



7.1 



rpba.l. 



lUl.* 

:.3ni 
so .we 

mo 






Ul,li» 



Hire. 



Tlr-w- 

n.r.i 

s 

*.t^ 

fbi 
lO.OM 
11,130 
>.VM 



ie.«<f 



Turn U«b>1nt I. IKVi, 

K> .^|iill I, i.-oe. 



CuHoii. 



S« 



Vltmta 



U*ln 

i.we 



e.isi 



».ia> 
7. am 
a,K3 

7.«r 



3a.ec 



IM.aW 



llkr. 

».r» 

t.je« 

u 

a.ia 

a..W 

a,:«3 

tM.as4 

•e.eftt 



Tite Ashley and Conpw river* are nA tuviaablu ia any 
eoniiderable diiunee from ihoir mouiha. Tu rx^ini«iy thi« 
dinulvantoae a canal hat Iweii cut Mknct^iiiig tliu ('.viint 
with the Sanlee river. The internal roninauniriilHH) Im 
been greatly improved bjr nteaui qT a railroad from CbarW. 



No. 403. 



ITRK PENNY CVCLOPJiDIA.^ 



\ov,N\V— IS. 



C H A 



C H A 



Ion tu ITamburg on Uie ftnvnonali, nppotiia to Aiij^tta, n 
diiunro of l.ie milM. Th>ii ntilroaci wu opened in li3i, 
and litu provpil very •ufcwsful. 

The Clioriuiioti Mlle^e wb* chartered in 17SS, bat until 
It^-Jl il rauld b» e{iii<)(Iar»(leinlT as & f^riiminar-ichoal. In 
tliM year snrno altvi'BtiunK wor« mnile in its plsiis and ro- 
Titmment \>y mcani ofwlii^h it van plnred nn a racpectablo 
foattng tu a cotle^o. At that time lU fimdit had beeotno 
very loir, hut it ha^finoe recyiiTcd -Z-l.iOO dollaraby|^ftfV«ro 
Ivro individimlR. niid il« inrr>TTi« fruni stuileniii has al>o f'inoe 
lfii4 atnounird ■>> lO.OOO ilnlltr- ncmtmlly. ThenutubcrcY 
ttudonta in 18^3 tvu 177. of whom 4r>atte»d'il Ihcuricntific 
denatimcnt. 75 tli* claisifiil di-purtuw-nl, and 55 the Eog- 
Miti depuntnciit. The cijllep^ l>uildinp; U cammodioui: it 
jtoCM-ati-c a iftA philoftDjihic^) nppnr&liit. and a library of 
31MIU Talumeit, bKuk-t irvcial hundred vuliimei bolnngine 
Ui th» siuitcoli. The ntpdicol rolk-gr, which wan c^tablishoa 
in lfi24, it cm]>ovcred la eontler niedical ilogrect. Tbo 
loraljlj i<i a handsonrie bi;ildins. fi>r nhich the city council 
of ClisHeaton np]tr->pt-intL>d 1 .'i.UUO dullard, mid the ^lahhsli- 
moiit haa lieon further (i*sivt«l by tltc st^fa' loS'Siaturf, 
WliK'h htm eranlcd lo lU fulxK tito *)im of 17,000 dnlUrt. 

Priittinx o'lu intro'lui^cd tnta South Carolinn nt Clmrles- 
ton in 1730, and iha Arit iie«>papcr was published in Jn- 
UUBry. 133-i; Ih^ro w*«i in 1834 Ihrcf daily and Ihruo 
fro«My ytvon pvblialied in the cily. Then.' ar« dvo banlu 
Mtnhliilicd ID ChaikiitoD wilt) capitals acnounlinK in tbo 
•ftAH^Kaicio-i.SOQ.OVOdullan; and tvoin&uraDcucDiDpiui«a, 
wilh rofiirals «r SiiD.OOO and 4S0<000 dollars r«spccliv«lj-. 

CHARLKSTOH'N. tltp principal lowu in Middlcwrs 
count)-, MatnnH)U6irlls, 18 tiluutcd un a pen in aula, formed 
bv llic nvcr Myiitic on tho Katt, and Chnriu« nvirr vn llic 
Wfst. by u/hich lutlcr it i» Kparated rruni Binlwi. vf whith 
il raay be »aid to form a auhurb. The icttlc-nii^nl at CharlcB- 
lown Mni(>ubnt preceded the foutidini; of Boston. In tlia 

J ear I6'J^ Mr. Kridicut, one ottlvs patentee* ti> whom King 
a<net tlio Firvt had dghl yean licfi^n- Kianlud an oxienuro 
terrilOTv in America, ncnt ta Ken Englund. vitb abouL 
n hundrwl fulluwiTf, and icUlcd at iho spot now called 
SjLh). Ill llitf filluwing jcat tliis imaU c«iony w*» joined 
,\\ aU»il tuo hundred olbur perwna fiom Etit;l[in<l; I'ul, in 
trw •:4ii[fic of ito year, aWui ICO or the culiini.itH rciniivcd. 
nnd with Ihc consciil of Mr. Endicnt, sclUed thcmhdve.i al 
Cliarkslown. then mllcd by iU Indian iiaitio of Mmlia^tuin. 
In the early p>rt of the Anioncan Rarulutiunary w«r 
Churleatown wus dentro)ed by the Engli^h trunps; pro- 
'Tiomly to lliat Ciioe it waa atliriviiiK place, in whicli many 
ibrancliMof Eaanuracture wuiv carried on. It waa speedily 
t jobuilt, and boramo iniicli more mtitidt^rahlu than hcGire 
I Iba war. Tlie population in 1830 araounled la 8787 souls. 
Bcaidn tho Charle»-river bridm, by which ihc town i> con- 
ncctad wilb Botiuti, there ia a Bridge acrosa the river Mystic, 
vhicb connects ChiKk-atiiwn with tbc tunn of Maiden, in 
IIki lame i^univi [Bdeton.] 

t-'IlAKI.EVlLLE.B lowu in Ihedepartment of Ardcnn« 

,in Tranee, in the ira ini-iliait; vicinily of !M<'-4t(!re«. llic capital 

lof lbadepDrlineni,un<] on tbi^ k-Q bank ufiht: Meu^e. about 

14S milM fmni PariH llirouuh Soimohs, Reims, and Rothcl. 

TbistQwnia of modern orii;iii, Imvlng been built m 1609 

by diaries dc Gonsague.Dukeol'Neicra, aftu-wanU Duke 

of Mantua. Ittsvvry regularly laid out, and mc airecii 

aro Terr siraix^ •' lh<^ "rv four principal onei. into wbich 

tlw oiban run. The bouse* arc of uniform hcigbt. ctn-ared 

with alato. There ia a handiouie (quart, Btirrounded by a 

ifiaaia, nnd with & ruunUiin in tho middle. The town 

jfonaeaaca a theairr, a conaideraHe public library, and o 

t muBcum of natural bi»tory and aniiiiuitiL'x. Olinrlevdie wtut 

' otiginally furtilled, and had u ritadi^l railed Mont Olympe : 

' IpuI these roTlifiratiuns were de«lrt>yed about ia87, by onl«r 

of I.ouia XIV. of France, into wIidm liand« Ibe town bad 

I conic. A alone bridgv unilei ihi* town viifa tha netghbour* 

i ins town of M^ti^rcs. 

Tlio population ot Charlerills. in l»33, vas 7400 for the 
town iisc^lf. or 7773 for the whole mmmune. Th« inhabit- 
. ADts manufacture iron wares, eapectally nail* and nrc-arniB. 
*t wbicti lait ibero in a govemiDant niannfacture. Bnut 
ftiundinR; and (be tnanufaetiira of a^p are aUo carried on. 
There i»aroinmcidk)UBport on the Meuio, and t<onstd«nibla 
butineu in tranxscted 

CHARLEVOIX. PIERRE FR.ANqOIS XAVIKR 

DE, boni at Si. (jaeniin in imi. was et)uc«ted by tha 

, Jaauili. and wai adinitled into their order in early life. In 

ili^ ha ITU appowted ta oao of ibn Joiuil uiisaioiu in 



Cunnilii, and, embarking nt Roi^holb, ho Hrriroit nt QiK<bc« 
in the aulunin of thai year. Ho explored a Inrfie imtI of 
Canada, and examined aevvmlof the ri\'cr* and lakca, whieli 
wero then not much vistt»d by European*. In (toii>iE from 
North Amorioa lo St. Dominga, he suffered shipwrecli ; but 
a tecond xcy^gp wa* more fortutiale, and ho reached that 
island in September, I '22. After two or threo week*' at ay 
in St. DoTitinqo, he sailed for France, and turii-ed at Uiiira 
in the motiili of l>ecemhcr. He afterwards made a journey 
inlu [iiiiy on aomo hn^itiosa of his order, which fiequently 
cntruiled him with important employtnenU. BcHiiles pro- 
ducing the vtflu^LnauK vurki that boar hie name, he wrote 
duritip t wen ty- two year i in the 'M^raoirca ilo Ttcvoux,' a 
liiemry journal conducted by the Jeauits. Ho died at L« 
F|(-cho in irui. 

Ue WD* a laborioun coinpikr. nnd tho documents and 
aocountt of furoign countries (furniihed by Jesuit tuis- 
si»nari«t, who were >ieatl«red in alqaoit ovory corner of the 
world) upon which he principally worked, were nuinetous 
and 0M-a*i'>nnlly MthmbLe ; but both bo and hi* autboriti«a 
wore partial, prtijtidircd, crcdulou*, and stiporstitiout, and 
too much given to lodioua detail* of lb« |)roeecdinKa and 
e«rcnonie* of their own order. To ihii we must oiid that 
Charlevotx'a atyle is somewhat ht^avy and diffuse. Uis 
sepsmte work* are, I. ' Hiilory and DeiM^ription of Japan,' 
whirh is mUcn almost entirely from Ktimpfvr; S. 'Hjatoiy 
of St. Uomirij,'*,' wJiirh ie derived fMin n MS. tent bim by 
Fnthar !.« Fern, who lived Iwcnty-Gve years in Ibat island, 
and fnim &oinc document* which vxialeil in the? bureaux of 
the French ministry of Marine ; 3. * Hiitory of New Franco,' 
wimb contniiis a jfood account of all the rrcncli eslubli^h- 
mcni* in C'nnada and Nivrth Amoriua, lOKClhcr «ilh a 
IfxliouJi confu^ journal of bis own Iravcla in that part of 
tli« world ; [tho latter portion wu tranilnlcd into English in 
1760, under tlio title of •Journal of a Voyaxu to North 
America ;") 4. ' Uislury of I'uiagua}.' wUcU waa Iranslatod 
into Enalith in I7eil. 

Hi* thick ((unrliM nro a compound of tntveb and history, 
not very vkjlfully luiXGd ; but although Ctiuikvoix hiul 
ncitlicr the urdtr and philoaophy iicccs»ftry lo an [u?ti.iriaii, 
nor tho enterprise and ilvocity of a traveller, L« wan a \cry 
in<luttnous man, and colleuuid many lhiii(;s ubieb tiill 
rendiT bix books valuable for ^-ccusional rcr«rciice. 

CHARLOCK, the vulcur nomo of Sinapis nigm and 
nlhu, common aunual need? which iiifc»t corn-land, llicy 
ore »u i'uaily iiL*-->lro)vd hyaliltio euro, that their pric»cncu 
ran only lo lnukc^d ujiitn nn e\iilenru of iluvvnlv uKoculluru. 

CnAULO"ITENUL'R(i. a small iwn about & mile from 
Berlin, i» built on llm river S{>rce. and united to ibo capital 
by an excclknt read, whii;h n liKhtcd hy lamps. 1( mn- 
Uun» a rojal pabeo with a lino park, in which there ia iho 
scpuk'hral inuiiLiiiiuiit of Quireu Luise, who died in IStU. 
There are alito statues of ibo Ureat Eleoloi and King 
Frederic I. Cbailotlcnburt; is a Kro^t place of rvicrl for 
llic people of Dei'hfi. some of whom iia»'u fine country 
houses here. The populnlion is about £100. 'itere are U 
few manur*i-tun-.i of criitoii goods on a soiall scale. 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, a post-lown, and the county- 
town of ibe county of AJlemarle, in tlio Stale of \ it>;inia. 
on the hank of the Itiianna, n branch of the Jome^ ritcr. 
It i.t^iluatiKl in a licaiuiful nnd hr^U.iy I'Diinlry, ulxml twenty 
milcH titiiii the Blue Kiilj^c- MoiiIicl-Uo, the funuer rest- 
dcnoeof Mr. Jeflui-!>ou, iaontliu summit of a hill, about two 
milc« from Charlottesville. Mr. Jeflcrion is buried in tlie 
crouuds near tho bouse. During the rcvolulioiwry war, 
Cukiiel Tarli-ton miida an aliempl. in whiirh lie nearly 
surceedud. to siiipriM iho Viriciuia li-^islaturc, then liitiu); 
8t Cbarloiteuvillc. Mr, JclTn>ijn. who was then c^'X'''"'"^ 
of Virginia, narrowly escaped beiiiR taken in bis owii house. 

Thv uuirersiiy of Virginiik which is about one milu from 
CharlutlesTtllc, was founded by the ksi>Ulure of Vir^finin, 
under llic supennlciitlcnco of ^Ir, Ji-lf<irMjji, who was np- 
pointcdllie Orst reciuriiiid oiieof tbc tisiiors. Tliorcxula* 
tioDs for the K^vemnicnt of thi* Imtiluiion. nnd the general 
course of instruciiun. were formo) bv Mr, Jcffcmon. It is 
one of the fcw colteftea in tbo Unitea Stales wbicli bu not 
a cleriEyman for its president: no tbeologkal or leliffioiu 
inatTtiction ia (tiveo by tbo umieraily. 

Tbc branches of instruction are the Greek. Latiu, 
and Hebrew laniruages, the moat important modem Ua> 
goai^. matbemailca. natural phik»apb}i, morat pbDoaoplqr 
Slid politicid eoonomy. Uw. aiid chemisuy. Tlieie is Bh» 
ft suuiU nwdial adwoL The uiiiveiiU-]! i>aue»»«s « mli- 



I 



CH A 



CH A 



Nr! 



HbeWI libnrr of aViut 10,000 volumen. a phjlowitliical and 
elietntetl aMumtu*. an ■natdtnical tav\ $«i«nl miMeum. 
■ iral'iinM- or miii^rab, ami >n obsemtory. 

CEtAROLLKS, a town in Prance, io tli« d?[iartiDcnt of 
SafifK' nn<l Linr«. [8A6>n et Loina.1 

CHAROLLOIS. or CHAR01X>IS. a dUlriet deriving 
itft tmniM from tlio abova town, which waa tlie capLul of il. 
CharnlloiK wui a. lubdivUion of the duehy of BourgoKuc. 
ami Philippe la Bon and Charlei ie T*m*raire, ihe (vro lasit 
of 11)0 ^real Cfudal dukea. touk, during Xht'ir ratbor's life- 
line-. Ihvir litl*' from this diglHpt, being known a* eotinU of 
Otarollois. It is includol m llie doparlTnont of SaAiie cl 
Vain, except a smalt part wott ot the Loire, vhicli ii fat 
Ibe nuMt put eomprehended in the deparlmenl of AlUer. 

[ALLIKR. SA&^F. HT IXIIRK.[ 

CHAROI.LOIS. CANAL DU, olhorwiBO raHcd the 
CANAI, DU CRNTRH, omiof lUcniosl iinimrtiint miiiiIb 
hi Frnnrw. ll wa« c(iinninne«d a.d. 1*63 ami (InUlied j,.n. 
1792. nitd runa Ibrough thedlfttnet tnm whtoh il takci ilu 
nnme. fannectint; the navij^tian of the Loin! at Dtfuoin 
with that of the Safins at Chilons. From iU junelian 
with th« I'Oit* it foUon-s ilio vallnj nf the Arroux. ii fppilor 
of the Ijtite, fur a very short dmanoe. mid then thni of 
the BourtMnee. a feeder of tiie Arroux. The only lawn of 
my impowinp* neiir the nnal, in this pari of iU courw, H 
Vinf ( population, iJii. Iowa; 3100. wlio)o roinmunej. 
The eanil thon pi«WB t!iroii|ih the fteng or pivo! of Long 
Pvttdii. and faDtM-n the vnUty of the DhMiiii.'. u feuiU'r uf l)i« 
Sidne, to near the town of tlhngny (population 2989), and 
then, lummp; off* to the Tit;ht. ojions inlo the SaAno at 
Chiluns. Us wbule lonirth u eivvn in llie lablu (tilijoincd 
to Mall* BrtiD> Gii^-Vnirernflif. at I16,H12 milr^i, or 
aSoiil T'J Enitli«h mill!*. It is ih« feronili of the Fn-nrh 
eannl* tn rwpi-et of Icnpth- lis lerpth. as nieniiired on the 
HiaTi of Ftanee by A. H. Bru(. and by ihd Soriety fur the 
Difii<iieflofU3ef\il Know]edafl.i*.n*n<;nr aneitilie. Tflroilvs. 

CHARON, a native uf Lamti^un*, on the Hi'llo(p<inl, 
one of tbone nuniftKiiis Greek liisiorioal wrtlont now only 
kuoirn Ity their names and a few fra^pnciiU. Charon li\«d 
before HerDdotiis, who was bom BC.'tK'l.nnd ho waf younger 
Ihaa Heca1«n3, who was probably in the vit;oiir »[ his lifo 
about B.C. 500. Charon wrote a hiMur}' of hii native town, 
a btttory of Pertia. a htitory of Crete, and olUer works. 
The lo*x of itie Cretan hisloiy is to lie r^gretled. m we 
poaiesi «a few materials for the unlient «tnlc of that island. 

(See Suidaa. XApuu ; Civ*i««r. tfntcriMrum dr/ecorum 
AnliiftiUt, yra<im*nltt, ^-/r. Hridelherff. I60r.. 6tolJ 

i>iiii!M ninntiont two other wnlew ot the name; one of 
h.-i^<!, nnd the olhvr of Naucratis, in Kjji pi. 

CIIAKOX, the fabnloua boatrana who cnnrrycd the 
■b»d(9 of the departed a^ rofi; the rivt-n whidi uirt (he iii- 
f«Tnl twjtiona. (BuHp. /t/<v»/. 253, 441 ; ArJdtopli. Han. 
MS ; VifRd, Jindi, <t. 59S,) Hi* faro was nn ohol (the 
tixlh p^irtof adracktne), which va» laid in the mouth of 
a |«riK(n about to be buried, in ORlcr that h« tnii;ht hare 
wb<;rcwi||) to pay tbofreiKht. (vafXov. io^unj. Arigtoph. ; 
J. Pullux. '\%. Sa ; and JuvtnnI, iii, 2S7.) Charon docs not 
tpM-ar ill Honwr : hi* origin m rvfcrred to J&'^yyl (Diodor. 
i- V«>. vliere he had a rcpreientativo in Amentbe^ the 
emblem of a fuiutc Unte: nil name 19 thouii;ht Io point Lo 
tb liioc<i by > freediMU from aubiunary troubles. 

(- , fiuTKb'Jik. i„ P. 341.) 

<. il.in 1 , vr SBA-CIIAkT, a hydrographical map, or a 
ptt^Krti<>n of »omv pari of tlie «ea, in piano, for the ui« of 
Ratitptiun. Fdomivr, inhw Ili/tlrosrapMe, (fol, par. IC07, 

5. 3tf5,> ancribc? llie invention of ctmrU to Henry, mq of 
(ti:„ l.ii. ■ -if I'vrtUKith i.vrtain it i« that i&arinc chart* 
ii'i I have is>ue<l fri'in the PortU|^o(o. Bu^lonl 

k^, . t sicp ibal wa< miule tvnanl a. knovlod^ti of 

our own c«a$l* wiM by an almtiuc, with a chart of the 
e«a<tinir part of Eliichind, punted on vellum or parchment, 
by Wyakci) de Wl-pIv, liSO, aod Unind in a binall poitabW 
Toluin'v. Tbis wii» the lir^t ho had w^cn of lh« kind. (Sec 
Baxl'inl'i f.HttT to lleurne, prc&xvd t^- Lelund't llinerury, 
Vnl, t-, p. ls<X., and Sfictle-^. ait Gul. A'eulrif., \>. 7*9.) 
John Ri'U, a native of Dieppe, and vetmnt lo bine Htnry 
VML. tiiiide (~>r the kiii|{« mm a Uook of l]]dii>i:ia]>hv. m) 
c-'! ' -■ an a^wibt of the compaM, ekvattun of Iha 

p' ', »ca coants, &c., li^ii, nnely puiuled on 

cii;<'"..' '■•> lanre sVini of parchnM!n^ Mill prescrtod 
amons the royal iitinuicripli 'ii lite Biiti>b MuB«um, 
n«'h«id iU Kh IK. Of this de!»^riptiiH ulsa i* n very ruiiou» 
rbattf pmerred in the aaioe coUcGtwa, futiaeily belonging 




to Lord Oxford, and probn'bly of as early if not an ear'tei 
dale than Kotx'ii charts. Tiu^ Holland ts laid down iipua 
it B« .in bland, under the nnm<! of Jut's k Gr.^ud. Th« 
writer of the preient arlide, many year* ajto, eoniulled tl»' 
lato Caniniii flinders lor liis upii'ion whether this portion 
oTthc cliail coulil havo bwn bid down from acina) obaeni- 
lion. TUu uniwer waii, * inoft ccrluiitly ; I'nr liiirH of rv4 
dots ore made to lionler the enail ex:ii-tly lo tlic extent 10 
which itisoara1-bound,and no farther; I waswreeked upon 
one of Iboso ivefs, and hove renton to remember ihem.* 
The itaiDos of plurea are orcasmnally given upon iho dif- 
ferent fthorex in this chart, in French; and Ibc vi-ry spot 
upiin it whirh Captain OiiiW arturwurd« uumed Boiany Bay 
is designated a* Ciite det Heriagt). 

The generality of the early Purtuj*uese eharts gcem to 
bavo been tnado toward the done of the fifloenth cenlurv. 

Tlic particular species of charla most used at eea will be 
explained under the hi-axi MnacATua'a PftOJECrtox. See 
also Ma]>. and SiKaxnaiiAPiitc, OurtinouAPHic, Gko- 
liONic, and Conical Pno J kctiows. under wbifib last h«ad 
look Tir Flainhtred B and (he modern French projeclioniL 

Cn.ARTA, MAGNA. [Magsa Chakta.] 

( HARTK. from charin, ' paper,' was the name Rivan to 
the tellers of Ouiidiuc grniitod by the kiii){» of Frnnoc 
durin]; the middle a^s to several lownn and pommuniiios, 
by which they were put in pimwasion of eunain muniripal 
nglim or pnv-ilc|;e«, such as the f^eo election of their local 
tnagistratfn, fi:c. At present the word charlo is u^ed in 
France to «iji;nify the colcmn acknoutedgmfnt mndn \tf 
I^uis XVIII. on hvi ri'sioration in ISU ol the nclils of the 
nalion. which is the fundnmcnul law of Ihe French cuuiiti- 
lutional inminrchy, niid the pnnciplo of whiph reecmblea 
that of tbu Kii^li^h coni-lilutiuii ua louiidud on Ma^jna 
Chorta artd the Bill of Rig;hti. The leiiiilative pnwor \» 
vi>«ted in two chambers, peers and deputiud. subject to tlis 
kind's aanclioti. All laws are promulgated by ihe king. 
The exei^uiivo power is vasled solely in lb* king, wlio ap- 
puinti to all tlic oHiees of the nilmiiiiKlralinn, hath civil and 
military, and has the conimnnd of nil the imJUary and naval 
furee*. Ho aUo appoint) the judicial officers, who iiowever, 
whon ones appointed, cannot be removed by him. Tho 
king makes all tnatmt.- of peace, nlliaiirc, iir ciiminorco. 
His penon is inviolable; but the iniiiiitcrt arc rt.-<pnnkiblo. 
One article of the Chaite. ha\in(t iti^en opwuion to a IJabo 
iompralation.of which the minister« of Charles X. availed 
thcmiielves tji i<AUOthc famons ordunnaTinrN which |tai« riee 
lo the ivvolutiun of .luly, was altered on the acreasion tt 
Louis Phibppe, aod il wan clenrly explaiiitd lliut* ibe king 
iunes the lu'cessar}' ordonnonres mii! ivgulutioBB for the 
vxeculion of the lawt, without haMn^ the ntwer In any Mse 
lo Kospimd the cuurx! uf itie law or tci delay its •xeeutioa,* 
Tlic ChortQ. with this and onu or two more modi Ilea liens of 
minor importance, va* &worn to by Louis Phihppe ou tho 
9lh of August. IMO. Since that date, a cliangc has been 
mode by ihe legislaluro io tho ronstituiion of the Chaiubor 
e* Pe«r«. Tho Peer* aro for life, and th« pccrago is not. 
hereditary in their f^miben. 

The Chorlc <»nsi«ti of sixly-nine articleo, and is inwrted 
in the 'Almanac Royal el National,' which is publitliad 
every voar. [l.out8 XVdl.J 

CHARTER, or CHARTA. The pdmary meaning of 
Oiarta. or Carta, is paper, or any material to write upon, aa 
charta perKsmena (parchment). It then cuiae lo sifindy 
any deed or wruing, xn ihc ume manner as liber (ihe inner 
bark of a trev). fiuiu winch ■■>. nort of paper vis made, now 
signidcs nny description of book. 

The word Charter, though formerly ns«d as synonymous 
witlt deed* and wriiint;i {C». LilL. 6u), is nuw applic^I only 
to ibose granU of the king which create corporaiionf, or 
ooftfcr sopte privilege or exemption ; to fu-rl, lii« word bM 
ncq<iir«d tit* aeundary moaning of privilege or immu'iily. 

Many ehiuters, of grcAt antM)uity. are e:tliinl. The city 
of London posdeiaes two granted by William Ihe Otn'iuirnr 
in lUCCaud nuveral copw* of Manila Charts and tbeCbnrta 
da Forol-i are in good prv^ctvation. BUcktlone. quutinjf 
Matthew I'aris, says, that an onginal great charter, under 
eeal, wan »aut to av«ry county in Eoglaiid, and to those 
nhKb had (oeetta wilhin thcin aehartorof the foieat sIm; 
tiulnithgtandini; which, be •Mfilinues. tt i* surpttsin); hoW 
few of thcie orii-inaK are at present extant 

CUARTtR IIOUSK, London. Sir Waller de Mani»y. 
kntght, a hirunger boni, lord Of the town ul Matiiiy. m ihu 
dioccae of Cantbtuy, in tbe Netheilaodsr ^^ f"' aentcea 



tendered to Kin? Ednant III- was matle one of the Rot 
"mishlB of the or'ki- of tiic Kiirli-i. in tlic ye»r «f llio (freal 
^laifuCi I30. bnuKht a piCDt! of Kr<>i>ii<l witliDUt th« bar 
*;»f \Vcat SiiiillifielJ. wliicli lio inctobeil and liad noniccrated 
fur tl)o liui'ial of ibe ilcad, anil u'lterci in that jcar alono, 
^tnore tliiin SD.OOO bodies am sitid to have hccn interred. It 
'iVufi tlivii'iipuii cjUed i)iu New Oiiirch- Hiiwdi tiiul a dupvl 
WM biiill. irherain, abuut tliu veiir ISfiO, fJir WdWr dc 
Manny intended to fouiid acolictte for a wocdcn or dcnn, 
and l'**:l>c KfularpiiMta; but in ilic next year that duiJKn 
Was ikIiL-ii;d, when Miclmd dc NorlliburfiH, lii»iiu]i of l^'tii- 
"don, joiii€il \Tilli liim in the buildiiii; unil endowint; ^ |>m'y 
*itt Ihta pluce IW double Ih? nuinWr of Cnrtliutmn monlU. 
vliicliwas to bo called ' The Saliitation of llic MoIIilt uf 
Cud.'n;iil tbc ruumUtiauappciiis toliavc been fliitnbud ulwul 
A.i>. 1370. Tlic Kront revcniic of lliu huuite at ila ^ur- 
rooJcr to Kio£ HeiiTy VIII,, Juno 10. 133S, nmountcd lo 
73C/. If. Td„ ita cloai inomio ta 613/. vs. A^J. per nniiuin. 
Btarcmll, in his ' HistariNl Accrual.' m>s tlui silc »f tlus 
lioutu vT{ui^r»l L'rnMcd .fiinc IJ, 1312, to Jubn Brid^va uod 
Tbemos Unle, Tur ihtir joint liven; und Apid 14. 13j^, to 
Sir Kdwaid Nortli, wba >va;s madv li baion 1st Mai'ia;: tiis 
Bon. ItiRL-T l.«rd North. »uld it May 31, IJCS, to ibo duk» 
ttf Nurfitlk. fiH' 'iM}\il., wIkkh; son. Titoinua Howard, earl ot 
Suffglk, «old it in ihe tliti Juc. I. to TboiQU Sulloo. Ksq., 
for 13,040/.. wbo founded upoik it. and lAigely endowed, & 
most uiu^nilicciil bu^piial, RonslMiu^ of a mailer, prcuober, 
* lioud KliLKilinaiilei, aud i>v(.\»tid niotttcr, wilb lorty-four 
bojs ui<l titlhly dacaired K«titUiuen. wLo bavo bcc-n soldiers 
or Dirrrbantt, besides a physician, uhirurgcons. iPi^islcr, and 
Otiierr oflicvrs und servants nf (be houtc. Uvvidc tb« »cbu- 
]ar» u[ivn the f^>llndali^n. whose nuiuWr is ttovt Ituiited to 
forty-two, Ike mat>tets are sUuWeil lo receive cottaiil others, 
irlwse number fluetuatcs froni one to t^xi hundred. The 
Cbait«r'Hou»e ii coasidcrci gno of the Gr>L acbuolt of the 
metropolis. Auiuiig the eminent perautu m bu lia^v received 
their education tberv, Diuy l)C enuuiornlcd I>r. Ikinc IWmw, 
the mnlliemntician; Addi&jn : Steele: Dr. Ben<'on, hinhup 
of Gloucoter; Sir Willinni Bbirknionc; IIk' Inte eorl of 
Liverpool ; aud Ibu lale Rev. Ur. Charles Buroof. 

The Churler-Uouso, no doubt, derivp* it* n»me fn>m « 
corruption of cAorfreux, a luonitiitcTy of Carlhu»iiiiu. Tlic 
peneeulioR ol' certain monks of lliis house form* a ►trikiiig 
fenliiro in l)i« history of the Refuraiutiou of Ute time ot 
H*ii. VUI. 

(See Duednlu's M'MHuticnit, new *dit, vol. vi., n. (i. 
Tanner's }ictU. Mwiavl., edit. Nasmith, Mtdbi. viii., 'A. 
Bwireroft's Ihtt. Aevntml vf Th-'mat Stitt'm, H*<i., Svo., 
l/mA., 1737. Csrliilo's Descr.t/f (he Und'Hced Cr-itntnur 
Sefiftnli in Ho^l. utui liit-'ta. Svo.. Lond., IfjIS, V[>1. ii., p, 2,) 
CHARTR.ilN, a district in Froncc, bounded on tlio 
N,K liy the Into de Franee, on the N.W. by I'ercUo, on 
the S. by (lie Orh-Anois and Dunois. It formed |>urt of the 
yatttc cxleniive dihirici of I)cbu»i«c. [Ug.vusie] Ii tnkos 
its name immodiati^ly from iu rapitnl, Cbarirea, but (mgi- 
n*Hy from the pcopK Curtiulet, by whom, et the tune «1 tlie 
Rnman mrnsinn, it was peopled. This nation is mentioned 
bv Ijvy a* one of ihoM wliich. in the limo of Tniqiiin the 
eider. Icjni; of Rome, coiitrilmlcd their eoniin^cont to the 
Torre «hieli ero»ei) the A1[>R and inundated tbo north of 
Imly. [CatT-*] In the time of Ctnar lh*y extended frcin 
the Seme lo the country «outh of tha I.nire. ]t wes in the 
toriitiiryof this jieoplo (vbich Crcdr informs uswan held to 
be lh*rantrnl repion of Gaul), that the Druids held thoit 
pyttA annual cimvcntion. It is not very ensy to ju(li;««f Ibe 
relHti^e puluteal and mililary importanee of thix nation: 
Iliey uppeur lo liave been under the |iToteciion of the Remi 
(• iguLimm er»nt in clienlcla' is Ct«t«'« eiq>re«mon, De Btl. 
Gal., vi. 4), and their part in the BtTQfQtla «|^iiut Ibo Ho- 
niiint' is not sueh a« lo indirotc prc-cmtnent ponrr or vnloLir. 
They bUxc Taitjeliu*, whi>in Csaar had appointed to be ihcir 
chief, and allied Ihenselvos with their neifibbouri, the Sa- 
iianu*. toopiMMtho Romans; buliliovif^ur and oeiiviiyof 
Cmaar, who, in hk «ixth e4mpui|{n, 9^- S3, look the field 
befofs tbe U&ual period of the yenr, led them to xubtnil 
witliuut Btriltinjt a blow. In the' fotlewiii|r year tbey were 
ncitvu in farming' a |!mi<rul oonfedetsny of the G«til8 against 
the RiimaR«, anil oiKtrvd to tako tho Ivfld in the revolt. On 
the appoinici day, therefote, under the emnmand of Co- 
luutus anil Conotodumta. they aaioaihliHl at one of tbeir 
lownit. Gejiiihuni (now Orleans), and murdered all ilio 
Roman Irailei'i wham they found there. 8o rapidly was 
tha ne«»ur Uiis stroke spread, that ■ «bat vu dooa u G«> 



nahum at stinrisv was known before lfc« conelmion of th» 
fimi watch (i.e. befgrr 9 p. ni.), in tin turrilvries of tlm 
An-erni (.AuTericnc), which in 1€0 (Koiuan) uulcs off.' 
Tlieir quniB of tho force destined to raise ihcaiogc of Alcsia 
WAS IZ.ODU, and thev probably shared in the defeat consc- 
(|uDnt on that attempt. TownnU llic doiie of thai nuinmer, 
or early ill thu fullu<rtiiix winter, betiveuii Cho iiuveiilh and 
cix)>th years of Cwsar's cooimaiid, tlicy attacked the Bilu- 
rif^DS, nho had submitted tu Coisari but Cassar. bosLdy 
leiiviuK bia winler-i)uurtcn> with a part of bi> troo-pi, aa- 
vuiiced into their couuiry and compelled lUent to dis|ierM!, 
and IcI^ part of his aimy to pass the rest of the winter in 
quarters at Gciiabum. In the course of the fullowin^ sum- 
mer ihey were dniLllv reduced by Coisar's lieuieuant, Fabius. 
(Cw^nr, tif Hei. Gal., lib. v.,vi.. Wi., viii.) 

CHAKTKES, a city in France, in the depattmGnt of 
Kure et Loir, of which it is the capital. It standi on th« 
river Eure, a feeder of the Seine, 4G tudcs in antraiKbt hiw 
S.W. by W. of Part!), or 52 miles by the road tUrouuU Ver- 
Aaillen. Riiisbouilk't, and Eporuon; in 4B' 2G' N.lat., md 
V 2S' E. long. 

Chartrcs is a very anlicnt city. Vnilcr the Roman do- 
minion it bore the naiu« of Auliicuui, bul in th* fuurtli 
century this name wua replaced by that of tho peo^e, tlia 
Camulus [CHAKTHain], whose capital it was. It docs not 
apptar to retain any rctie» of R^an nnliquily, mivx U)c 
mnains of sonic subtoiraocan a(|ueduots for convi-jiug lo 
Ibo town Ihe water of aonio Bpriiifc-i about four ot Sic miles 
»oulh of it, and some subterranean passa);cs icndtun from 
the town, and extending about seven tnilcs to the \V. and 
W.N.W. 

Iu the eivil dlsBenfiiona of Ihe Mcroviuician kinj{«t tm'l in 
the ravsceeofthB Norllinicn, Churlrcn sulTered. In 82tj 
it wat piUogvd and burnt by tlic Northmen, taken again by 
Ihem under their famous leader Hastin^^s, but given up by 
Uini on the townsmen and the bisliop uKreeitii: to pay a 
cerlain sum vt a random. Their ncKlevI lu pay tins tribute 
caused another sicRC and cDpliirc of tl>c (own. In HI I tho 
tuwnamcn tui^ecssiully muled ibo attacks of the famovis 
Rollo. the fintt duke of Nocmaiidie. 

In Ibe middle ases, Oharircs wb6 the capital of a county, 
which wa«, in Ihc tenth century, united with that of Blois 
and Tours. At a later dale, (he town was troubled by 
quarreU between the ctergy and thu toniiipeople or the no- 
hiltiy ; tlioee between tbo e(;unt of Chtrtrcs and the diapter 
of tli« ealbedrsl were made un by express ot;ioemenl in 
ISS>4; but they were auccoedca by long disputes between 
the biabop and the chapter, carried on \)' iiilcrdicb and ex- 
communicatiuiiii, the usual weapons of eccle»in>tical warfare. 
The counly of Uliortres had come by purcbime into the 
hands of tha King I'hihppc IV. lo Brf, and had been be- 
stowed by liira on his brolhcr Charles of Vsloia. Upon the 
aeceMion of I'liilipne of ValOiA, mii of Charles, to the erown, 
it was rennilcd to iJie royal domain*, and continued so till it 
nnt given aa dowry to the daujthler of l^ouis XU. when 
married to the duke of Fetrara. During thii inlenat it was 
disputed by thd Boun-uij^non and Araiugnacfacii(Ui<i, pasi^od 
under the dominion of the EnKlidi, and was taken frnm 
them by surpnuA by Dunoi*, baatard of Otirans, and olhcra. 
Th« iMthop. a ti-ulouR partiiun of the Bouruui^tnon and 
Euftlish party, was killed ill the atrugglc on this Wt occa- 
sion. In tho rtlijirous wars of tha sixteenth rontiiTV. tha 
town wna taken and retaken hy tho dilTercnt pattii^sj and 
it was here that Ilcnry 1 V. wa* conseemtcd after majteriiig 
the plate by force of amis. The county of Charlru*. when 
bestowed on tho duehesa of Ferrara, was erenlud into a 
duchy : it tuhnetiuently eame by marriage lo tho duke* of 
Nemours, by whom it ««» nwigned to the crown. IxiuU 
?C11I. bestowed it upon hisbroihcrGaston, duk^'oTOrl^ns: 
upon his dMith, I^uis XIV. gave it lo hit oivn brother Phi- 
hppe, duke nf Otl^ns. from whom the duchy was inherited 
up to tl»e period of the Rvvuluiion by hi* lineal dwcendants, 
the present royal femil? of France. The eldest con of tha 



^trcM'Ht kinar. Louis {'hilipps. bore the title of duke of 



:h»rlretL np to tha time of hi> faitiicr'M accedsion. 

The citv o( Chartres u situated on the brow of a hill, at 
tho foot of which is Ihe rivcr Eiirc, which Hows here in two 
ehannslfi, one wiihin und (lie other without Ibe antient 
nirapart«, which yet remain, and are tnrroumled by a circuit 
of publtc walk*. ' ChartTe* is divided inti the upper and 
lower towns; the upper has lorae tulerabty rommodioiu 
streets, and eanlains Iho principal public cdidcoB: the lonwr 
\ town is ill Inidl and ill l«id out; the strecta which uiuie the 



C H A 



C H A 



I 



l«o ire HO kteep m to ba almast inaocewiblo to carriages. 
Enry thing al>out the plar* liu an lirof giniiciiiii}^ ; Oio 
IiouM« sri! for the itioat part old; many of IbLtn kIiH littvi^ 
IIm dooT-Kay in the foini ftf a poiaCM arch, with Gothio 
firaun«nts, Tlio Kiiburb of Itourgnvuf, by which the road 
tmta E^ani emen tho town, it long and stra;gglini!, pre- 
MDling IKir the tQi'<«l [lart l\w apiwuranw of it mvro vil- 
loga confisting of cottaxei MUh their itaUvs Mwdnls tliv 
■ttwt. There are in Chutrea faiir squares; one in tlio 
lawnjr lawn, that of St. I'itftre. bordicred with Ino rows of 
treea. and adjacviit lu the antivnt Gothw church, from 
which it lakei its name; two in the tipfwt tuwn. \ix.. l\i« 
cora-niarki!C and the hcrh-raaiket; and one, the hapd- 
■omflsl of all, called La PLac? dcs BaTrlcadeE. outside the 
wjillt. Tliv hvrli'itinrkol in ailornwl by an oljeliik, ereoled 
by the iahuliiiunu U.D. ISOI) to the memory oftliuir follow 
toirnunan. General Maiceaa. 

Bui tho Hnest edjfii-c in CbaTtrn is the Cathedral. 
The first eathedral hul btien burni by the Normans, a.d. 
828. but it vat rnnirnd : in tbo >Oih cvntury it was a)^in 
hurtti : and » third lire, in )l>29, occiuioned. aecordin); to 
Kcueral belief, by lightning, consumed not only the Caiho- 
dral. but nearly the whole city. By the zeal of the then 
bJihop, t'lilbnl. hbvral i-o<i)Iril>iiliDns wore obtnincd towards 
tbo rpbuiUhii);, and iho wurk wa« eommaiiuod ; tho builil- 
in)t Itoweter proceeded slowly, and it vn* nut until l-i6i> 
Ihat it was dedicated. Even at that [leriod only one of tho 
great towers was Burmounted by a spire, the second npire 
Dot having bcvn ai1d«il till (he K>th cenliiry. 

Tho principal rmiiliiionc liuiidrLvl anil lifly French Ifeet 
in brculth. tuid ii futroed by two •ijnarr towL-ni nnd the in- 
Ion al between them, the towers and the interveiiinff part of 
ihe iinKIUTC beins; each fifty feet in broodlh. The vpires 
which soKDounl tho lowerH are of dilfflrrnt architaeiuro and 
ut diflomit hol^btN. Tl>r old tpire i» a pyramid of iiiaiiy 
lide*. nalng to Ihu bi-ii;hl uf thcM hundrtMl and forty-two 
Frvacb feet from the ground : the arthiieciure is pluiu mid 
h^aryj but it is coicd mih ttmii? curinti^ly i-nrved hk« iho 
•ealMoTftfish: it alwait upjK'Qrii to 1>« leaning towartU 
tbc •pwialor wli»rv>'er lie may ho itliULdint^. The tiev 
spire It STS KreoL-h feet hiu;h : it is of mocli inrire llond 
orebitecture than lh« other, and is so much nJniirod iw 
ti) bam Imcomo provcrbiul for its boauty. 7'hai part <ir 
tb« frant whtrh i» U-twcctt tho lowrnt huo a portal iviiti 
three diKirway*. with pointed ardie*. and is cuhirniHl i«iih 
MUUM, winch vcre prescix'ed at the ileal ruction or thv tbrtnui* 
cUbodral, and sro interesting as memorials of the state of 
tlu arts in tha dark smcs. Abova tho doorways are thre« 
■ntunl windows with ktaiiicd gla«c,and Htdl liiiihor n superb 
drcular window, ur mm. The ncrib and Mutn nideit of tbo 
church are of e<tual interest with tho priiieipal frjnt. The 
trftn«e|i|j> have each a handtomo portal of three doorways. 
built out from tita church; orur ilieiio ore windows, and 
OTer tlie wiitdowi a larj^ rwe. 

The interiaror llie rhiireh is adminblv for the juHtiicM of 
its pruportitini ; it ha a n>^eitliarly Mrabre charaaer, whicli 
ariutf from the windows beinfr so chared with colour as to 
exeltide more light than iv^iihI. It i« only In very clear 
waalh«r that there is light vtiougli to rend. Tho choir is 
liwiliful: it it adnrnod nith statue* and ba»-Mlief« of 
vnnout meni : the Dc«o«d| from the Cross, a bas-relief by 
BriiUn, is a chef-d'tEurre; nnd the Presentation of our 
Sarionrin tho T«mpte. by the i^amn ^'iilpiur. is luiicli ad- 
nirud. Thara k a nohlo group behind the high altar, of 
tbft AsDumption of the Vit^in. also by Bridan. A cunouc 
aaeodolo is connected with this piea& During tho reralU' 
tioaaTytmiblec, lbs barbarians who weru predominant pna- 
powd to destroy it, andwerv proMwding lo vxecuia their 
purpOM. wbon eiw of thoso present, anxious for n^ pro- 
MTValioo, proposed to crown the nf^iirc of the Virpn with 
the ftamMf-rvwe, and thus traiisr<>rm her into a goddess of 
Itbtrty. The offer was ncceptod, and thn ivulplurowHS thus 

Ktsi-riwl. The inner dinimtions of llie cathedral arr n« 
low*: — length, throe hundred and ninetj-sit foet; 
breadth a( the tranictit. one hundred and ninety-Sre feet: 
height to the point or the vaultod roof, one hundred and six 
f*cl. The above dimeosions aro in Krcneb feet, nhirh ox- 
cMd the Enc:lKli feet in the proportion of IB to IS. Under 
ttweallicdrni h d «iibl«rTanean church, with several chapel*. 
one of wbi<>h. the chapel of the Virgin, was furmorly tnuch 
morted to by pll^,Tima. 

Chartrc4 h^d fl^TTTIcrly seven psrish ehurehes. That of 
8t Aliilt4 iHt. Andraw), wbldi was eoliegtate, stood on 



tho bank of the Eure, and having to bo eii1nrg«il, a bold 
tirch was ihrowii o\er the rivw, ami upon this anJ) iha 
choir WUK built. Thv choir hoa since liecn deslroyed, and 
the rest ol' ihu church. UMd ;i« a storehouse, is fulling la 
ruin. Tiie chutch of St. Pierre (St. I'etcr) has sornw fliin 
painted windows: this was once the church of u Bene* 
iliutine nbhey, now ronverted into a burnick.. There weio 
fiirmoTly i^cvcrul religious houses. The office of the Prefect 
it a new budding, with pleasant gardens round it: aud 
there is a handHime loodem theatre. 

The population of Cli^rtres. in 1832, w:i« 13.J76 for the 
town, or 1-1.43'j f^ir Ihu whole commtmc. Tlie chief imdu 
uflho pluce is in corn and Ilnur; itie cornuiarket is the first 
in France. Some serges aud other woollen goods are ni:tiiu- 
Jhotured, and some hosiery : a good quantity of leather Ik 
made, and there ate Mtenl dye-houses. There is a museum 
of natural history, and a puldii' library of 3O.O0I) TOlumea 
and 700 inanuscnptn. A noblt; hutpital or almihouM has 
been lately fuundad by M. d'Aligre. who has devoted to its 
eieolion and ^ndawnienl a sum of mom than HOfiOvK It is 
intended for lUO iuQrm ponous. ofeachsex.uDd 100 fouod- 
linirchildron. 

Thu urrondiMcmonl of Chartrcs contained in Ig32 a 
population of 10.1,783. (Duluure, }!itl. lies Knvhcns de 
Pari":: Vav'sse de ViUicrs ; Maltc-Brun.) 

CHARTREUSE, a celebrated monastery of the Oarthu- 
wans (/r* Charlreux) [C»RTBfsiA.'«s]. Iho fir»l cii.iblulied 
oftlial order, and tliE:reforudi);Iini^ii<ihod by the ijiitbut La 
grande Chartrmi*. It it m the dvparliucnt of licio. in 
Krance, and amidst ihu sublime scenery oltlio Alps. Tra- 
rellcrs who wish la visit it usually go innn Grenoble on ac- 
count of tho bettor nccommodnliui) r»r the journey to be pro* 
cured ibetv. although the piMittuwnories EcheUtisin Savoy 
is considerably nearer. Howerer, in going from Grunobk'. 
traveller fre(|uenily make a circuit which brings them into 
the road from los Echtdlei at Ihu village uf St. Laurent du 
Punt, tbo appruitch in tliatdtrection being more pieturestiue. 
From St, Laurent tlw ryad run* uiong tho bank of a nitmn- 
tnin-torrent. thti Cuier, throui^h a narrow pu<s. which is 
c1i)4i.>d by a boupe with an arched gateway under it and a 
double door. ThiH doorway t' theonlranui to tho incloiiuro 
of ihi! Chnilreune, which it furmud by a groupof inouniaiiis. 
the lufiicit, steepeat, and wildest in toe neigbbonrhood, 
covi'ied from their baso to their summit by a duik pine- 
fiirett. In Ibis iiiclosura the niail ruut through a thick 
pme-ftirest. a lofty mountain rising prc-cipitously on the 
riHht, and on the luft it the abyss through which the Giiicr 
tlons. After a while the vnllcy widens, tho furcitt ii no 
longer sodenMi ok to cM'Uide the light, and the bcecU re- 
ptanM ihv piiie, which is seen only on tho summit of Ilia 
rocks ; at length tlie forest ceases, and tho traveller emergei 
into n latige tneadow, at the farther end of which the mo- 
nastery appears in all its extent. 

Tbo otbiT Bpprunch, nnd Iho more direct fTOm GrenoWe, 
in by a roiiiininin, !.« Sapey, from the summit of ■*hich la a 
flnu view of Grenoble niitl the valley of Gri^Mvaudan, in 
which it is situaleil. Tlie rood from Le Sapey to the in- 
clonure of the Cbortreuw lies through pine-funslu with 
tionie inten-alaof pastura: there are oven Mine lie rm houses 
snd a tniall hamlet. The inelosurc of the Charlrcuto is 
entered on this side by a narrow pjss and by a bnuMi with 
a gateway under it, similar lo that alrenily doKcribed; and 
at a xbort dittanca flvin this cntnini^ is Ihi: vilU^ce ofChnr- 
troUKe, from which the moniuiery derives its noino. 

This awful sohtiide was tbo cradle of the Carthusian 
order. [BnuKo,] Bruno IlifflMtf did not give any riilus 
of bin own ta hiii (bUowers; to reduce tho CarthusLin dit- 
ciplino to a syilem was tho work of a reinotu successor. 
The cell of St. Bruno is now converlLiI intii a chnpol, and the 
(ounlam it still shown at which be queneheil bis iliirst. 

This monastery has been burned eight times: twice by 
the Calrinistt in tho rehgious van of tlie sixlm-nlh century. 

Our nulhoriticrt do not slate when the present biiitding 
wasereulMl ; it is a substantia] ediOre of simple arcbiicrture. 
but raagniftccnt by iu extent and situation. The buildings 
inclose a large oblong ariunre or clotsler, 7 1 1 English leut m 
length: the ceWt of the fatlM'rs. riglity m iiumlwr, are 
around this cloister, with inuitocs from scripture or tome 
religious book paintcti outside the doort : inch cell m'dudi-« 
two rooms, besides a closcl for buokt. and a wood- fimi »n 
the ground floor. o|iening into a little incloied |[aii)en. The 
hall is adorned with puriruits of all the geiieiAls of Hie 
ordtr; tlie table of the kitchen H ftmnetl of twn ceurae 



C H A 



fcHA. 



ttarbic f<U1)R of eDonnouti rizo : llicrc uv sutcnaiTe cellars, 
ztiA a pki'cwiiere clicCKciftinnile MiniW to ibat of Gruybrs. 

Before iho FrfiicliRevnltiii«[i,tlionionkt hut GnnsidernMi; 
pinpcnv in tlio mxuls nruiitiil lliu iiKiniulcr;^, liiil at the Rr- 
voluiiiin they lent tliin ai wel) u» the muiiaiili^ry tisHr. Tlie 
wockIk wrrp miM. bui llie buililine, not being suilwi for any 
wiijaM; found no purvliascr. Upon the rnlumonhc Bour- 
QMfc.lIie monks cbbio buck ami tccovctccI the monaBler)', 
#lTti ttie meadows nround it. nn-i the ti|>lit of eimlirring foci 
in ibc woorls. In IS3u ibcro were abniit ISO perMm^ monkx 
snd [uy bmhren, in Hid itionaNtcrr : (hey ^'*ii tbo »ick, umi 
prrfurm ■piriiuul tliiticit in ilie small chttrcboi or ctiaiieU 
rcatinri-i) oivr thu nurraimdine mountains. (Vayiso de 
Villirw: Expilly ; Pttiny Mcgazine.) 

CHASE, ibatpsrt of a gun wliicb is between the ring 
neur th« tninaiom, ami ihs nstraga] mouldings near tha 
muzxlff. 

CIIASMO'DIA, B ipmu* of rol<")TiI«rau« inw^cU of the 
BM'tioii l.rimel'iromrt fSrara/ueut. Lin.l, ami sub-section 
Xyloj'hi/i itjiirviWc). Technical chattieWrs: — Body rathoi 
convex and broad : scuteUuin l.irgp, xomenbat trianRUtar, 
equalling in longtb at iBast ono third of that of the dytra ; 
the mosoiilemun) is prolnnecd into a blunt point, and cx> 
tends ns far as the basu of ibc fuoioro nf tliu anturiur piiir of 
le<;s: llio ninndibkis are entire, and ulAuau at th« aiux: 
RUiii11» wiib M'\y two luctli, and fnrniKbed with a tuft of 
fln<! haitv at ilti! extremity ; mentum ^longxted ; clyira 
ftborter than the abdonion, brnad behind nnd obliiiicl)( 
rounded. The male Cbii^nindjn bat tbi? upper claw of the 
fdfo tarsi vury bmad tind bilid. or ili\idad nl the npox : lliu 
innor clair is small nnd cnlirc : the clam of the iTuur poftte- 
Tior letis ore entire and of lari^e siie. Tbo female bas all 
the cta^i of sTnall sii« : Ibo^e of ihe interior pnir of Icps 
simple : the four puMvrior b'^iH hivp ih^ otiioi' cIhw bifiil*. 
TIh! liirsi «f ihu inalu am ihickpr than in tlitt female, pnili- 
tii'Ularly Ihoeeofllie anterior pairof Icci. 

AU the species of this i;c«ius nrc of lar|;o size, and mny 
bo readily dislin^^ui tilled from ibe Cctonim by Ibeir lar^e 
cculellum and coiivux form, cnmbtnod uilh their stdouHi 
and gluuiy apppaninee. Tho thonix is (wnvex. and hot tho 
posterior margin eonsiiderably waved : tho pari joining iho 
sentellum has a ferment of a circle as it vcre cut out lo 
admit the fore part of the Inllcr, wbi^b is roundedt this 
cbarartor i« also observed in the cenus Cetonii nnd Ma- 
cRispic. and nffonls u ){oud point of (bslinction iHttwocn ibcKv 
and ibo group* nenreit DUu-d. Tho f^i^nus Miicranpis btu 
also n vfTj lacfre scuiollum, but diSen in Iho tarn and other 
parlt. whieh wu! be described under the proper besd. 

Chavnodia viridit is about an inch in Ieni;th and of a 
dMp blHC-grticn colour thruughoui, with tbe exception of 
the antennit', the bnial joint* of which are pitchy nA, and 
the club is bbclc. 

There ore foutr other sp?cis knoim, some of wbkb ore of 
a glossy brown or cboslnut colour ; tlioy nil inhabit South 
Amerira : the EpeciM abuvo named is cummon in collections 
fiom the Bmrih^ [Mirnnspisl 

CHASTRI.I.F.T. GABRlKl.r.HE'MIUK LE TON- 
NELIIJR DE BRETEL'IU HARgUlSE DU.tbe trani- 
liitor of Newton into French, vos ibe daughter of Bnron 
de Breleuil. and was born in 171)0. In what manner she 
was leil to ftody malhcmaliM is not stated ; 4be also bei-Ante 
a pivQcicnt in Latin, En{tlish (in which Voltaira, ns be tetU 
us, was her instructor), and Italian, She was married very 
early to tlie Marquis du ChaMollot, ami died Au)iu»t It', 
1 74!*, her desth hnving been bai-tcned by clow application 
to Ler translation of Newton. She diod in the pslaco of 
Luncvtllc, at the court of Staniilas, where Voltaire alw was 
then residing. Her iiaitcn (ns tha Frciwh call il> with 
Voltaire funiislied sundry an^cdolci; for the scanilalous 
chronicles of her day. Tho state of manner* however, and 
in parlieuUr the method in which invriago waa contracted 
among tlio Freneh, are loi well known to require any com- 
nient. 

In 1 "38 Madame du Clisstollel nrotc, for the priw of llic 
Academy ofSi-icnccs, on ibe naturu of fire. In 1710 the 
published at Paris lier ' Institutions de I'liyiique,' addressed 
to bor »oti, nod u ewon^l c<Iilion appcnrtd at Amslcrdani in 
1 742. This work is a acriCE of letters, in wUicb (be syalcms 
ol Ixibnita and of Newton Obe latter then olmuat new in 
Fnacc) an explained in a fotniliar it)1c, oad with a degree 

* Wr k(*« bM«lMt>lbRnaa*ll]rnln«liln tlww (ltiuM>«ii.l«M>win 
t*a wv<%» nKftti •> itai an iMvlj dHOtbti la ika ' Itie« Aolssl' 
iba cUn an dweribe< •• beliw •uiii. 



ofknowledfteof the Wstcry of tbe several opinions. anTftf 
sound lan^ua^e and ideas in their discuision. whith we rwui 
with Mirprisc, remembering that lliey ivcre the prtjduclivn 
of n Frctirbwomsn thirty years of st'c, wiilien lery lew 
years nflct tho inirodiiciion of the Newtonian pbibisopfay 
into Framv. She tak« tiiat inlcrmcdiiilo view belwct-n the 
refusal la aditiit the liyiMlbriiii of silructioii. and the usaer* 
tiiin of il Oil a priiiiaiy iinahty of matter, from which very 
few who conBidcr the sulijuct would now ilissenl. At Ilia 
end of this work is an cpisioUry discussion with M. de 
Mairaii, on the principle of vis viva, the CDetuphynical part 
of whicli then created much romroversy. 

The IraiiKhitiuu nl' Neutun was nubhOied at Paris in 
1'5'J. with a 'prfl'ice bi.tonq ue.' and &nit<>Bf in verM> by 
Voltaire, who pmbably owed to Madanio du L*hasielt<ri the 
smntierini^ of knowledge upon which he wrote hi* ' ElOntens 
de la PbiliiHipbia de Newton,' published m 1738. Fruiti il 
we learn that the translation was submiilod to the reviiJiM] 
ofClairaui, who was the inalrucior of llie nutboress in ma- 
tliemaiics. To tlio work i% nddeil a eutiiiuiiniiir)'. which 
bears the name of Clairaui. being In fu^t his le«suiisrero- 
niitlcd to wiuiiig nnd arTan;;ed by Madame du CUaxieliet, 
and nnerwards rt'visoii by Iheir uulhor. \ie iieis Riiil. I. a 
popular uecouiit of Newton "a sjslem; 2. invcuigations of 
various [Kiinis by ihe .nniil^^is of tbo eonlineiilal school, to 
tho excluiion of thi- jjeomu'lry ofNt-wltin; 3. an aljnd;*in>}nt 
of Clniraui'i work on the llxure of the earth ; 4. uniillier of 
Daniel Bernoulh's essay on llie tiiles. The lrftti»ktioa ilmlf 
is a cloR) copy of the ori};insl in form and niiitler, but doc* 
not pMfeiii lo Iw pcrfL'cily Uteral, wlieio iho Laliu js et<neite 
or obscure. It wnn unoil by Dclariilwc in his ritalions (//(>/. 
d'AxtroB^ xvhi. Ki^Vlu), expres>]y tliul he mi^bt have tbo 
saneiion of Cbiraut in his version* of Ncvion. In 18(16 
the curruspondcnce of Madame du Cha^iellyi with tlie Count 
d Arguntal was published ul Pnrit^ In which wai appended 
a life, and a Uvntise ' Sur le Bonbenr.' (Htog. Univ.: iSS- 
iTi'jirei pour xnriir d /a J'if de t-'nllairr, icriU par iui- 
tjiimfi; In /'r« (At yo/lnire. /wr Condorcct.) 

CH.ATEAUBRIANl). Il-ouit I.-iKKKUtCRi;.] 

CHAIKAU CHINON. [NtKVBK.] 

CHATEAUDUN. a town iii France, in tbo depiLrtmcnt 
of Euro ol Loir, on the bonks of the river Loir (which unit ing 
with liio Snrtbo tlows into tho Loire}, and on the road from 
Pant 10 Tours. Il ia Gtl inilot in a sin)r|rht line S.W. of 
Paris. orSI miles by the road ihtuiiKh Kambonillol and 
Cbartres. and 20 miles S.by W. from tlielutter low ii, which 
is tho capital of the department: J3' a' N. Ut., and 1° 18' 
E. long. 

Tbiit town wa.a formerly the eapital of the Dutiois, & dis- 
trict iiiHuded in ibe general (nivvrument of Orleans, and in 
the dioccte of Chnrires. It is a town of omsiderablo aiiti- 

Juiiy, being mentioned by Aimoin and Gri'goire ef Toun. 
n tho tenth ccnitiry it eppeors to have Leon Kiibjcet to 
Thibniil Ic Tricbetir. "Count of Bloii, Tours and Cbartres, 
who built hero un old toner, port ortlie castle, wbicb is stUl 
standing. Aflcrwardii CbSieaudiin had viscounts of its own 
until the finninib ccuiury. when it wait united with tbe 
county of ]>unois. Tlie counu of Dunms built tli« real ol' 
the casllo. 

Cbfileaudun wa^ burnt in 17^3, and rebudt on a resular 
plan, which renders it one uf tile hunJ^omest towns in 
France. Tlie ttrecis arc bro.td aad tiroigbt, with neat <md 
unifurmty built houses, and some giiod public builitmgs, 
such 0* ih«tcwn-hal), the office of tho tub-prefect, fijrmerly 
a erinvcnl, pud the oullc;{e or hif,'b scWd. The caU-le 
IS a (;olhi<- budtling, and vnc of tlio finest a( the kind in 
France. The wall* nf the ojd lower, built by TbibauU ore 
about ]<) feet thick. There is a good p^Oft, or xiuaie, and 
a bnndsomc public walk. 

The inhabilnnts, in lUS^.atnsimtctlioCISI. Tlic)'donot 
»cem to be engaged toany great OX'cal in trule ornianufio- 
luret except that of blanket:). Tliti* i* >' pullio lit,i;M. 

Cli;ttcaudun wa^i erected into the r.ipiiil of .i liiri -fitie 
ill tbo BiXlh cenlurt'i by one of the Fianki-li Merutiu. 
gian princes; but ifw oot bovine been irrrgiilur, the pr©. 
tundod b)?i!iop euuM not tuointoin nia »Liiion. It is now ili« 
cdiiilul of nil urx^ndissemeni, ahicb hod, in 163^, i%7iil 
inuabt touts, 

CHATEAU GONTHIER, a town in France, in tlio 
department of lifnyenne, on tbc right bank of the Mayenno. 
nnd oil tho road from Laval to Angciit. It is alr'ni m\ miles 
WjS.W. of Paris, m 47^itf'N.la^ and ((° -It' W, l^i.g. ^ 

Xhia [own was budt by Fuult^uostUT Fulk Nvno, count w 



i 



CH A 

Alifoii,«bint A.i>. 1037. It inniM ba a. bandaame town If 
It! fireetK irant ont m crookeil. The botuet lure a chccrl'ul 
WMCL umI seieral i>r ihecn are liaiidiwine. 

Tben i* a. plotuxit |>rviiH>!iia<lii cum in a li 'I in ^ a daLi!>litrul 
pnwpMt oT the eoantr)- ihrou«h wtiieh tbe Mayenno ilows ; 
lh» bankfe orihe nvor aiv ailomod vitb plouant m9Bi]i>ws, 
orahaiils, and v«]nut-trMii, nni) crovned with deep tlopcs. 
OiM of tbe principal luburba is Mp&rated from (be tairn 
HmII hj ib* river. 

Tbe inhBhitonts amounteJ. in 1832, lo 6143. The chief 
knaehcs of tmdo aru in Urwn cloth, oT tuparior quniiiy, 
which H inid« and blojui^hol here, and in wax : acrgM, ftn'd 
oitirr woollens, h^tH, and loatlicr, are aUo nada, ami iho 
town MiTM as an ctoporium for the wiac. coal and ttate of 
Anjuu. There U a good High S«boo), bikI thfM ba^ipiiati, 
or almibotuo*. The ammditsenieat «( CliHleiU Gun^liMT 
bad, in I8:!J, a poptiUtlon of 72,«83 1 it ts the chief guin 
(lulrici of ttve di^ntrlmcnt. 

CHATEAULIN. [FixisrsBRa.) 

CHATKAUROUX. a loi^n in Franco, copital of the 
departnient of Indre, on Ibe nrcr Indte. and on the road 
ttmt Pari* byOrlian* loLimogc*. 141 initw S. by W. from 
Par». in a .lir«t lir.c, or IS7 uiileii by ihu lOftd ; in *C° -IB' 
N. Ul-, nnd I* 40' E. longitude. 

The to»n tak*» m nnme from a Frankiali noble. Kaoul 
d& D^uU, who boiU both ihc town und cwlle : Chfitefturoitx 
U therefore a. corniplioo of Cbiteuu Hiwd. Ll> feudal his- 
tory ba.t neither importsoce n«t uilereat. Th« town u nitu- 
aled ia aa eslcii>n-i; pliin. in which & sreal number gfcalllc 
are fed. Tbe cnstk' alands at oiio end of tho town, on a 
bill, aad notvitbBlaiidingj it* grvut antiquilv. »till serves ta 
Ibe afiee of lb* prefect. Mr. J.Cobbcii dc"»cribes the town 
w'acmtMil and dirty aueinbluKU uf sItli:!* ond liouoes, 
<m » n,pid dcclii'itv, under which runs ibe I ndr«.' Tliero 
U an aoiMBt cburcli in the lower town alroott d»tro>ed, 
ASd a. juf«M), rea^isliut; of two towers and an amhway, for- 
nw4jr. ao &ubt, otic uf the fple* of the tonn, though fiom 
tb* eoctiimed incrcue of the pUc« it i« now nearly in ibo 
niddle of (he town. {Lttltm ft-mi h\-anct.'\ 

XTm population, in 1S33. was lO.Sil fur the town, or 
ll,&Srfi»r tbewhole commune. The nnneipiil manufacture 
earrW on » that of wwllefl clolb. Tbcro is a hbrary, a 
Society pf AcricuUuro. Coramtirce, and iho ArU, n col- 
It^' ':>ool. and a theatre. Tbe popuUliun of tlio 

«r ' .ill U32, was 90,3-lJ!. 

l-it.\llvAU TUIERKV. a town in France, in Iho de- 
partment of Aiane, on ibv bank of thu river Miuiic. and on 
ibv roud from Pmu to Bar, Nancy, and Strasbourg. It is 
47 udea £. by N. of I'lma iu a strnishl line, or 56 miles bv 
til* ro«J: 40° * N. lat.. and 3*" 21' E. Wcitwdc, 

Tbe t>wi) derived itit name fium u canlEe buill aboat A.D. 
7M, by Cbarlci Marlcl, aa a lenitlenee for Tliicrry IV., a 
ehdd wbom be bod mudo uoniinil kint;. Round tJita cokiI* 
a |«wii ii da criiJuaUy formed, vhit^b became at a later perio<l 
th'- r the counts of ChampA"nc. 

1. 1 1 iijcry tiKO in tbe form tif an a mph I theatre on 

(tki tank of the ri>'cr. It iii well buili, and is o^er- 
by tt)c niinsof an antient castle. The population, in 
, was 37 19 fi>t tbctown,orU$7 fer ibe-wlKiIccamniune. 
livf articlen of manuActure arc linens. Gotlon&, carihen- 
and IcalliiT. Cv>n-> tolerable trade is carried ou in conu 
wtoU catiU-, wine, evi<4uin, atvd mill ^bmes. 

This t««n EufforL-d bever«ly in ibe inrasion of France by 
lbs alJict. in IsU: the lown ond nburba were ttiree 
Imea pillageil. It is tlw native place of La Fonlatne. 
wboee elalae ban been rnrttd DjMn the Widgc OTor the 
Ifjm- f^ii^i-iiii Thierry i« the capital of an arrolidiseiueol, 
wl 15.^2, 6U.771 inhaliiMnU. 

If!.: i.r, Of CHASTELET. pniperly n little for- 
trcn. Tiiii iinrao was afieiwarda ([iven tocertnni courU o( 
justice*, fornierly rutublikhcd in so%'vral c-itics of Krance, ns 
at OrlOaiis. ML.rit(Kll«T. fctc. The Grand Chrtlelcl. ni Pari*. 
WK« Ihf iiUgi.* where the prvntdial and ordinarj' court of 
justire of ihc pmi'iBl of Punt n jn bc!d. It run*:*led of a 
MTsvlift. a rivil chamber, and a ciijuibcr of policv. Tlw 
Lilt I at Paria. answered to iia proper name : it iras 

an toriiingaaa pciion. cSoo Fnrctitre.Z^icfKin. 

{/«i . I 

I . iJLT, a town in Franre. in ihe depul- 

Oi' lite Titer V'ii'nne, and on the hijfb rotd 

(rt ' r.ix. It i* ]i>4 Tiiilen S.W. l>) 8. bom 

t'tiii. • . • -;i...t,i.i iiae, ur 190 miles bj' the road: iit 4S^3V 
N.lkt.tf'SS'B.laiiK, 



r 5 HA 

Tbla town owes its oYf gin and niun« to Hdrauk. lotil of llif 
soil in ibe eleveiilli century, wbabi.tlt here a cj-tU.Ch||-?u 
dUL^raiill. wliveh i>. no longer in esialuDce. Tho tj-.vn >>t.ind* 
un Uiv ri);ht or eaol bunk of Itio Viuniie, wbuOi leparaivi it 
frojn cifie of its faubourg or cubnrbs. ThLi ?>i;l>urb n unit«<l 
to tho tuiv'u by a One nionc hfii!i;e, buili by tlie <«lcbral«d 
duke of Sully, the approacti to wtiicb on llic town eitfu t> by 
an avenue formiut; a public walk, and by a gmcway piiMing 
Uirotijtb ft cftvllo wiUi four tower*, ai«) buiU by Sully, 
Somo have coaroundod ttiu> with tbe old Chiicau dil£raulti 
wbieb, 0* obterved above, has bcAii (lomoiiilii<d. Tlic town 
itself it ill built, but baa btMii improved diirm^ the prctcnt 
century by several new botuet, tlie rvtult of th« inureatin); 
traile uf the town. 

TU iiifaBbiuuis amounted, in 18^2, to 9437. Tboy w«r« 
foTRMrly engaged in the manuf«clure of clocks and A^tchte 
and cutlery. The munuiacturo of clocR.* and walciictt i4 
aot, however, aiLntioned by the mate modnin of wr au- 
thorities; that of cutlury- still continues to be Ihn xlajile 
article of Iho town. Vwv buii<lri:d fauailie* arc luid to be 
en|;aged in tins braiirhAf iudUitry, but Ihu) aio supported 
rattier than enriched by it. Their knives are purtiL'UUcly 
in repute; ths}' ara cheaply and nicely got up, but ilivir 
temper wania hardneei: they iLr« stamped by appoinlk-tit 
oIKeera, who aro particular in rejeclinx such ai are not pto- 
peily tini^hed. The sale of tl)e>e arttelea to paa»-iigcis 
tbrouiih llw! town is n'liicdcrable, and M. Mdlin KVatmst 
dans Ut Hij^rUoienU du Midi, Piuut, lbll,l girvs (lie lul- 
Itiwing account of the enifvxnvM wilb which tlic dciilcta 
presd Ibe sale of Ibeir art inlet. 'As booh an tbe (rutclk-[ 
rwacbee Cb^ielUtnult, he is iu«aik'd by a ewana uf oouien. 
whose obivcl is to urge by every mcuns th« mIo of tlieir 
knivesi. However h« may cucrcucb himself iti kueuriaKe, 
tiivreittiio nicnnt of vsoape; tlicy iiSDichslcLy hang on tliS 
dooTA or «luub«r up tii« navcs and iijiokcs of the wTieclr, oc 

Set Upon chairv: tli» wind anlicipuies with alarm tbe i»cei- 
ents which iniijht hagipeu it' tliv iiortos were to start ; aod 
the traveller, opprcheuti^e of causing aomo disaater, opens 
Uio window, and i> imtocdiately beset with mere urncni cn- 
Ireulies. Uai-asM-nl and worried, he at laiil makes a pur< 
cliaMii and tliea Ihu ro|fuisb postilion, wbo was in luAKitu 
vitb tbe«« damotous puUtiooara, whips on hia borsM; but 
up to tbe puiebaso h« always finds •oracthiog to do, or 
auoie part vf bis harness that wonts to be adjusted.' Tbe 
uanulacture of serveit and ether vreolteu midTi. fal»tt or 
wovdvii skoeti, leather, and lace, is etinied on ; and Ibeiu 
are three places for hloaciiiai; trax. I'v the abavc articlus 
of trikde may be added wine, grain, wool, hemp, fruit*, wax, 
honey, nut oil, and other oarioultutal produce, and mitl- 
btoom. The tradi* vf tbe place is mucli favoured by it> 
Hlotlion OD tlko riter Vienne. the iiaviKulion of whi^ ooin- 
rocnces about seven milca above thu luwn. and on which 
tlictu is a good port. l>uring the U«t war, when the mari- 
time superiority ef Enf^land interrupted tlie toutink: trade 
of Franca, Chalvlk-raull became the centre of coosulersble 
iotetnal trade. Ttw wiue> and braiidiu* of thu soutlt were 
brought bithor by Und. and ItansmiUed to (he nuith of 
Fnince by the Vienno. the Loire, the Caual d'OrliUns. and 
tbe Seine; while the biieua and wooUeiw uf th« iionb, ar 
riving at Cbfltollersult by waler-eartiajte, were dispatebei 
by land to Bordeaux. 

Chiiicllciault ia tbo capital of an orrondisseiaont, wb>elk 
ountuined, in 18:)3, 20,411 inhabitanta. Ueoni.uns a bi^b 
scIkmI, an agriculiural aociciy, and a theatre. It was ttie 
naliro place of Juan l>aill£, a celebrated Prntestant iDiniUcr 
and wnier. The Scotch duke of Uaindton bean tbe title 
uf duki^ of C hfiiellerault, nhicb was bcotewed on ooe of bis 
UK«Aiocii in 1^-tfl. 

CIIATI[.\}il. a market-town and parliamcnlary berougli 
on the Mrdxay. in the lathe ef Aylosfiird, Kent. I1ic ivwR 
linoludiiiK Hruuipton. which isa village connet^cd wiib tbe 
dock-ytiiil and naval and military- cslabltthmcnts, at a 
liUle diKtanco from what is sinclly tbe town ot Cbathaui} 
is in tho two parishes of Chatham and GiUmgham. and 
joins Kwhc^tcr on the cast. Its distaooe Iroin Locidun by tho 
Dover ruiul, winch varieo but liltlu froin the direct distance, 
b about thirty miles B. by S. Bi tlie Kcfoait Act, Cliatiiam 
was created a patUatnenlnr; boroogb. wilh a boniidaiy cji- 
Icndtng cooeidcnUy on the 8. and K' titles <v( dio (umh, 
and it now returns one mcmtwr. Tlw pa|nilitlion within Ihe 
boundary was estimated at I9.*0v) the leturiis of lASl 
^ivtt 1MB4 a-t tho pupuUlioo of tbo town, 

Ttfm nhous dlKiJVsne* awk in NMing lbs ilxliflQir 



C II A 



8 



CH A 



tioTKi nliirli incloM ihc ii3^-al nnil roiliinry vnlablUhmonli 
nl- CtialluuD, it «M<m« probnhlc that tito RoniQiiii liad a 
burying; (jnunil hcr«. A number oC anllunt ftntrus and 
othor «x<?avuliona were opened, and Romsn briokt, tile^, 
coins, and iteupon; wc>r« found. Tlio name r>f tlio tmvii is 
Saxon, aiii! wu» vrrilten C«lch«m or CaaUbnnn, nhich is 
su|>pOM(l to liiKniiy ' thft villa^ of «oUaj^ci.' It conliiiiiod 
•Q intignincatit ptai^e until ihii rortnation of the djek-yurd, 
*inco which tin» tlic town has sprung up. The parish of 
Chatham » verf «xt«D«» ; n smnllinrt ot it it within the 
liborim of the city of Rofheaor. Tho pnridt chtircb won 
nlmoitt Antitcly rotiuilt in 1 784 ; m aildiUon to tl IbMu is a 
thnrth, trtttad in 1821 by tbo eomcniiaion^rs Tai- bpilding 
new pburcUas, th« patrona)^ of which i» hold by the in- 
cumbenl. Tho ptrntb is in the dio««M of Rochcctfr. 

Tho cxl«nsiT« navnl and niiLiiary ettablwbtnenla nrw nt 
Brompton, a litiledistanct! from the tovn, and cntiri'ly «- 
pArnl«i{ from it bv o. line of ftriifltation*. Tho liook-yanl 
was founded by (^ueen Elizabeth, previous lo the invasion 
of tb« Armada, on Lha cit« of what u now lemiGd the Ord- 
nance Wharf, and oorasionsUy Ibc Old Doolc. It wa> rc- 
Toned to iu pte«ant »ituatian in IS'J-J, tho demands of the 
navy reanirinf; increued aC(T»inino<Intion. Eliiahelh ercclod 
IJpnor Cattle, on lb« oppMite sido of the Medwny, for tho 
purpoDo of (lafending the dock-yard and sibippinc- Hut Ihi« 
fort proved ineffeettial (or protection from the allt'inpt of 
the Ouleb, under Dc Uuyter, who, in ItiBT, haviti)r titen 
HhvtratM, dispatched bis vir«-BdRiiriiI, Van GhonI, with 
•evrnteen onil of lieht Dhip«, and eight iho ship*, to 
destroy Chatham, He succeeded in hreakin^; a nhain 
atretelied aero«» the Medway. and, in ipito of tho fire from 
the eaitl«, burnt and eunk some thips. Finding the country 
Dlarmod, be r«tirMl, cnrr)!^^ off a ship of war namod (he 
Royal Charlcn. It appnars from I'epyss Diurg, that Ihtt 
atlempt of the Dutch cTeated pvat aturin> and that the 
Knrateit eonfliaien and imbocility pvuvmled nt this time 
in the Kni^iKh counciU. Alter the affair vu* over, tiie 
wioBi partiea conneeled with the admiralty (trove, with 
ebaraoterittic roeaanen, to &liift the blnmo on otheri. Thu 
event wai iho chum of stronger and additional forUliealioni 
beinii erected. 

In the rci^n of Queen Anne liro acta of parllamohl were 

Entiled for the oxienxion of the doclc-varda and araennJa of 
hatlinra, PorUmouth, &c. But notninf; vevf important 
wateSeeted at Chatham until after l'S7, when, from that 
pvnoi] down Iu IMIJ, noootdmj; iik uhirni reiiporlin^ Krcncb 
invAJion pi«rft.ilied, or ok thi: rapidly increasing nn^'y r<t- 
quired, new buildini^ were erected, and tlie cxienuve area 
oaeupied hy the dilT(.'rent ^slatiliihments wa» inclosed by a 
»ining line uf forii flea ti one nn the land siile. and protected 
on the river «tde by tlronfrtboninK llpnor Caitle, bjr iho eree- 
tion of a martello tower cbIUmI Gdhnt;ham Furt on the 
l.'hailinm side, nnd other defences. Upnur Castle iJi at pre- 
Mint merely a powder magazine. 

The natal and militory etlablitliinonia reniUt of a deck- 
yard, nearly a mile in length, which has four wet docks 
naiuUeof reaeivingreucU of the largeat daas; an exton- 
Hive anenal ; barmcks on a Urge aeaJe tea lurtiller^- and 
euftinevrt. in&ittry and royal niarintu; a park of artillery ; 
!i)ai;aiiiuHi and ttort>-hei;i»es : betide* a handsome dock- 
chapel, nnd a number of habitations for the civiliant who 
are employed. The principal mosl-hoiuo ia 340 feet long 
by 120 wwk>. The ropo-liouso it 1138 fimt ia lenfflh, and 
•17} wide, in whiuli (»Ue« 101 fnlhoma in length and 2o 
inchos in eiroumferenee are made. The mocblnery nted 
in nil tho dcpartm Aita is of the Tory be^t kind. A duplicate 
of Brunei's biock-making moobino is kcjn. here, ready for 
use in cue the maehinu nt PurUnMuib «liould get out 
of order. The engineer barracks are built in a plain and 
aimple tlyle. and aro exteniivo and convenient. ThoT« 
iintciiool for engineers, which waa wlabliahed in 1BI3, in 
which jutmg omeonand recruiUof the engineer service 
are trained te a praetioil knowledge at thnr duiiet. Near 
lite doek-yard gate ii a large naval bo^ipilal, nhich wai) 
creeled at tha sUKgeslioo of IM proaent king (William IV.) 
ivhon lord hii;h ndrniml. 

At Ruchettcr Bridge, the Mctlwoy, which discharges into 
the same n^ituary with the Thames, ia a large tide rivor. 
The rise is eighteen feet at spring and twelve at neap liilet 
nlClinlbani. Aborc Raahe>ler tha high lauds approaeh 
oach hank of tho river, forming n kind of araphitneatre 
about Chatlinm and Roebester on the east side, and nlw on 
tha wast, doGuig oq Uie ri^er pt Upnor Cottle. Below 



I Chatham doekryuds tha higli Unda deeline, fir^l nn the 
right, and tlim on the left lank forming a flal, marshy 
L-ountry. to ihe spadous outlet of the Medway at Sluiernett, 
There is an establishment for oonvmUi at Chaiham, con* 
xjiitiiig nf four sbipa', uno bein^ unproprititud li>r jiivende 
oflendort, and onoLner used OJt an liospilul. Tho priMaiiora 
nre employed in different departments of tho dockyard and 
arsenal. 

The ' Chest ' at Chnthnin wan cslablithod in tho reign of 
Ehluhnth. and waK nriginiiliy n vuluiiliiry cijntnliuliiin fium 
the monthly woccs ol Mameii for the Mippoit of tlicir 
maimed on*! superannuates! br>.>thTun, but ivhioli soon Milled 
intu a compulsory payment. Several notices wnmt in 
PcpyKi iJiary of complaints of maladmiiiixirdEInn uf thin 
charity. On the raeommendation of the Com mmsiot iocs of 
Nnvallnquiry. it was, by the 43 C. III. c. 1)9, removed to 
Gnrenwtcii. The monthly puymunt fiDm the wages of 
seamen is now abolished bv llie 4 W. IV. c. 34. and the 
amount is eburged ntinualty on the consolidated fund. 

An hospital for lepers wils cstabliEhcd at Chatham by 
hisbup Gundulpli, in the rvign of William the Conquorar. 
It appoart lo ba\'e been incorporated. Its revenues, uhicb 
were small, eteaped oonfisuBliuii at the time of the disaola< 
t ion of the monasteries, though attempts wero ufteraardt 
made in thcroign&of Elizabelli and James 1, t)vrre*t Ihem 
from the liospilal. The building does not now extsi, with 
the exception uf n wraull (■banel, but the rL-^'onties of tJio 
estate an; in tlio hands uf the dvau of llivlicttir. Oa 
the north side of the Hii^li-atr^ct. or principal ttrcel 
uf CtiHlhani, there is nn ho»pit:4l fur derayod manners 
uiid shipwrigliu. which »&« fuundnd by Sir John Hawkins 
in 139'J. and inouriHirattid by Eliinliclh in Ii04. ll is 
o neat ami convenient building: tho funds support ten 
pensioners. There aro several minor charilien. 

The Kilucntion KGlumft of )83.i give nine daily schools 
and leu miikIbv kioliiwlK ov then exixling at Challum. 

{Hasted & Ai'Mf; Duugloss A'anin ffr(7o««HYi; Pepys'a 
Diitry ; Uupin'b Military and Savnt Power */ Urtat 
Britain : ti'iundtiry Report ; P'ipulalion Rttuma.J 
CHATH.VM. K.AKI, OK. [I'l".] 
CH.\TlLI.O.Nt tliQ noma of several towns in France, 
of which we sliuU only ohicrva here that Chalilbn sur-Sc-ine 
fCilT«D'Oa] was the scene of rruillcwnegotiation* holwccn 
Napoleon und llio allied puwort before thecapiiulaiion of 
?an%. 1914; and lluL the costlo of Chntillon-sur-l.«ir» 
[[.oirkt] was iho projierl^ of Ibe great Coligni, hence 
call«l ' the admiral of Cbatillon.' 

CHATOE'SSUS, a genus of flshes of tlio herring family. 
{CLrpEin.K.] 

CHATRB, LA, a town in llio department of Indre, in 
France, on a crow road Icailing fr.)m ChtitcJiiiroiix loOuvrel. 
It it U9 miles S. bv W.oT Paris, lO 4G° SV N. lutitudo, 
and V ^y K. longitude. 

This littlo town is titualed in a pleasant covntrv. on a 
genite alope. on tbe left bank of the nver Ijidrc. 1'he in- 
nabitonts, who atnount lo J'J 1 3 for tbi; town, or 4:^13 fnr ibe 
whole oommune. manufacture some serges, and trade in 
cattle, wool, and leatlier. It in tho capital of an iirrondiue- 
roont. which (wntoinoil in )83'J ii,\'>l inhabii.iniE. 

CMATSWORTH, an extra porochinL Itl^rly, in tliC 
hundred of lliKh Peak, county of Derby, 3 miles fi-oin 
Bakewetl. and lii lium Buxton, is tbe seat of tho duke of 
DevonJiire. who is constable of tho I'cnk. The prcwnt 
inansinn standi o» the site of a former one, in which Mary, 
queen of Scots, paticil tho greater part of her long caplivily 
in England, and which, during ilie civil wars, wnt nltor- 
nalely in poaaastian of the psriinmenlanan* and ro)ih*U, 
nixi withstood tho Kiege of the piiriiomcntarian Il^'vlp4 in 
IG4fi. It was taken down at Itic cIomi of that ccntuiy lo 
make room be tho present bt-'auiiful Mruciuro. which wai 
not completed until I70G. During thi; lime thai it wu 
building, it was Iho reaidenoe of Marshal Tuilanl. the French 
Koneral, who had botn made a jviMncr at tbe liattle of 
BkiiluMm. Tho Iiou*« i» built m the tlrecian siyle, with 
Ionic columns, with a (lit roof aud baluitriidc round it. It 
is about I'JU feet square, inclOBing a ouurt with a fountain 
in Iho C4mlrv. The stone was h^wn out of n retghboarini; 
hill. The pork is ten miles in tircumfcmnce, through 
which, and in front of Uie monHon. tlowa Ibe Ek-rweiii. 
The water- works, whirli aiv so orimmonlal to the plca«uro 
gmundj. are supplied fruui a reservoir en the summit of the 
nearest hill. Cotliworlh is part of tlioduchy of Lancaster, 
and within tbe juritdtction of a court of pleas held at 



J 



C H A 



€H A 



Cbapei Qn le Fhtb tot \ha nnverj of ilcoli un<Icr 40/j 
but III pmiulition ii r«tiimnl ntili the poruh or Edcntdr 

fHATTKLS (CsiiilU). This icrm eoaipreliend* all 
anpeny ino^uaU« or imntovtoblo, which tn not freeliold. 
Chaitelt ore caUe«I real, nliicli, in tho Ianpu>R« of (be 
miiDT law vriiera, urour of tbe reality ; that U, rclato t« 
or sra tntnrmls in land. Challeb pervocial are moveable 
goodi, u horsM. nUto, laoiMy, &e, ChiUltjU uf each do- 
scription paw lu llio |>rrHinalr*preiratolivrsi>f IhadcreoLsed 
proprietof, nnil nm rorajtrctiendctl unilur tlui ceiietal drnn 
* pmonal prtijierly,' Tiie laws wliieh gtworo ihw de«crip< 
twn of property are now, from tho growih of lUa inpwaniilo 
aj^tem aail iho cbangtgf mannort. equal in iinfinrtani?« 
with tbou ralattng ta realty ; but durine lh« pri^vilunro of 
the fcodal systeiD. and the Uv( ta whicli it more iinmoili- 
Bt«)y gam rise. chatteU (iiH-ludin^ cren lerint fur year*) 
mra eanaiflnod of small importance tn a lct;al point iiT 
▼lew, and, indeed, prior la lliir nifoi of Henry VI., were 
nrely mentioaed In Iho law lr»tise« and Repurti of the 
day. (KeevQs Uisl. Hof;. Lou-. 369.) Iklaity article* of 
pmpvrty. intnnsically rhatich. from their inllmato eon- 
nMtion witli other propiffty n[ a rrcchuld n.-ilur«'. and Iwing 
DCMwary to its enjoyment, descend Ihorcwith lu the heir, 
tnd Wt9 not treated as chattels. TtiU'<, fi>r iii»tati(.-o, tho 
muniniffDti of lillo to an oslats of inheritance, growing 
tioM Kiid KraM, door in a park, und tittrh flxiuros m cannot 
beromo^'ed IVom the IVeebold witliout injury to it, are not 
^battels. bceaiMethey pass to the heir. In tho liuiirU of n 
p»Tion boireveT vhohai r limited interest in such thin|n, 
Ihay borofBohischflltuU, and pass tahisuxcciitor. Cbalteu, 
•ueM to far oa tlioy may bu iiii)'rei>»o'l with tho nature o! 
lidi'ioorat. cannot be entaitoil. ihouijh Ihey miiyho limiied 
M u to veit within 21 years afler tlia death of a person or 
mnoiu IB bnofr. Tlioy aro not within the statute of Uses, 
maumivh u the proprietor of a cliaiivl is raid (o be pot- 
Mnnf dT k, mt ttited. which is ibe word used in tliui sia- 
ruie; Mr art the same formBlities required in passing a 
cbaltet br derise, as in tho case of real property. A will 
of diBtlala may also b« at an earliur age than one which 
diapiMaa of ml estate ; at fourteen yoarv »f sgi; by a male, 
Bna nrelvs by a female. They do not go in sucrujiion to 
■ enrwiratkiii sate, except only in the C4ses of ibo king and 
the chamberlain of tho oily of Loudon. (Co. Lilt. ; Bl. 

CHAITKRTON, THOMAS, waj bom at Bristol on 
Ihc SDili of Nuvrmbcr, 17A2. His failher (who died thrvu 
raonUia before the b«th of his son) was a tinging inuier at 
Uie eatliedral, and alu* raaslvr of a ohariiy s<^ho6t in I'yle- 
atrvet. At the agu of iSto years Iw wax plared under the 
ru« of Mr. Lo^v, who suecoeiled htsfather as master; but 
his procr«ss was ao slow, that after his master bad ex- 
hausted his patience in attempting to tcarh him, he sent 
him back to hii mother as u 'dull boy, and incapable of 
ftirther instruction.' Hit mother now took him under her 
cart;, and at the age of six years be first learned his letters 
from Ibe illuminated cepitatsof an old musical MS., with 
which, to use her expression, he 'fell in lo^-e;' and it ia 
protoble that his passion for SBliquarian pursuits rvtwiTod 
Its first impulw from this circumsIanccL His prograu 
was now a* rapid at It bod before been slow ; bookii of 
all Undo, but more ospcdally thooa which treaied of ancient 
eutotu, ««re his chief companions. On the 3rd Auj^nst, 
t7ttt, when twt qiiit« eight yours of ago. hi> wait admitted 
into Coltton'i school. Bristol, an ealabliahnicnl much upon 
ilwt nme plan with Cbriat's Hospital, in London. He re- 
inaiiied here seven years, during which lime he wnto Mme 
rninnr pieces of poetr>-, chiefly utiricnl. and the eelBbnt«d 
I Beq{bBm pedigree. On the Isi July, i76J, he loR tbe 
' rily scboo), ami was bound apprentice to Mr. John 
iib^rt, ■itom«y, of Rrtttol, for seven jeara. While in 
Mr- l.Amb«rt * scr^ke he cocnmnnieated to Felix Farley's 
itriktol Journal tbe article by which ba Ural attracted at- 
tention, la the bepiuiing of October, I7GS, the nowbridge 
at Bristol was cmaplated, and at tbat time Ihera appeared 
In Fartey's Journal an article punorting to be the tran- 
tenpi oranancientM$..entiUed,' ADeschptionof the Ftyara 
flr»C posiing o^«r the Old Bridge, taken frum an Amivnt 
ManqicTipt.' This paper, so singularly curious, and exhibit- 
ituf furb klnmg powors of inrenlsan, was traced toChatierton, 
wbo waeot fitai rather harshly interrogated at la the mniiner 
rbieb It come into hia poasession. After tioversl oonln- 
■y sUieaeats,he asserted that he hid recei*«d Ibe 
r in qvMtieii fron his firtiiert who bad found it, witfa 



many otbere, in tons ebeats in Reddiff cbnreb, where tboy 
had been depoiiiied in tho nunimcnt room, in 'Canyngos 
rofre.' Sor>n after this occuri^nno ho bwcnme acfiuaijitwl 
with Mr. Calootl, a gentleman fandof antifjuArian tfM'iircUu), 
and with Mr. Barrett, suigenn, who was vngHjfed m writing 
a history of Bristol. To the former gentleman he took, 
very soon after his introduction to him, some of the pnt- 
tanded Rowlcion poemii. among which woro 'The Uriilow 
Tragedy,' Rowley s Epitaph upon Mr. Conyngc'a Ancestor, 
with B^oie other Kmall pieces. This Rowley, aeooidina to 
Chatlorloii, wns a priest of ibo fifloonlh century, who natl 
been pntronited by Canynge. lBnt«Tnr.,p.43^.) Mcultorily 
aflerwatris presented to Mr. Otcolt tho Yellow Roll. To 
Mr. Barrett he fumishivl an ncrount of every church and 
chnpol in Briatol, wliii-.ii he stnlod to have Iwpn fownd by him 
among the old pnTchmenls. The pretended originals bnro all 
the marks of antiouity.whioli ho had madeihcm aiiumo by 
rubbing them witliochro, stamping on them, and blnclting 
thum in Lho chinnoy. or hy iW i\*m«of a candle. Mr. 
BarrvllpubhilieidthesealatemuQti in his work, fully beliaring 
them to be ceimine. After his introduolion to these genlle- 
■ncnChatterton'snmliilion increased datly.andheonen spoke 
in raplurci; of ilu^ uuduubtcd ium-jm of the plana that he 
hud furmed for his future hfi*. His punuiis were vaTions-*- 
heraldry, English nntiquities, mi'i.iV'hysics, matlMinotics, 
aslTonainy. muaic.and [ihysic, by turns occupied bia at- 
tention : but tho two first werv his favoiirito pur«uilP. 

His nttentioii, liowt-vi-r, wita nut confined to th4} Rowley 
poems. He wniie various pieces,chieflysatiiical ; and several 
essays, both in prose and verse, which he forwnnled to the 
periodinaU of tho dny. Most i>r his pieces a[i[iaari.'d in the 
'Towii and Country Magazine.' Growing disgusted uilli a 
prafessiun ill suited tn hit ia<>tes. and with a master whom 
he disliked, he made an npplimiioti in March, 1 7li9, to Kfr. 
Horaev Wnlpole: the ground of whicli was an ufTer to 
supply tiini M'lili some ai^counu of a auecesslvn of paintors 
who bad Iluurislied ai Bristol, which Chatterlon afTirnK-d to 
have been lately ditcnvercil. witli snme old iKWins, in that 
city. 'Walpole' accepted the offer with warmth, but aner- 
wards teems to have enated upon it. either thim suspecting 
tbe forgery ut" the aecounts, or a*icribing but little value to 
(hem ; and on being importunotl l>y Chatterlon fur his as- 
sistance to rclotiM bini from Ins prol'es*iun, he neglected to 
answer bis letter*. At last. «lieii bo bad reoeiral a dig- 
uiflod and iptriied letter fmni CliAtterton. demanding hts 
MSS. (a letter which he termeil 'ningulorly im pertinent' Ji, 
be returned the MS.S. and letturt in a blank cover. 

Being iloirrininoil lu relinauith hia profession, Chatterlon 
made tvv.t) ctTuit to .iccani|ilisn this object. Tbe idea of suicide 
became familiar to his mind, and he often iiilimated to Mr. 
Lambert's serNSiils itiat he would put an end to hia vxisl- 
cnoe. 0» hearing Uiit the family of his master became 
olomied : but Mr. fambert himself could not tie persuaded 
that his threats meart inyihing. unid hu found uiio day on 
hia desk a paper entitleil. ' The la»t Will and Testament of 
Thotnas Cbiill<^riaii.' in ilio fulIowtnK terms: — 'This is the 
tost will and IcHtoment of me. Thomas Chatterten. of the 
eiiy of Bristol, being sound in body, or it is tho fault of my 
liut surgeon : the souodnass of mind the coroner and jury 
are to be judges oCi datiling them to lake notico that the 
raont perfect maatars of human nature in Bristol distinguish 
me by the title of Ibe mad genius; tlierefore if I do a mad 
action it is ctjnfonnable to every action of my life, whicb all 
saToured of insanity. Hem. If, after my death, whiidi 
will happen lo-niorraw night before eight odock, being the 
feast of the rosnrreclion. the coroner and jury bring "it in 
lunacy. I will and direct.' &c. tiie. Thii alamied Mr. Ijini- 
beri, who oonsidored it imprudent to keep him any lonicer ; 
sod aocordingly ba diamiseed him after be bod been in his 
sarviea about two years and nine month*. 

Chatterlon went up to London, hnvtnii rvreiwd libera) 
offen from the bookaallen. ' My flrsl attempt.' said be, 
'shall be in the literary war: the promises I have ro- 
oeived are sulTicient to dii^l doubt : out should I, oanirsrT 
to my eipcetalion. And myself deceived, I will in tlist 
ease turn Methodist preacher. Credulity is as polcoit a 
deity as ever ; and a new sect may easily be dovlMd. But 
if that too should fail me. ny last end final reimiree ii 
a pistol.* His first letters from Loiidun to bis niMher and 
sisUr are full of enthuMasm. * 1 am settled.' says be. ' ukd 
in such a settlement as 1 can desire. Wbu a gtonoiu proa- 
peel!' Party -writing seems lo hate baeaoneof his brour- 
ita employments. It was agrteable to his aaiicical tun. 



No. 404. 



[THR PBNNV CYCU)PAD1A-) 



V«wN\V*-^ 



C ft A 



10 



C H A 



nnd ty Tuiiinp: liim into iramtiltalc noticfi j;T!>t!(!cd blapnMc, 
whicli was miboumled. Whrn rrejjmmwiclutl by a relition 
to B«t inln ft'ime ofEtn. he Kinrmeil like a ntadmiin. and ii.-;- 
sorted Ibal ' ho hoprd. willi the WessiiiK of Gorl, iTrv »o(in 
to be »enl pTiwiier lo the Tower, which iroulil mHke liU 
fortuoe.' Hi* WTilinijs dnritiD hi* rmiiU-nre in Li>ndan 
were rmmorous ; but ihey failort id prwuio him a connfort- 
ahlo tiip»me, anil h« wa* plurRcd froin ihe hishcst [tin- 
nunlc of hopo to the ilepihs of il«pnir. In the rtintiili cf 
Julv, 1 770, ha removed rrom Shorpclitirli. whon-!it-had loil^eil, 
to an npariment in Broolt-strcct, Holborn, where, on the 
24lU ii( AuRurt followinjr, beinR lilerally in a state of star- 
vation. he tenninatei! Sl» existence bj- poison. He wot 
buried on tho followInR day In the burying-ground of Shoe- 
lano workhouM. 

Chatterton was only sovirntem years and nine moniin old 
when he died. Tho rtinlroversy na ta the Tlowlcian poems 
onin>ffed nurnorou'* wrilerR o( the day; but few [looplr 
row believe tl)o Rowley ptwras to ht: anifthini^ elw iliati 
the jinjductioTi of Chalterton him»eir. 

No raonnment hn« yet ticen erected to the memory of 
Ihe boy-bBrrt of Brirtol, The rimimslanccs atlr-mling hii 
deiith have biilietlo prevented any juch ti^*tiui«rii«l ; but 
whilo the heautiful eliurcli of Si. Mary Redcliff utandH, 
with wbieh his niin« i« iiiMeparitbtT sssoelated, he will not 
need any other inoniiment ; and in tho ctnutnictioa of tbo 
Rowlpy poems, h« himself built. 

'Hm kiiy(iniig^a]-iweffl«p*Bl. 

An miNliiiUnilntlorinoottaMDt* 

TTio person of Chilterton wn», tilm his genius, jirceocious. 
One of hi« eotnpanioiu aayjt lie lo-akcd ' like a tpirit.' His 
oyoa wcn> uneominoDly piercinp, and one mote no than tho 
other. Hit lisbtti were domettic, and hit aflecliuti fur hi* 
relalirca unbounded. Tlio two following pawaeen, one 
Crom the Kowleian papert, and the other fhim otisof hii 
aaknoWbd)^ jujema, may bo safely pnuieunre't to be from 
the sami' hand, nelwilhstanding tlie aniitiuaieil diiguiw of 
tiKy passage from the Rowley papcra: — 

' Tbe pibnd ilnrMff li tT]i° 1 lA' Ui<i> iliap* (ill*; 

'tbt Ibrtnl EiHdovn >r>"'1I>i-. mhI iln-nrlir llianliig; 

And the luU S<ckn (i*dn<Tii>c'«ilj« ptolDti 
DuM* hum On elaadM t)i* >sl>Tt flail a^D I 



Ami lilt liiX I 



tn»itlis ID Ih* alda limlnin Str*^ 



Uallnk 'J Cittilu. 



r^I* ntp^ Winn budlna ■'•■ lila *mi, 
III! ciiolrl lull 1">lru]il nilh i<^^ Arw -, 

IIH lulic ■ lui(c«V t>h|tlH elbi-nnl IiliK. 

' Bi* inlD.a mMlrr'il.iBaiDlaa. uMrtfoud. 
H* iiin|H »laiif th* iiua*1 ilraary nwei i 
WbUrt lUlni whtilmedd lfU<un(, kMEw Mi loadi 
Ran Eba ami* mrg** !• (In wmrilaa abn*.' 



S^ » M« Mmrry of Kf. Aomi mitlfu 

ThelaWpJilion ef Omtloftnn'ii works i* in 3 vols, IB05, 
CHAUCEK. GEFFREY, a von- riiiiin^uiahnl nKme in 
tbn lonfi eatuln^e of eminent Encbahraeo. He lit'od niueh 
in the eourt or E<lirard III., and in familiar inbereourM with 
Mreral tnenibers of bts family. H« wa« oIm eniployad in 
the public KfTairtor tbeiMltn. But it i* a* awriler.and 
•specially M a poet, that be daira* tite notleii ofp-Kterliy. 
Mut of tha aoholBn of hia i^ were aceustomeil to write in 
Latin. but Chaueor wrote in tbovnrwcular t!in!>uat» of hU 
«vn s)^ and mantrj ! hs tvnnnd it indceil, tiQi neiiher his 
iBbour*. tier Iben of hii oontenpanrlct, Langland. Gower, 
and WioklilTe, were able to fix the tanguage. The Rn^(*h 
of Cbancflr is k> unlike the EB^Iiah of eur time, (hat fev 
ptTsoiH can read it wiih eaM. and notM witliout ilxt asaist- 
a&oQ of a diclianary. Yet alittlo |alq| weubl onablo any 
one tn Rianter hi« Unpuai^o and rersifleuioo, and the poln'x 
would be amply rewarded, for hit vnthif^ era valuable net 
only as illaslracittf; tha mannero and habits of Ihe lime, bnc 
as tho produetioBS of a mind emtnently luieiiral. Hia 
ehi«f work is a eotteetiott of atorta, entitled by him. * Can- 
tarboiy Talcs.' boitig a tetlea oflalaa leld by the indivMaaU 
of a Mrty of piti^Hina ^oin^ IVofaSiHittawarklaCantertmnr. 
«ko Dad afire^^ tliito u< b^i^iilo tba tedimmem of lh« way. 
A competent juili;*, tba lata Mr. Godwin, aaya, that 'after 
Ihe ilromiu of Sbakcpeate there la no pnduetion of nan 
that dispbiya more vanoua and vig^nwu talenL' 

The ma of Chauoorwa* tba reigna of Edward III. and 
Riehaid U., for he was bom within a year or two of the 
asMMiaa of KdwanI, and be died in )40l>, wxm after the 
dipaailioii aad death ef Ricbaid. Hit nosl TetDarkahlw 
■onlanioraiy was \VkUilli>, and it it to tbo honour of John 



of Gannt, one of the cona of King Edward, l^nt Tio was 
aa&ocirLle, friend, and p^ilr'n, orb'>th these illuntriou* men. 

Chaticcr ha* hiiniielf told ua that lv>ndon niw tbo place 
i^fhis natWily. Ht was educated at Canbridt;e, and alw at 
Oxford, ojid BOmc ot hi« bingrnphen rrprcaei^t him !<> Iiaxe 
eono to Pfiris, ihi^n one of the nio«l celebrated schools at 
tbo scienrett in Europe. He iludivd Ihe kw, moreover) in 
till' Inner Temple. 

While at th« univeraity ho produced two of his lareer 
works, the ' Court of Ijjtc, and ' the book of Trvilus and 
Crc&.«cidc;' bat he aocn entered on putjlic life. Wbetbor 
hi* marrintto was the cause or effect of hia conacxion with 
the court is not completely aaccrtainud : hduio »auld refer 
faia mitrriafic to «o late d dale a« 1370. but ibis procccja 
upon the presumption that his wife waa PhiUppa Pt card, an 
attendant on Queen PKdippa, who appears not to have bren 
married before that year, Tlu" old biopnplier* of Cbsuucr. 
with Bome probability, roprestnl him to have been married 
some jcom earlier, and to hove taken to wife aiiollicr lady 
of tho court of Queen Pliilippa, nlso named Philippa, a 
dauithler of Sir Pajne Hoei, of Hainaull, and amlcr of 
Kaiherino Swinford, the mialress, and aHcrward^ the wile, 
of John of Gaunt, the mother of Ihe B^nuforts. 

In 1353 John of Gaunt married Blanch of Laneaater, 
It was on oei'asioQ of thiaauit or courtship that Chaucer 
wrote his ' Parliament nf Birds.' 

In tho next year he njipcare as a soldier. On* of ibc 
most aiithentio and intcrcHting mpmorisU we poeeesa of 
him is a depoaition gi"f«n by Him in the suit between Scropo 
aud Oroerenor, on the que=lion of right to a particulDr 
G(^re in their coat ortnnur. The depoaitiona are prewrted 
on lbs roll* at the Towtr. Chaucer 'lvposc» aa^ag oilier 
lhiiifi«,that he woa in tho es)»c4ition of KiiQ.wheii Edward 
III. invaded Krftn<-e. and waa then laado prisoner by the 
Frenrh, rear the town of Rettera, How long he icmaioed 
in eaplivity h not known, and il ja not till 13C; that wo 
meet with him again In tlic nnliunai roc-uftU, which are 
iilmoat Ihe onlT dppiisita ofaulhenlic information concerning 
the ilIu«TimJS tngli*hmeB of thaipeiJoO. In that year be 
hed an annual peniion of twentv tnat-ka frratiled lo bim, a 
»um which his bio'gpapher, Mr. (>odwin, aiUmatea as coui- 
ralcnt toliio'.; the ^'nnl ia entered en the patent rolls 
tbereiapTOofof tho payment of it in the issue roll of ihfi 
Kxchoiuer f)f the 44th year of F.awanl III., and also of the 
nnyment of ten marks a year, granted to Philippa Chaucer, 
nia wife. 

In 1389 he wrote 'the hook of the Duchesi,' a fiincral 
pwffl, on the death of Blanch, duchoM of Lancaster. 

It 1« by the hRht of tho national i^eufxla that wo are en- 
abled to Iraee other faet* in the life of CUauccr. In 13?0 
he had letters of protection, being about to depart beyond 
sea. In 1373 he was In nn enibii»*y to Genoa, to trvat on 
lome public alTsJr*. This viiit to Italy was one of tbo 
mnat remarkable events in his Iiro,ma<much as it seema 
pfohahln thnl ho ihcm saw and converced with Petrarch, of 
whnra he spnaka in the induction to one of his tnlcs. Oa 
hU return, he had a royal ^ant of a picher of n.ne, to bo 
inken daily at ttie port of London, and was aoAn after uiado 
(•'■mplroller of the cuslom? in that ["ort. He i« found also 
rtii llie roll* a« having « grani of n wardship in 1375, and 
another of a pflrlion oreontrnbnnd wool in 1376. About (his 
time it ia Buppowd that he wrote Ihe poem which Pope 
aflftrward* modcmiicd, called by him tho ' il<iu<« of Fame.' 
In 1.17J he WB« cmplejcd in an embassy of n ilelicnie and 
honourable naiure. It was to neeotiaUt !> tnamutfa bclwecn 
Richard, priiieo of Wales, and Mary of France, iTau^htvr of 
the FrPnrn >:inp. 

Kinti KdwarilllT. died in May, 1377. To the early 
years of hia sueeenor are referred Chancers poem* enlii " 

• Tlie Black KniKhl,' • The Leeend of Good Women,' " 

• The Flowei- and the Leaf." If Mr. Godwin's auiln 

are aalReinit. It wmild apr^ar Ihat lie wn« in dii^f^ne^ ani 
mlacfj dorinc much of the period A-oin i:iHJ to IJS'J. He 
te reprAented as having been itoptieated in tlu* affair* of 
John ilo Nofthampton, in hia slnig^e Ihr the mayoralty of 
[.omlon, nnil to have been In c«Dw<iuence driven into exile, 
flymi; to Hainault, and afterwarda to Zealand, and on bis 
return to En;iland being imprisoned in tbu Tower, frota , 
viMnee he waa not released but at the expense of sotoe dia> 
elosum, which ar« said not to have been eredhahle te lu 
It is fcmarkahlc. Iiovever. and it rentiers soosewhat 
what i* abate ataleil mpeclin;; him, that in I38S 
returned a kntglil vT the sbiie for Kent, and Ibtt in t3&9 




CH A 



U 



C H £ 



ho vu uppoiDtod clak oS tbo wofks. an DJIIn) iithicti he did 
not loD;; hold. 

In lEe lut mn jMn of his \Ub h« wmru to have lived 
retired frora public sffain. tkou£h receiving tram time ta< 
linw muiu or royal Givour. A buusc u Woodstock, which 
had been uugoed to him by ifac king, and the cutle at 
Doaniagton. nwr Ke«bur}-, the ruins of wblch ar« viiible 
00 the n(;lit huiI or thp mad rroiu Lcin<3on to Bath, ore 
bolie^nl 10 have been ut tliis poiod bis usual pleuxt of 
abode. It i> certain iixaX it wat in tbm cart of his life 
thai be wrote ibo ' Canterbury Talcs,' antl ilie tradiiion, 
both at Tfwdftlook ami at Di>iiuini{ion, 1*. tliat portioni 
of the work wer« vritlen at thocQ place*. All hit 
biographer* concur in saying that he died in Lotnlcin. and 
it is certain tbni he wdi buried in ihu AbScy Church of 
Westmia&tcr. The niuiiuniL-Tii which i» tlicru erected to 
bif moiQury was a tribui<! paid to him, a ccntnry and a half 
afWr hif ilcceatc, by Nicholas Brigham. 

Chaucer had two tonN. SirThumai and I,cwi«: of the 
Uller little is known, liut Sir Thomas w&i !>|waker of ihe 
Hoiifio of CcRimcmiL and. marryini: on bdicsiof the house 
of BurE:bcnb> obtained vilh her Ewclmc. in Oxford^hirv, 
and other paiiessiuna. Ha bad an only dauiihlur, Alice 
Chauocr, who rauried Do la Polv. duke tif Suflulk. 

The • Canterbunr Talcs" vrero printed by Caston, but it 
wu not Idl IM2 that any i:<:n<T.-it colWtimi of his writings 
wn BMdo and coromiilnl tu thv preu : lliuy have been ollcn 
reptinled. Ur.Tytwbiu'e edition of Uie ' Canterbury TsIm ' 
i* jiiady oelebntcd far the greater purity of the lost, and 
liir ibo ntluablo lUusbation* wbidi hu hiu annexed. 

We have noticed in this article Chftucer's pciiic-ipal works, 
without Mofcuiag to cnumerato all. Wartun. in Im ' Hii- 
toTj of Bn^sU Pwtry,* thus lums up the poeiical charac- 
le» ofChaacvr: — 

* In cUTBlion and ekgsncc, in harmony and {mr^pii^uity 
af vvrMfieatioD, ho iur|>aaMe hi* prcdooeaaora in an inftnilo 
prDpurf'oa : hut g«niua was uniTonal, and adapted to themes 
of utjhoumM TKriirty : his merit was not U-as in poinUng 
faoiHiariBaaMnwitb humour and jKojinety, than in moving 
Mwniif, and in rcptosvntin^ the beautiful and thu 
olijocts of ualurL- with icracc and sublimity. In a 
. h« appeared wilb all tlio lustre and dignity of a truu 

E^ in an ago vhich compdlod him lu atruggrle with a 
iianniN lani^age and a national want of taste, and wban, 
to * ' ■' ' all. wa» a singular qualiSeaUoo.' — Uitlury 

</.' - :fi^. Vol. i., p. 457. 

tjlt,'\ U(..|, a oolioA of anlienl Oemuny, who lived N,B. 
«f tb« PrMii, along iKe cw-tt of tb« N. iKrao, and on both 
banks of the ViNureis (U'cwr) and ■> far as the Albis,a[ 
E^ T« lb* S. Iboy bordered up«n Ibe Catti. Taciiu,-( 
BA. 3i) says that their country wa« estcnttvo and 
' taihebitod, and that Ifaev were a peopto diblinguiahcd 
Uw Gorawas fur their lor« of itutico and of peace ; 
pswerlbl iLit.l yet unamhitii^us, tbey did nutprovulce war. but 
WKTo atwavs ready to resist agsrosaion. They werw at mtu 
Un« Crieiias to Rome, and furnuhcit Biixiltaiics to Gemaai- 
•W in the mkravviiut lh« CliMWci. (Ann^.i, 60,n.l?.) 
Bm later, iinil«r CIsudtus, w« Bud the Cbnuct, tunkr Gon- 
ao^cD*, a chief of tiio Bnuvian tribo of the Csamn elates, 
ng the Rhine to make tnruTsions into the Roman 
6 oT Oermsnia IiiCcrior, but they were driven away 
^uto, and Caniiasctis was killed. (A»n<J. xi. 18,) 
)>r afL«r«srils Jmned in the rovolt of the Boiavian ohtef, 
Cmlu. {iti4lo^.\v.T9,\:lO.) ThaChauci do not ap- 
Mwr to have war been pcrmanontly subjuftatod by iho 
lUcnuu. 

CHAUDET, ANTOINE DBMS, a Proiwh (colptor. 
who tsentltM todisiinr'lton.ehtftltyforbk^-ingbcanamonfr 
the flnt who broke through the tnmmols in whicrh a p«t- 
vertal aad bod Issia had long ooaOiwd art. He was born 
m ITU.U w-hiehpcnod a style of design prevailed in wbiFh 
parity and sIrapKcity. both of lc«m and oxpressjon, were «a- 
tlrtly superwded by aS^ttation and ovor-atlaotion to uo- 
, worthy ratnnlUD ofdebuL 

~ nuilct Krjian to slihly luH art St an early k|{o, and ob- 

I th« priie from the Frdoch Academy for a ba«eo-li- 

lof Juiaph sold by bis brethrou, in which, according 

tMIe «r the MbMl in whwh he was c-ducated, ho 

every sort of s«c«M4ry — landscape, eatik, a 

be. Upon t««ini; this wwrk in after-ltfe, be re- 

' , ■ I wonder thcv did not arrfnr tno to rofWMMlC rain. 

1 haveebeycd incm.' He unt^rmuds went lo Italy, 

I be dUigmwy sCBdied the antique and the works of 



Ra&elle. His own productions hav« grettt merit, particu- 
larly ns regiutls the composition, invention, and improvod 
taste displayed in them ; iu the execution they arc open la 
criiicisTR. Chaudct was a weiuber of the * liLitilui,' and 
rontributed to the ' Oictiunnaire .du la Languo ilea Beaus. 
Arts.' . 

CHAUDIERE. [Csj^ada.] 

CHAUFFPIB', (Bavli.] 

CHAULI'ODUS, a genus of iisbta belonging to the 
ti1)domiiiil m^ilurnpiurygians. [Stouias.] 

CHAUMONT, a. town in Prance, capital of the depart- 
ment of Haute Morno, on the rood from Paris lol^ngrev. 
Bclfcrt. und Bdlc or Basel. It is on the kft hnnk of lite 
Uame, tind near the right Inink of the little river Sure or 
Suizc. wliich Hows into the Marne jusi below Iho town; 
13!) miles E.S.R. of Paris in a straight line, or 148 mile* 
by the rwad ihrouph Proving, Tcoyca, nnd Bar-snr-Aube i 
if," J' N. lat. and i" 6' E. long. 

Chaumunt was ari&inslly an ineigniOcant pluec with a 
castle called llaiitO'PemUft, which belonged Ant lo its own 
loriU. aficra-aids lu the counts of Champagne, thoiiKh it 
vu in the domain of ihu bishops of Laneres, to whom those 
rounis puiil UoiitaKu. Tho tiwn was wnlled in bv Louis 
XU., in tSOd, and aomc fartJfleat-ions wcio addud by his 
succossnr*. Fruncoisl. and Ilcnrill, All these for ti flea tiuni 
were, in the middle of ihu last coutury. falling into ruin; 
hut in IHSI they woiu repaired, and Chaucuonl ranks again 
anionic rLrrtifled places. In 16M. Kuaaiu, Prussia, and 
.Austria, heio concladcd a treaty of alliance against Naiio- 
leon. 

Chaumont is a handsome town, built on the slope of a hill 
the tciwn-hall. the portico of the ehurch or eha{iijl atUiubvd 
to the hit-h school, and the howpilal, arc woilhy of nuLice. 
The inhabilAnts. who amount to CIt)4 for tlio town, or 6318 
fur tlie nliolu CVIU1I1IIIID. tnuriulactuiru drui:p-li and other 
woollens. kIoscs, which arc iu high repute. linen, hiuiory. 
cutlery, anil cuuiliet; and trade in com, and in sbouii fed 
in the nuighbaurinu country for Uie supply of Piiris. 'rhcru 
is a cvUcgu or high Mibuol, nn agricultural sooiut) , and u 
lbeai(& 

The orrondiascmentof Chaumoi)Lhad.in IH3!, a |*>piilu- 
tion of 84.9Gd. Bouehardon, au vuiiuuul squlptor, was a 
ualtott of this town. 

CUAUNA. [PALAMEnKiDJ!.! 

CUAUNY. a lo-.in m t'ranoc, in lliv dcpurtment of 
Aisiie; it is on the rit*c:rOiB«. llie uavigaiLuu ofwhivh com- 
menwa hero. 6i miles NJ^. of P«ri^ in a ditucl linv. or 
70 miles by the road tbivugh Senlis, CgmpiOgni.', and 
Noyon. 

The town ia pleassnlly litualed, and tho inltabilanls. wlw 
amount to 4!i90, carry on conkidopd^lc commerce, levounn] 
not only by the naviK<^>on of the Uise, hut also by tlio 
junotion bore wiUi that rivur uf a cauid which cvtBmn- 
nicaK^t with Peronn^, St. Quontin. anil L'smbisy. The 
inhiUiitauts maiuiEsctiuo linens, seeking, c^tt^inyum. knit 
woollen socks, and Ivaihcr. Tbo looktug-glouf i ol Si- 
Oobain ore polished iuin. for whkJ> purpose tharc is an 
hydnulte louehiue. Beside lli« above artudes. the inhabit- 
anls trsde in wood, grain, ciiitii, oil, horsas, Ilc 

CUAUlsfiBV, B small island helonging to Kianed. in the 
Engliil) Cbannel ; it belongs to tho de|'urtiiiciil of Mui>eh«, 
and is the principal oT a clutter of islands iit«rlyopuoaUe Iu 
th« town and perl of Greiivillc, distant aboot IU miief. Ut 
Ungtb, moasarod on Brum's map of Franeo, is nbiut S miles, 
ihe breadth half as muoh : but the geographical dictsorw 
ariesof Fran«e(Bxpilty(iad the J>r<:tionJi<nriI/nis>«rr«f).ox- 
agwerate thsse dimensions. This island was onee iahabtted 
by nenDtts, who here sought retiramant from Ibe woild. At 
a subiLiiucnt ]icciod there was aconvontof Cotdeliem, oun- 
laining tnajir of those monks; but ibo Kngttsh having 
two pillagM the euivent, the mcaks vithdtow to l})e main 
land. Sinoo their rettrement tho plaeo has been inhabited 
only in suramer, by the workmen who ODDM Irom Grautilhi 
to quarry granite, which is bero found of nod oiiality, but 
bard lo pohsh. It is used for building at Granville and 8t. 
Male. sIm smaller islands of the group oru many of ibsui 
inbahtted. 

CHECK, n ap«cic«of ehequcredcLoUi.inwtuehoolouMd 
linos or stripes cross oaoh other rociangularly. like a ehean 
board. Thi* msniicr of beautifying wsbs is pnbably vsej' 
anMnL Mony of the Rgiires in RiMlh&i's Egyptian work 
are drvssud in ch*c(ucrMl clolhs. Bishop AuMtlm's buuk 
Gouc4rning ytrgimly, wnltea about tlui year (.M, wbwi 

C II 



cnt 



t2 



6» ■ .- 
HE 



lliB art of weavinE: in tliia counlrr wu prabtUy in k 
Quiiipuativoly Tudo slato. conUina a dialmct iodication tliat 
dioqucieil robes were then in fuhion. ' It i> nol u vcb o( 
ane uuifuru cvLuur aitd texture, wiUiout iinjr variety of 
fl;;utc9 that pWnkoCU tlie «}« uaO Biipvtucth bvanlirul. but 
one ibat is «gven by shuttle, fill«d with thraoda of purple, 
«iid many other coloun tipnjf from »idc to tide, tuid formmi: 
ai variulv of Ssurei and imiL(^ji in different com part menu 
will) uiimirabU xrt.' TImm oo«]Mrla)«nt», deAnad and 
bouiidod by c«loiircd thrtod*. constitule Iho fabric oulW a 
check. Samelim**, bowever, ttio check i> formed, not ly 
difTefi'iKlycolourod thniftda, but by Uir«>di ofdilTorent ilnc- 
n«kt nnd quality. Thu* if lbs chain. «»rp, ot longiCudintd 
yarnB of the well he campMed of alternate pwMb of wliiic 
ootton and wrallen tlireadi, and th« transven« yamaot tlie 
wiHif bo aUo coRipoDpd of such altomato ptircott, vre shall 
liavr a cbock wty dUlinclly bn)uj;hl forth vitbouE any diit- 
tlnclian of colour, prajw-rly lo called. 
Cotton htmdkerchiei'H <'hoi)uod of various coloart havo 



been nuuiufactttrod (n India probably frora timo imme- 
mgrial under the n«m« of puIUeilti. They were ttr»l im- 
]>ort«d into this country from Mmlrws, whenee tli«> derived 
the osmebv whiohthiJiitvloisulillknawn in thfttrada. Th« 
ground of llie«e hu uaiiaUy a pale buffoolonr. and is woven 
with tlie nankin yellow cotton. Chcoks in this raiinlry arc 
tnoaily muiiufaclureil for the coarMr eurpous of aeaiiiea'a 
fbirlsi oprcms, and bed-gowna of femnlM in the lower ranks 
of lifo. The ({uantily reouired is so Rreal ax la maki) it a 
y«t^ iinporlant brnn.' h of nujiness, and lo rumlcr evi-ry me- 
chntiian) whifh fariiiiat-M tho fabrication an objctt ot ouw- 
BcfiiiencB. Bldf kburn, in Knglnnd, ttTid KirLiilJy, in Soot- 
Innil, are Ibe two ohief tents of the oiiock trade, tho former 
in cotton, and the latter, till of late years, chirlty in Unirn 
ynrtiB. 

For the decussation of woof yarni of different kind* or 
eoloun in one web, diflVircnt iliutlle* must b« in rendlncst 
for eiti^riiftte u4p. The mode in which Uiii j> Dtliictod is 
lUown by the flgura. 



J^ 



dh 



:d 



i.L^l 



1^ t 



/ 



lltprs we •» llto pir-kine jwj; F, which ihfl wtavcr mixos 
in his fi)(ht hand, and with u tlexien>u> jerk cuuke:i one of 
tliv fthuitles lodjfcd in (he separate cells at DD, (amove 
Initn tho one aide of ihf lan'm to ihc other ncrma the line of 
\\\v. wurp. by raeant of tin; Ntriiifc which extendi! fioni that 
)i<-U to the driver* or peckers KC. seen at the end of the 
c<-1ls. Tho Ihrec shuttle boxes here shown arc >o eon- 
alrucied ai tn be made to nHda up and down in a vcnicnl 
plane, so tliat each box with its appropriate shuttle may at 
plcuura lie brought on a level with the ■liuttl« rare, or npnn 
■liedding of Ihtt warp, and thus lie thrown 3r.ni>». TIichu 
ibree boxi-n am Htiijicndcil by cords from the cru.ia k-vcr^ 
O. O, which turn upon centres, in ih« suspending bars 
marked B, Q. or Iho swords of llic lo^- ; bt-iii^ the levers 
whirh make it vibrate backward and forwards in )h« ai-l of 
marinR. A npreMata the craai bar of wood on which the 
Uy C oaoillatoa upon iron gudeeona,or pins driven into each 
M iU ends, and re*lin2 upon the upper rails of the loom a» 
abown in suction. Tha under pan of the lay is »Ma al C, 
anil the tipper part, called the lay-cap, U, is aaiied by tho 
wi-avi:r'-i Icll hand in drivinic home each shulc ur shoot of 
wen. The l\vo pieces of buffalu hide called the driven ur 
peckers K, K. aro pcrioralcd, and (raverao or alido horizon- 
lolly upon smoothly poliitboil iron rods. ThcHi pieces give 
the imrocdiate impubion to the shuttle. Tlie weaver*' 
twiidi at the picking peff H munt bv tuiritionily smarl Ui onm- 
iuunic«t« adequate vslwitv to the sbuttlo, so as to lodgo it 
in the oj^poaile boa, and owreome its friction along tho 
warp r.icv, without however giving it l«o forcible a pull, 
which mii^ht do injury to iu point, or throw it out of the 
»h«d. The pin H is oiado to slide freely froin rijilit to left 
upon the upper bar of tho lay, and thus give such molion (o 
(be lever» G.O, as may bring the proper box opiMMite to 
the abutllc driver. 

As dt%-crtityof woof rendeni divenity of shuttles ooces- 
aary, it beoomss expedient to shift them rapidly, otherwise 
titc oMralion would be much impodod. The abotu plan in 
not the one originally employed, but it in many rospecta 
bettor. The pin H being fixed by friction only, so as lo 
slide from t\f.\iX Xf left on (iio uppet shell of toe lay, Ibe 
lerers G, G, connected with it may bo readily moved, b«inE 
within reach ofthe weaver '■ hand, a* ho works tlut lay. The 
dri\-or. if drawn forward, would present an otutruetion to 
the shifting of the boxes, but tbia may be easily svoided by 
an experieaood cperaiive. 

Mr. Robert Kay, of Bury, son of the tnoU ingenious but 
petMcnted inventor of the fly shuttle, invenlwl the above- 
deserlbed drop box, for making obacks, by means of which, 
u ve MB, tbo wearci eould at pleasure uc« any one of ttu«e 



shuttles without rittini; from his seal, each shuttle contain* 
inic o dilTerenity coloured weft. 

CHEDDAR, a decayed viltac;e in Somersetshire, neat 
tho KtuiiendouK cha«m in the Mendip Hills, known by the 
name uf Cheddar Clilfs. Cheddar is said to be derived from 
ca/, a conspicuous bruw. or height, and (brr. water. Tlie 
villaKo consists of three or (bur irrcBular streets. It was 
firrmcrly a markel-tawn. In one of the atrwia a beautiful 
old mnrkei-cmsti it still standing. The iiojiulation of tho 
parish in IB3I nas isao. 

An rsicnsivc ttal. railed Cheddar Ikfoor was, until within 
tJ^UML- Uvm ycurs, cvivrretl with Britixh bnrroivs. at (unuiH ; 
but all trace of ihcie hai been destroyed by cultivation oud 
enclosure. 

Cliedilar Cliffs are the sides of a cliatio. extondinz across 
one of ihu hiKhetiridifcs of the Mcndip Ilills. •Thecha«m 
ocr^)ss the diameter of Mendip is tmire ihnu a mile In length. 
The opening yawn* from tlio summit to ihc roots of tha 
mounuin, ]a)iiig open a Hiibhnie and tremendous scuric. 
exhibiting a combination of precipices, rocki, and caverns 
of tcTTifying descent, fantastic form, and ^luomy vacuity. 
The appmooh fron the village is extremely picture ^i) lie.* 
(Kuttur'a Delineations itf the tivrth-^'ettern Dicuion {f 
Somerttt,) 

The cDtrajioo to one of the caves in Ihcie clifTs is nearly 
lOD feet above the valley ; audit is atatml lopcnetralo 
wards of aiK) feet beneath tbo rocks. A rough carri: 
winds for nearly two milos through the olilb, until it 
Ibe summit of the hills. 

Nine springs rinc from the foot of tho rocks, am) 
immodialviv unilinj;, finm a clear und boauliful atrsanii 
called Cheddar Water, which falU into the Ax. 

Tlie greater part of the land batwoon Axhrldge and 
Cheddar baa (be appearance uf a continved ganlen. It is 
shulli'rod by the Hoiulip UillH on tliu N. and E^ and is 
chiclly occupied in the culluni of vexelabka, large quaa- 
tilici of whKibore obtained curly in the season, oim for- 
warded to Bribtol. 

CHEESE. ca.senus maltor or cucam, one of tho eom- 
poncDl parts of milk, wbaoh may bo considered under two 
points of view; Srst as unooaeulatad. and secondly in a 
state of eoagulatioo, in which it resaoiblta fibrm and 
albumen, Unooagulatod caseous matter exists in solution 
in milk. In order to obtain it. skimmed radk is to be 
mixed with dduU lulphuric acid, which combines with anil 
precipitates it in tbo stale of a white tM ; \hit is to b« 
wa>hed on a filter to deprive it of Ibe nilk wliich it eun- 
tains, and it is then to be mixed with water, and ditfwted 
with carbonatQ of litug oi bar] tea. Tb« acU Mnbion wilk 



ia nearly 
etraloJI^M 
■iaicirg^H 
itra^^H 

III almost J 
,1 atrsam. I 



6H E 



13 



CHE 



Ihft MHti. anil ibc cunoai ntnttor lepanled dlHoUei in llie 
waMr: It U Ut be rmNl by dlimuon rrom the earthy ult ascj 
bulUr Khidi arv mixed with it. 

Tlw lilttrad kolution of ({iscous matUir is nf a pa1« yrttow 
colour, and nt)i«r miinlaiJiinnuK. like a «i)lutii)n of guta. 
Vbea avftportled. u exbaU-i a mti^U or bulled oiilk. and in 
IcruixuDy cmtvad with a while pellicl«. vbich may be re> 
tnoved lik« (hat which tbrait on milk. Ky nuiioniUciii to 
dryDCU, the caKimit mallDr mnaitm u« a ilry inau of an 
unher colour. «1ijcU may be rcdiiiolved in wawr. 

The aqueoas loluiion is coa^laled by nrids. even by the 
■cvlic ariil, eip^iilly whpn h«i4UK). When a ftlrong 
aqueous tulution of uiemi* maltrr i» kt!|it. it cIibiikcs, emits 
a smell of utd cbeej>e. aMin puitelli!*. and fioid& aiamonia. 

Acidit act upon cobcous matter very much in ihc tame 
WSJ as upon altnimcn ; with a intall portion of ariil it liirms 
a <X)ai)iouRil whiuh is aoluble in water; and vitU a Uriter 
({luntity of the nm« acid even, tlie compound i> but ilishtly 
•oltlble; but when it is dcphvci] ot tbc uxrm of vid by 
washing, it again beeomps mjlubtij in walor. Thp cliar;trlor 
which prinripally dislinKniahei cateotui matter fri>na albu> 
nien is ihc prccipilatian of die fonncr by Bin>tic arid ; thia 
proeipitate may be im1«cd rc4liuoh-cd by acetic ocii), but it 
nquires much more than athumcn d^ws. It ii soluble in 
aloobol. CaicouB matter is disHoWcd by cold weak lolutloni 
of ihe alkalis, without sufTi-ring any change; but when 
they are ilrone and heolei]. the cawoih tnaiicT is dccom- 
piMod. ammonia is evoKed, and the aulutJon cnniains nn 
alkaline solplmrct : tannin decompoics both tlie aqueous 
awl alcoholic auliidon of CEiscaus matlor. 

tt has been already ohiertccl that cnscous matter may 
Bxiit bolll in an unooaKiilated and in a coaKulated state ; 
what bssheen already mo ntnncd relates to it in ilie former 
eaadidm. The caa^alation of cacomia mattiTr occurs in a 
mtidew^kh is peculiar to this substance; it is not etTccted 
by boiUo;, bat it takes place when cither the aaueous salu- 
tiou of caaeooa matter or milk iteolf is gently hcalod with 
Um mtiMDs mcmbr^mv of the etomoch of a young calf, or 
viiat m called tennrt. 

AcBunliniE to Benrtiiit, the action of this subatsncc has 
not l)«un hitlwrto explained. In order to investigate the 
subject, lie washed and dricti the stomach of a cnlf, and yet 
be found tliat one part uf this mi:i«4l irith IflOO jKiits of 
skimmed milk, and hi'sivd to t32^ Fahrenheit until the 
o|i«nition was cutupltrle, so perftKlly cuu'^tubio't the clmwub 
laalter iluit no tracu of it remained in Mtlulbn. When 
cascuua matter coagulated by re n act is h unit, it leaft!M G) 
per ceoL of aslies, wliioh are principally phosphate of linno, 
pivripilittcd by tba rennet from tha milk in combiDalion 
■ith the ca-<eoiu mattor. 

AccordisK to Guy- Uiasac and Tlt6iiard.cateum consists of 



Carbon 
Oxy^n 
Hydrogen 
Axoto . 



SU-7B1 
11-409 

21-331 



100- 



Ircelius. however, oonsidvrs that tliis analvus is not 
Et, because the tuliiLance analyied contained, as he 
alalrs, lactie acid and butler. 

llu poorer kinds of cbecw consist utmost entirely o^ 
cawun. while the belter sorts rulitain a u>i)iid«ri1ilu quan- 
tity of butter mixed with it Cho(.-seoUaineilfri>m skimmed 
ndk. wbkb ocintoins but little buUer, is hard, transludd, 
ydkiwi*h. and lus a irceosy lustre. owiuK to a Hmall >|uantily 
of bullvr which it contains, and which may bti scparaled by 
•ther witlMut sltorine iu properties. When put into water, 
it iwdls and soflcni,liut does not dissolve. When strongly 
heated, it suAcna withiHit melting, may be drawn into 
diread*. aixl beoomea clastic like caoutchouc. At a hiKher 
tcmpcriiiurc. it mi^lts. swdU, burns with lUnie. and yields 
aiumouin. Its compounds with acids and alkalies arc grae- 
rally aiffliUr to ihcac of uncoaguUiod oaseum ; but wh«a 
the acid is remoTed by earbonatoof limei the residual caseous 
maOer, being in a eoairiilali.'d statst is nut diitolrod by 
water, as the unooaeulatcd is under similar ctrcunitances. 
When rlxcaa hasTicen bng kept, it undergoes pecuUsr 
elianccs; «h«a mvnlly ooaxulalod, it contains neatly 80 
Mr cenL of bquid. which iarcmo^-ed by pressing and drying; 
It may tlwo be kept for a lone time, and beconkci more 
agiBoable to the taste. Wbcti chcete has not been carefuUv 
' iliutdifvooc apecitliar kjmlof puUefoclMai aod, 



acoordinR to Proutt, two jubilances, which ho ealli f awaui 
oxide and ejseic acid, are prmliiMd. Brucn]]not Ii9»sinci> ex- 
amined iho subjeci. llvniixedubout 9ouiici)»uf fro»helieese 
fniin (.kirameil milk with nearly i{ pinU of wator, anil euf- 
fer«d the tnuiure to putrefy during a mnntli between 62* 
and 77* of Fuhrt-iilieil ; the urftalcr part tf the ctieosa dis- 
solved, and the soluiiun was Slieml; it lioil a putrid Hmell, 
but eontuincil no sulphur in any form ; and by evnporsLtiou 
to the consistenco of hotioy. it became, after some linio, n 
granular mui. ouu part of which was soluble and anutlirar 
intoluhla in alcohol ; the Utter was dissulved in wnlor, and 
ttiK soliiliun. rendered colourless by animal chari-inl. j iuldcd 
by spimtaiieous evapomtion small brilliant slender cryilars 
in the rurm of rings nndcaulillmwers; but in order torendei 
tlictc white, it was requisite to dissobe and <'rystallri« tbom 
several limes. Instead of cns^ous oxide, Briiconnot ealliHl 
this stibatunei: ajxttepithue (from rinfi and ffyTiMi.. um- 
duccd by putrefai'tion]. It has ilia TtrlloMing ['roperties 
it is inodorous, tasic talbcr hitler, but sDmewliat like that 
of roost meat ; it is ^Ily lielween the teeth, heavier thiin 
water, easily putwriied ; it bunix totally ; tind when healed 
in a tube ojien at both ends, pan subhnies. without suffering 
any change, in slender rrystals ; and another portion is de- 
composed. When heated on silver, it blackens it, on aocount 
of ihe sulphur whii:h it yields. It is sohibli; in 22 pans uf 
water at if rahrenheit; the solution readily pulrefl» and 
exhale* a very disogrocablc smell. In alcohol it U but 
slightly Holutjlc, Imt most reailily to when hot : the solution, 
on cooling. depoMita the agnsepidme in thu slate of a lino 
white powilor. Muriatic ncid dissolves a larger quanb'ty 
tliun water: neither ntum nor pcmulphatc of iron precipt- 
tales the attueous solution ; but infusiitnuf gulls occasioiuun 
abundant prcr.ipitate, which an excess rcdUsulvcs, 

The subsianres conlatiiod in the decayed chcirso. whieh 
the water did not dissolve, were oleic ncid coloured brown 
by an animal matter, a little margaric ncid. much mar^ 
KariLte of limo, the baso of which was derived from the 
limu existing in the caseous Riattct, whilst the acids came 
(Vom the butter. 

It has been obacrwd that badly prepared cheese has 
sometimes, though mrcly, liecome pouunaut by keeping. 
The Rau»c of thi» chance Itts not been aacOTtained. 

CHEESK. Tlic milk i}{ auintnU consists of three dis- 
tinct substances, which are HRpanttcd from one another by 
a slight change, whieh begins as soon a!> it u exposed 
to the air. Tho oily part rites to the surface by its 
len spccillr. graiily ; and when it is culleclcd into n solid 
nias9 by Dgitalton it forms butter ; the curd, coagulated by 
the Dclion of any acid, and protscd, becoravs clieese ; and the 
fluid which n^mnins is the serum or whey. 

In the ranking of cheese there are certain general prin- 
ciple* which arc essential, but slight variatioit.i tn the pro- 
cess produce cheeses of rcry dilTtiiDut (juuliliei ; and 
alihouijh llio moat important circumstance is the naLure of 
the pusturu on which lue covs are fed, yet much Jepcitds 
on the mode in viiich the difirant atogea of the fabrication 
nro managed ; and hence the great superiority of tho 
chcctct of particular di»tricls or dairies over those of olhcra, 
without any uppueul dilTisrviicu in tho pastuio. By 
skill and great etlciitton excellent clieese* arc made 
in places where tho pnaturc* are not contidered ao well 
adapted to produce milk of a proper quality ; and tU thoso 
countries wbeK llw cows are chieRy kept tied up in stalls, 
and aro M with a variety of natural ana srtilirial grasMS, 
roots and vagotnbles, superior cbeesc ts oricii mode. 

The first process in making cheese is to Kparate the 
curd from thu whey, which may be dono by allowing the 
milk to become sour, but the enoese is inferior in quahty, 
and it is ilLflicuU to stop the oetd fcnnenlation and prcrent 
its runninK into the p'.ilrcfsctivo. Vanou* Kubstonevs added, 
to milk will «oon ftepiiniie tho f-urd fVom the wliey. All 
acids curdle milk. MurUbc acid is UMd with suceeu lor 
thu purpose ia llollojid. Some vegetables contain acids 
which readily coagulate milk, such as the juice of the Rg- 
tt«e, and Ihe Hoiv^ r« of the Caiium v^wn, or yellow lady a 
bed siMW, hence colled chf*U-rtt>nft, Where better rennet 
catinol be proRUrcd, they may bn substituted for the mbtt 
natutul curdler of uilk, which is the gastric juice of tho 
stomach of a sucking calf. Tliis iui«o ranidly coaguIalKt 
the milk ss the calf sucks; and the only lufliimliy is in 
oolleoltng and keeping it from putn>fs«lion, which t>.<gins 
from the iturtant the atomaeh is taken ft-om the calC The 



C U £ 



Uf 



CHE 



prefianilion of Iho rennet, n» it u caned, is n most impaitaot 
nnriofihe proce«of sliw-jo-mitking. Thu follgwiri[; rnii)- 
l>e coasiderca U ibo simrlr^ti und pciliajia \lw bu>(. A» 
MOD as a aucfcins calf b killi»1, ttiu Aimsiirh »liiiuM Lu takuu 
out. unci iftbocair 1ia» siickcil lutelr. it in oH Iho belter. 
The uuter skill akuuH tic ncU acrapcil, and ftll Tut uid uac- 
less [Dembrsnoa carofullj removoil. It is onlj iho inner 
cokt nhicli must be prraorvcd. Tlio coopilaicd iiu'lk tibnuld 
bo tflken OKI And cxumiued; luid uny sub&tancu bctidci 
curd fi>und in it jlioxitd b« curcnilly removed. The ecrum 
lefl in it should be prcucd out villi & rlotli. It slioubl tben 
bo n^loecd in the stonuicb vrilb s Ittrsc i|iuiiitity of ibo beat 
salt 80RM! add a, liitJo alum and aM prunella ; oiUura put 
vanous bBrbs and spicoa, witb the yvm of ifiviii^ the chccao 
aix^-uliar Kavour, but tbo pUio uiBpIo inlting u sulQcical. 
Tuv rkjnft or volls, u tbey nrc callcli arc tliun jiut into a 
pni), und onr«rc(l mlHi m tiiluiutud Milutiuii uf t^lt, in which 
(bcf uni bonked for boids haurs i but tburc must be no more 
liciuarlhon will well moiilcn tliu Telia, The)' otv uftcrwurl) 
hung up to dry, a picec of flat wood licin^ put croMwiso into 
each to &ln;ti-b chum out. Thu}' ftbould bu pcrfcctl}' dri«d, 
and look like pu>:biiioat. In tbia slate they may be kept 
in a dry plsee for nny length of Lime, uid ate dwiL; > ready 
for uie, In aome pluces, at tbo time vf luakint; clittDtc, u 
piece of a v«ll U cut olT aud soaked fur meuo Loun in waler 
or whtjt ood lite vhole is added L> the warm milk. In 
oUier placci, piccct of veil arc put into ft Iiiicn ba^ aud 
waked in wiarm water, until Lbe water b»s aci|uin.il b\illi- 
ei«nt ft liou^tb. which 11 prvvcd by tryio); a portionof it iu 
warm milk. The cnothod omplojcd iu Svittzerlaadlisas 
follov*:— A dr7 veil it taken and extuoinctl; it i* Mrapvd 
with a knife, and where any veins or ^lecea of touiib uutoa- 
brano appoitr they ore removed. The i^bole iturfutue i» cs- 
atuiiivd and waihcd catefullv, Lf luiy dust or dirt boa adhered 
to il ; but (.•ibcrwiic il in uniy wiped «itb n cWth. A bund- 
ful of (alt is tbiMi put iulo il, and lb« edgw vf tbo v«U ore 
ft^ldc*! over and locurod witb n vooden okevor aluck tbrougb 
it. In thti itfti^ il fonn* k boO of about tbr«« i&chM dui- 
tnclcr, and i« laid to soak twentv-four huurt in a duh cou- 
tKining about n quart of cl«ar nhey. which hiw b»cn boiK'd, 
and all the curd t^kon out. The next iUy the veil is xvll 
BTfUvcEod, and put into tmh whey ; Ibo lint iufution beins 
piit into n proiwr vessel, lbe **iond i» aflcrworda miiM 
u:th it and bottled for tue. lUlf .-> pint of this liquor of a 
proper eirengib is lufflcient to eurdlo forty gallon* ct milk. 
Experii-noe alone ensblos the doirjinan to judge of the 
ftlntnjfDi of biH rennet : for tliix jiurpoM he l:ik«e in a fljil 
ladle some milk which haw been heated to about 9j^ of Fnh- 
renhtnt and add* a smalt measure of rennet By the rapidity 
wrlb which il eurdlci, and the form of the llaket produoect, 
be knovt lU uxact «lr«ngtb, and puis moro or less into the 
cauldron in whiob the miTk iji boaud for eucdling. A »in>plo 
iiMlTumasL mi^hl eaoily be invented, by which lbe eual 
dogive of strvngtb miijht bu ascertained, and a rule gnsn 
to guide the Ion cxpenenvcO ; but a» lonv ni a man fewU 
auporiority acquired by experii'iice alone, be ia put bkdy to 
otieouroeo any cuiitxivaiiut? which nould \i\aea atbcr» on a 
level with bimselt From ilu>. ejuie oven the thermometer 
huA oat been intioduocd guuetaU}' into any great dairy, nor 
have any certain rules been given k> asoeruiin iImi exact 
h«il requin^ in lbe milk, when lbe reiuut is added, to &im 
the bc-kt eurd. 

There are dlSsr«Dt kinds of obeeeo, aceordiag to lbe mode 
of preparing il : soft and rich cboecOK aro not inlendod to bo 
kept long; hard and drychee«ca are adapted to be kept 
and Bteted tbr nrorisiona. Of the tint kind ore all cream 
oheeu6, ood luoia toft cboetM. called Bath oheewa aod 
YoTkibir« cl»e$«a, vbich are »obl aa toon u madu. aad if 
kept too long beoome soft and putrid. Stilton and Gruyere 
cbeOM are islsrmodiole ; Pannesan, Dutt^b. Cb>eihine. 
Glounstenbire, and ttmilarchMtes, aru iiiK?ii«lml for lunger 
ItMptog. The potwer the cheoM b thu bingvT il wilt keep ; 
aiurall cheew that is well cleared from wb«>- and Eufficiently 
tolled will keep fur yean. The bmal] Dutch clieeoea called 
Edam cheeeet are adminibt)' adapted for kueping, and form 
un iinportaiK article in the rielualling of ihips. 

The Gniycr« and Parmesan obeew^ only differ in the 
nature uT the milk, and in the degree of heat given to the 
curd 40 dilbnMil parUof the procen. Grume rhvne h 
•titinly nude ttota now milk, aud Parmeum rrum »kiinined 
milk. In the tint nothing i« added to give flavour ; in tlie 
katler taSbm givea both colour and Uarour : the proocsa in 



both is exactly similar. A lar^c cauldron in the !>hapo of a 
bull, capable of holding from On lu I'.'O gallons of milk, han)^ 
fniin an iron iiuno oret a huartb where u wuud lire la uiaiiv. 
Thu mdk, having bifun atmined. ii tiul into this cauldiuu, 
and lieui4.>d U nearly blood-bent (9S' to 100"), It is then 
tiimed off tlic Hiu. und tutmc rcnuci, prepared oa ttalod 
uhavc, b iniimatcl)' mixed with the warm milk by vtirriog 
it willl the hand, in which it> htld a tlul wuudun hkinimmg* 
diab, trhich ia turni.-d niund in the milk ubile the hand anil 
arm stir it. A cloth is then laid oiur the cauldron, and in 
half on hour, more or lu&&, lbe coogulum u I'unucd. This 
ia oMtirtaiocd by lireaning Lho tkiuiniiuK-dish un (he aur- 
taae, when llie whey viU a|)i>t'ar on thu pari prested. If it 
ia longer than on hauc in cougulatiu^, the luilk boa been 
too cool, ui the veiinct nut >ltung eu^u;^h. The weather 
b%» a great inttuuuu: on the prucew uf the dairy, uiid therv 
ia much yet to bu luuiicd by aa:uraiu observutiuoa with 
melooroluijical inaLrumeols, csiiocially elect rum el era. When 
the curd u properly formed, it ia vut boriioiilaJly iu thin 
il ices by tlia sumo tkimmiiig-ladlu. Kui;h slice, aa it ia 
taken uff, ia puurud oIohk Iba side oi' the cauldron whieh ia 
noaruat to the uponlor ; by this meoni even- portion of tlie 
curd riaoi sucoutivcly to Uic aurfarc, oui la aliccd ibia. 
The whole it then wcU atinud. und the cauldroa ia tv- 
nlucetl ever thu fire. A long st^', willi a amall knob of 
Lord wood iit thu end, and whiitb hiis amatlcr crou piecaa or 
stieks passed through Iwlw ia il at n^hl angle* to cadi 
otiicr near thu end. la now uaed tu atir und break the card, 
and the heat ia lutNud to about I3S°. whiclt ii aa liat aa the 
oriu can well bear, oven when uiiod to it. The cauldron ia 
again *vun^ off tlte Gre, aud the curd ia alirred with the 
atuif, which u moved ■t>uifl wilb a regular roUUory mutioi), 
the kuuh runujiiti uloiii; Lbe otitic fi^rmod ivith the side bv 
thu hutlum of tiic cauldion, whieb is iu the form of a bowL 
AAer stirtiuK in tbi» monncr nearly an hour, the curd » 
found divided into nmull diea tcbout the aizo of a pee. which 
fbel uluBlic and lathiit toUKb under the Sngrr. Experience 
alone can ti^acb lbe exact f^'cl they ibould iiave. Tbo 
nbey, of which a port4on is remoTcd occasion&Ui', now duata 
at top, and lbe curd ia ooUecled in tbo bottom by giving a 
very rapid rutalory motioa to the contenia of the cnulilivn 
by means of tlie atalf. A elotb it now introduced into the 
bottom, and all the curd cellueted ever it ; it i* rai>«<d by 
the four corourh aud laid en an instnimetit like a aniall 
Udder, which il placed acrow the mouth of the cauldron. 
The vhoy runs out through the Hoth, whiob isaeommoii 
cbecsc-clolb woven witb wide inteniici.'g; and tbo curd in 
the cloth ia placed iu a ^ope or hoop made of a tlie of vrood 
four inehea and a half irido, tbo two end* of whicli lie over 
each other, ao that the diameter can be increased or lessened. 
A cord fixed to one end of the hoop it passed with a Innp 
ovQT hooks oil the outer surface of the other end. and ym- 
Tonta the nns irom openiiiK mere than is required. Ttio 
cuid ii pTMweainto Ibis rint; with tlio bauds, aitd the ends 
of the cloth are folded m-er ii. A round board, two ineltva 
thick, and slrengthuned by t^ress pieces naited Ofi it, is 
pinned over tbe eurd, and tlje press let do^n upon it 

The ehecie-press is a EimpU long board or rruino forming 
a lever, loadad at one end and moving in a frame at the 
otlier ; it ts lifted up by nnnther lever ctjnnccted witb it. and 
lot down on a itrong sticx, which stands viih its end mi 
the centre of tbe board last-mentioned. Thus ihit wuight 
is easily removed or replacod. The Iioou containing the 
cbwae is placed on a timiUir board, and from it tbe table 
uf lbe pmt ibpes loward.s a wooden trouj^b, which lu- 
e«ire> the whey ai it runs oat In an hour after ihi*. tbo 
curd is examined ; the odgas, which are prvtsed over tbe 
ring, on pared uff, and the ^arinxs are put on the centre of 
lbe choeso; a Oreab cloth is tuMtituted, and the whole 
obeese hi luraed. The ring, which opens readily b^ ini- 
hooking tbe rord, ollows the cbct%a to como out, and is put 
on again and tlghlvncd. Thia is repealed two or three 
lime* in the day. In the evening, a small portion of Hiioly 
powdered salt a rubbed on each side of ibe chcctc, and u 
lemaios in the press till Iho next morning. It i* now again 
rubbed with salt and placed on D shelf with a tooec board 
under il. Tbe wooden ring rvmainit on Ihecheese for two or 
three dnys, and is then taj&n offl This i« the whole process. 

During tbe next six or eight weeks, tlto cbecM-s are 
turned and wiped ever; day. and a small quantity uf Itnv 
salt tt itncil un the sorfnce and rubbed in with the band 
until it will take do mors. Tbe eheeae-room is nlwajs rery 



CHE 



^15 



CHE 



cool, and ViiOm lisbt it atlntiUvd, A tma eireutatkn of air 
i$ auaDtiftJ. Tbe chee»M are in perfeetkin in ubout *ix 
■ontlu, and will ke«p tvo j-ran. A aiuniiij^ of ciastie 
fluid k diwiigift*d in the ripeniog. and fonns tbOM ri3und 
wytm wbiob uv k peculiar ftiainra in thoM chases. Tti« 
■ouller and rmAiupr th« «yet. the betUf ihtwcboeu U 
i«cki>n«d. Tbsv ttiotild conlUTi ■ el«ar salt tiauor. wbieh 
is called tlie (ran : «b«n th«B« dry up. the choMe toMs 
iu tlDvour. Th^in pnttirulan will ^e any 'onu itniin- 
quaiittvd with th« riiiir^r a lolvralite tiutioa of th» proeoM of 
ma ea a making in gnfuinil. 

In Cb««hirc (h« roaVmg of cheese i* eairied on in frttl 
pcrbciioii. and the Kreaiest patni are takm to axtraci evurir 

Earti(4« a( whey. Far Ihit puTposp, tfao ourd w npMt^dty 
roki'ii ttnd mixed, the c1i«eMea are nuch pr««s«il. an<l 
nlarMl in woodan )mx«« wkieb have hotos bored into ihoin. 
TfaroushtheulialM sharp tkevers are ituck into the rtie^M! 
ill ovonr diiMlion, u that no partiHn of vtiey can mtnain 
in ih« card. Tha elastic matter fonned alio eacapeib Uirou^i 
tbcie channels, and the whole cheese is a solid nas* with- 
out hnlee. wlmh in this chePM would bolimknd ii|ioii as n 
KTcal dervcU T}ie vilt U intinairly mutt^l with X\k. purd, 
nnd nitt rorrely nibbed on the ouUide. Thia trheckK jn- 
lernnl rcimcntatioti. tnd prevCDts the formation (tf elftxtic 
nalMT. The whole process of chMa»-iniUtinK i» minutely 
^tamibed tn the AgTKtitltin^ /ttport/or Chtuhirir. 

Oleueester and SoraerMUhire eheesea are »iroilaHf noA*. 
■ilh this dilTcroncr, that the curd is not so oTIcn broken or 
the abcac akcwervd, nnd a [tonnn of the cream is generally 
abstrarlwl Iu make butler. After the curd has b)n;n sepa- 
ratol from the wbej and is broken flne. warm water is 
pound over it fbr Uw purpoao of washing out any remaining 
wbcjr. or perhaps to AiMoln anj portion of butter whicn 
mav haTe seMnUd befcce the tennet hud caxeiulatrd the 
miliki fat allMogfa cream wkda \a tBe richnes* of cUucav. 
bunoT iai4» 1» nako H nuicid. 

StihoQjtcMe ia tnado by aildirg the cream of the pre- 
ceding eraning'a rnHk ta the niomtni;'s milking. The 
f-nam ebooU be intimKtely incorjMruted w iih the mvx milk ; 
imt Rttaniaan should bs paid to ttie tcmpcrDiure of Loth. 
aad BBiwh of the quality of the cheese depends on ihit 
parts/ thsfioeeM. To niaku this rbeese In perfuf lic^a, as 
maob depends on the msnatcerocnt of the chtese after it is 
made na on tho richness of the milk. Each dairy-womnn 
haa some prcoliar method which she consiiloTs ns the bcsi ; 
MmI it is certain thai there it the irreatt^t diffcrrnre lictwi-cti 
made in oontiKumti dairies. The rennet obouM Ira 
rpvra and svem. When the milk is coairutated, (he 
~ ' eurd i> taken out, drained on a sioro. and ("QTy mode- 
rately pressed. It is then put into a shape in the farm of a 
ryltodcr, oit;bt or nine inchca in diameter, tho a\i& of whirh 
is lon^r \\m the dinmcu-i of the base. liVhen it is iiiifli- 
nratly firaif ackrtli or tape is wound round it lo ptrvciit 
its breafcinK> and it it Mton a shelf. It i* ocosiionully 

rdcfvd with floor, and planced into hot watrr. Ttm 
the outer coat and faTaurv tha internal bnnenu- 
rhicb ripeiia iL Stilton ebcoc is generally prefunvd 
wfns a Kiem noaU appears in ila texture. To aoceteraie 
Ibis, piGca* of a loouldy cfaeesa are »niotim«s inserted into 
hules Bkade for the purpose by the Koop, called a t<uter, 
and wine or ale ia poured over for the xamu ]iur|>ase : Ijui 
tbe bastcbMsci do not require thit, and are in perftvtidn 
when tbe inside becoioM soft hke butter, without any up- 
' of nwuldinet^ In making vcrr rich diecHs the 
' ami be allowed to nin off slowly, twcauiio, if it »vrc 
' rapidly, it micht carqr off a great portion of the r*l 
of the cheese. This napfmia moni or Icsa in evcrj- mode of 
taaluni; chnw. To collect lh» superabundant butler, the 
<*b«y is set in slisHow parts, as is done v^ilh milk wln-ii 
butter is made ; and an mlerior kind of buller called ukey 
tntltfr is mado from the ercam w fat ikimmcd off. 

Cheese* are fVeqnently coloured, a pToctice nhich pro- 
bshty artM« fnrm Um notion of makiti^* the clieeee look 
richer : but now it dci^ivm no one. Vet if some iJieexM 
v«fie not coburod. tbcy would not be so marketable, owing; 
lo tiie aMOciatiott that lubsiits between the colour and Ihu 
lualily of the clieeso. The tubilaoco used in oolounng it 
Bi0st ciommnnly araotto- [AattOTTO.l It is |irvw>d fine <hi 
■ stone, and mixed with the mdk at tho time the rennet is 
put in. The jtiice of tlie orange earrot, and llw lluwer of 
mary^Id, are alM u^^ for ttii» purpose, 'f bis lost givo ft 
mura oatiiraL itnl llwi the amolto, wbkh i« ltu> red. Obed- 



dor.aclienwmailttin SimeTaetshirfl, which it highly pHud, 
St Jton, DorliT. iiid »on»e ollior rbceaoo. am nevrr coloured ; 
ChnhiretilitltiilT: butGluunsier.indNorthWillchiro'leeply. 
F'orei^ ohcMea are only coloured very sliKhlly. il at all : the 
llutchchoRMit aiamade in avorj- timilnrmanner to the Gtrni- 
cester cheeMs, but tbe milk is generally rurrilod by means 
of munnlic amd or apirits of salt : and |t:TeRl care it inki-n to 
pTDVont fermentation, niul in exti^et llie whole of the whov. 
For thn piirposv lh<- cunl i» repeatdily broken and pressed ; 
and b«[i>TO it i* mxlo up into the round abnpe in whieh It 
it usually sold, the broken cnid n well aoaki^ in n Klron);; 
flulution of common salt in wstvr. Thit diffuMis th» uilt 
throtighmit the wtuite moio. and ril'i-ctiinlly checks fermen- 
talion. When the cheeses are fln-illy jmnwi-il, all the whey 
which nay remain is washed nut wilh the brine; itnit la 
likewise inUwd msr the outside, and they are set to drr on 
sIicItss in n rocil plocA Th« flavour of tho cheese is p^rfinpK 
impanwl by Ihu xtojipnge of llie fbrmeniatioii ; but it never 
heares, and it acquii-os tha raluable ([ualily of keeping nx-ll 
ci*cn in warm climates. Prom the plamt where Ilim rhe«iie 
ix mmmonly mwlc. It in known by lira nsme of E<lam 
cheese. A lliier cheeie is made at Goiidu and other placiM, 
by imitatinj^ tho pmi-ess in making Gruyera cheeiw : but 
this cheese is always full cf smnll cavities, and nirl not knop 
M lone as the Eduin. The chev^e mo»1 cummanly met with 
in Holland U a larire kind of skim-milk cheriv, which ia 
mmk very like Clieiihirc ehee«e. It grows hard and dry. 
and b«» not much llavour. To supply Ibi.s defect, cummin 
Mcds arc mixed vtilh the rurd. which tlimo who are aeni». 
loniwl to il consider .1 great iinpnu-nmont. On the wb<de 
it ii a better cheCM thnn our SufTolk aklm-mtlk chrcw, 
and fbrms an important part of the proTisioni ufually 
itored for a Dutch fnmily. In Franco Ihc Roquefort cheese 
ia es^inpnrwd to our Slilton, but iit much iiilcrior, attlKiuiih a 
Roud cheese. Tbe lililu cheeses made from cream nnil 
fijMod in pnpcr, called Ncufchlliel cheeses, me iiiiporteil 
from France as a delicacy. Tlicy r»n bo cn*ily imiuid. 
lieinK nothing more tlinn cre.ini ihiikcndl by heat, ami 
presset) in asTiuill mi>uW. Tliey undergo a miinl r-hanjrc, 
first becoming sour and then mellow, in whicli stab: they 
luii-'t be eaten. 

A smull cheese, much relttheil by all raiikti, is mndo in 
the north of Oerniany in the simplest manner. It it 
usually n)R<le from milk frnm which the ereem hn* 
been taken off lo make bmtor, — nlthmigh tho entire milk 
is inurh lieltcr. Tliis is cunlled by being placed near a 
Rrc. When it has bocomo somewhat aour. it is put into n 
linen ha^, and all ihe whey welt prosMil ouL When il ii 
lolcntbly sotid. it ia broken by the band in a tub, and mado 
very fine. Il rcmnina in this sialo Mvcral days, until a 
coiTsiderablc alteration takes plsee, and the putrid fer- 
mciitatinn begins, as ia rfiadiiy perocired by the 4dour. 
It is then taken in small {KrHiona, and fmncd into 
Astlened balls three or four inches in diameter, bv beut- 
ine them in Ihe hands. Tbcso balls art renged on a 
bonrd. nnd eel lo dry. A portion of eerraway seed ia gene- 
rally mlTccil with the curd. In a few days the mettmring 
sotm uu, and the centre bcoHuci vny sofU In this state it 
is n ercat dainty fit those who disregard a punfjcnt antl 
fcdd iinell. They are sucDctiuies placed iu tlw smuke ol a 
cbiiiiiiey irhere Ihc putrid furmcntaiiou it checked and con- 
(tiicr) to Ihc centre by the p^rulisaeoos acid nnsiog from a 
wood lire. Tliey reroiiiii in the chimney a conHdetable 
tune ; and whun they are ttsett tho outer port is pvelod off 
bko the rind of an npido. A whole cnc<e»« b a mcrv 
nii^uthfuL It gives a rvliib to Ibe eour block tto broad 
generally ealcn »y Ihe t»wor orders. 

Ttie green Swws chMse, commonly called ScAtibzieger, 
whj.h is made in tho cattton of Olariu, and is by many 
pcrwns highly cttceined, i* mode somewhat in tbe sumu 
manner. Tiie curd is pccsMnl m boxos wiUi holes lo let the 
vliey roil out ; and when a eonsidcrablo qiuntily li«a Iwcn 
eoll«ct«d and putnfaetMB b«Kins, il is workol mio a puatv 
witb a lant« ])n>portioa of a ovrlaiit dried htrrb reduced lo 
powder. This herb, cslleil in ttic ciHiiilt^ disleot Ztr/ctr 
Itrouf <cur«l-li«b>, il the AMiJotut f^ina/i*, vtiich it very 
eotnrain in most Muntnes, and hoi a pccubar anHoatie 
(Uvour m tb« niounuins of Switxerland. Tbe pane thus 
pro>k(-«d is pre<w<iil into moulds of Uui stupe t4 ^ mmraon 
itt)H< r-[hit, anil iho pull'cWlion beiO;.' slopped by tbo aro- 
II13II0 httii. It dnci mt>) a niiii Q|.;aS> winch ki>«p« un 
ckaugL-d for any leogth of tinui. When uied il b na|a-d 



CHE 



16 



CHE 



or ser&ped, und thopAVil*v mixed with (Vesh haOei is (Mtiid 
t])>oii bwiuL It ia either muefa nlUlted or much dislikeo. )ik« 
aII llioBc ■ubi>tsnc«« whicb linv« a pooulur la»l« knd tmvll. 

A Mfioei^a of choiiAe or ra(h«r hard ciird ib mada in lli« 
inouDUiafl or SwiiuirUnd from iLa wbA^ which hu run 
Jilpm the eomraon cbecM mtulA of the ivhol« milk. It ii 
fMl«il ^efra. When the Oniyera or lh« Jtim clieMO. which 
i*o{l«n aotil hy (ho eamo ntirao, hu bcon put under ih« 
pnw, & qiiantitv of feroutnlod wlicy, itbout two or thr«« 
fpillon*. ii poured into the ekuidron with the new whey, and 
llie whole is hoat«d ov«r tha in till ft thick ^cum rises. 
This is taken OlT wli«n Iho whojr b n«Brly baiUnf^, nnd ]>ut 
into a aqtiRro box with holc« in it; the whey trhioh r«^- 
maincj mixed mth the <<ur<l, and which is now very blue, 
is kllowed to run out, and i srnnll prcs^uro nssistt it. Wh«n 
A chMfie of iixty poiindu has b(>cn made, lb* *orrA will oftt'n 
weigh twonly pound*. Thitmaaiof curd rcitdily driet on 
the tbeir, and liecomes bard. It has tittlo Hnrour, but it 
Mnwa ths pwplo «n th« rooiintitin« fivr broad. Tb«y cut 
iiiion of it, fcpreod tome Inituir over, and put a thin iliou of 
i<rtee*e upon this ; wuUed dawn with a eup of f>»Bh or of 
tcrmenl«d whoy, it fbniu tho chi«f lood of the mmintain 
hon]«meii. Tht nnly luxury iiitluluud in la an iicciuiiunsi 
gluM of kirat^-tfotMr, a iplrit di^iilled from cherries, ar of 
geniinn brandy, from the root of tho Gfntiana opfcirialiM. 

When BcheL-sp which hnsbooamucb uJtcd and kejit vory 
dry is wa«hod wvonil time* in tofl water, and then lm<l in n 
d'lili mnixtoned with wine or vineg&r. it gradually losoi ib. 
Mlliieu, and froat bein{[ hard nnd dry. booonm tuft and 
mellow, prDviiJcd it bfl a rich t;hee*o. This simple muUiud 
of iRipmvinff eti«c*s fi worth knowitii;. It is jtenerolly prac- 
tited in Swiiierlind, where cheeses ara kept slorud fur many 
year^ and if (bey w«re not viiry talt and dry they would 
nan b« the prey of wurni* and mite*. A dry Stillon chcuw 
nay tlnii bu much imptuv'ed. 

Tho ehe««e trade isoneof ennsidsnble importance 

CHRESE-RENNET. a wild tl^wer wiih aquan ateins. 
chininf; whoilvd Ivsivm. and Lxise panicle* of small yellow 
tlowers. it w the Oiiliiini vrrum of bolunisut, and derives 
It* pijpular nnnie front hnviti^ b<-vn fonnvrly employed to 
curdle milk. 

CilKlLI'NUS. [LAEttorDii.] 

CII KT LO DA'CTVLUS. a genus of fisbw. of llie loction 
AtanSiiojHirriii;ti, and family i^drii'iidea. Cliaractera r-^ 
iBoulh ininU; dorul An with nkinitiruu» spiny raja; luwer 
rays uf tlw pectoral fins simple uad cuntiiiueil bcyouil iliu 
mesibiaDe. 

Chnlodortylus tnonodictyliia (CfiiBlodtm monoitaclf^iiu, 
Carmicbovl : Linn. Trantwiiam. vol. xii.). will nerve tu illuv 
irnte this tfvnuK. Thii fbb is abaut eighteen inches in 
leii^lth; the body n somewhat oval and compressed; th« 
leeth are amiiU nnd cmwildd : llic pcctural An is \axige, and 
bus fifteen ra)*. tUti six lower of wiiich are simple and pni- 
(luile beyund the membrane ; the sixth niy from t^e bottom 
is very niucb elongated. The colour i> oii*c, or bronze, 
with six dark suipcaon tht> back : tho fins are blackish, with 
the exception of the peclorala, which ate amber -cohiurcd. 




tChpiladMl]Fles BaMid>MTtn.l 
This spceies ii wnr eanmon on the «»*t of the stnnll 
ici&nd of Tristan da Cunha. and feeds upon thfl Jucut pyri- 

ffTtti. 

CHF.IIXtlH'PTKKUS (Ue^de), a penus «( fishes of 
Iho »eftvin /U^nlhopttriigii, and family Pereida. Teeh- 
nicol ehiira:Ciera : — B«dy rather »hwt ; pre-opereulum 
donUle-edKcd, the cdgctf finely «errated ; kkIcs largtt, wtily 
di«lodK«<l, oontioued on to the prfsopemtlum ; the two 
donat (Ins widely separated. 

Thfi chuaet«i« bent detaLikd ue thow of tbe genus 



Apafion, from which the present gmVA differs cbicflv is 
hnvinR tha jnws furnished with leni; and pointed l«vth. 
But thtoo spceie* of Cheilo'liptcru* are known ; they an 
all ef trasll sice, and fumiihed with slender lonitiludinal 
stripe*. C. oc-lo^jltalut. be in name implies, has ei;;ht 
Stripes. C. jtanqtifiineaiiu has five lanpn'udinni blark 
stripes, the ground colour of the body bcin)^ advcry white: 
it IS about four inciies in length, and eomet from the Society 
IfilandB. The third species. C. Arabfeus, is of an olive itrcen 
colour above, and has tbe under parU ulvorywith a pinkish 
htm; this tipecius has from fourleen to »«%•«» teen longitu- 
dinal stripes. 

As an example of the genus ApoRon, of nbteh (hero ara 
several snccip«, wo may nbtiro the Apofpn, Jtffx Mullorum, 
or R»i dcK RfiugeU (Cuvier): thi« (pc-ries rarely exceeds 
six inches in length, and is of a beautiful red colour wnh 
three large black spots on the back : one under each of the 
dorsal fins, and one townrds tli« tail ; the whole surface is 
oIko Kprjnklvd with Kinall black doiii. The remaining specios 
are aUo fiiiiall, and mo4t of ihecn are af u red colour ; a few 
have been found off the coast of New Holland, but most of 
tht<ni frequent tho Indian was. 

CHEIRtXJA'I.KUS. f I.iwuridx.1 

CHEIRO'MELES. [Ciiaiuvpntm.] 

CHEl'KOMYS (ZooloKjj. the tcicntifio naiae for tlie 
Ayo-Aye, a sinj^uUr (|uadriip«d (which mm not be con- 
founded with lliu Ai. or Stolh [Ai], from which it fcry 
stron^'Iy diffiTS in organ iiu I tun. thouf^h ila habiu ata liiy), 
difirovered by Sunnerat at Madattaicur, and described by 
hiin in [he seciind volume of his 'Voyage aux Indea,' under 
the nmnu of Aye-Aye. which, it nppoars. is an exclamation 
of the natiTea : and il i;^ conjeeiunMl that the name was at- 
tached to the animal in conae({uonee uf n KUppojed t^Mtio- 
btance (o il» cry. Sonniiti. who formed the genus, obs>>rvmg 
that it is the only spccii-s known, censures Gmolin witR 
Boiacroahon for ilenoniiiiaiiiig it Sciunu JUadag<urunfHti$ 
(MidngnHcar Squirrel), hoc^ausa a quadruped of tbe lallor 
genus runlly cxUta in Madagaaear. Cuvier sJnees the (bna 
next to the YljiOft Snuirrols, PtOatomdut (i>/«ramy«), and 
iramedinlety before the Rats (jV/tir. Ltnn.), mDark'tnf[ that 
ilio lower incisors arc much moru cuEnpr«ised, andosptrully 
more exundrd from before backworht, than those of the 
■ouirrcls, and rewinhlo ploughshares (sms de chirnie^ 
The feet, he iddi, h^kve all llvt.- loos, uf which four of thoM 
on ciach anterior exiremitv are elutiLraled, the middle loe 
bein;( iiiucli mure slender than the others; in tho hind feet, 
tbe great toe is op|)usable In tho others, so that in Ibis re- 
spect tbe animal U among the KodnnCs what the Opossums 
(Bariguos) ore among the Carnassierii. The slructnra of 
the tiesd, he oontinues, is rery different from that of the 




[SkuSst ArrAjo. 
other Rodents, and has more relation to the Qiuulrunmna. 

Dental formula : mcisora, _: molars, -^^ = 16. 
2 3 — 3 

Sonnerat uys that the Aye-Aye, which i* found chiefly 
if not cxclutirely ou tbe western part of the iUond. da«s 
not approaeh any pmus, but that it leans towards lite Maki, 
the Sijuirrel, and the Ape. Its larj^ and flat ears, be oh- 
sanes, resemble much those ofa bat ; ami states that Ha prin- 
cipal eharaclor, and a very singular «no it is is tho mtddle 
toe or finger of the fore foot, the two last joint* of wbioh ue 



I CHE 

^I^Bh long, hleitilor. and dcniidci] of hair. TliU mcmo^ri Hi) 
^^^|h, is Vieta\ lu it in dr^twing worm« out of holes ia ih^ 

lolbe trdnchfis of trees. Hcutyi ihit ii appran tn l)e t 
tubUmncan anin>al. and docs OOt mc durint; iho Axy, and 
cU&t its eye rc«cniblei in colour that of tbo owl. He do- 
icribei it u beuiK nrj iluthful. but piod Iciupcrnl. ra- 
nuniag klvajrt at it»t and requiring a Kuod dt^ of obaViiii; 
to inakc it loov-c. The subject of hu obtervations lived two 
taontlu upon nu olhor nouTibhmont tban cooked rice and il 
Ted itself witli ill tvu flngcn tike the Cbiane vith ibcir 
chopsticks. All llui tiiDB M. Sonwrot bad tln-i aniinni 
BliiiV,boDercrHw it cam- ita tail eleraied liaetlic squirrel. 
It ilwaj-a dra^Eod. But BuSon's flgure. or rather ihat of 
tke SuppUncnt. wis Ihc tail up, mtwiihttanding (ho ob- 
■erfatioft in tliu tent. 

BoKju iSit/ijiiemefit) ilatei. that Iw eumined th« tki'n of 
ocH wtuch Souncrnt gava k> lb« Cabinet du Roi.and lUutit 
BMRarod tu him la approach tha squirrels more than any 
atb«rr>£c;3iidal»utauearsomon;latioii tolliL-Tonicr. Th« 
louKtli of the aiiimati raeutircd ia a tUaJKliI line from thi; tip 
of the Riuzzic tottM in Mir lion of i\k tail, vai one fool, two 
inchn. two litieH (French), nod followiiii; the curvature of 
iJie budy. Mtefiii4 lix inolies and »ix lines, and t1io Ictii^h 
flftlte Munip uf tbe bill was one fcot thrco iiicbcM. In the 
anierMT cxtrotuitics. the lon^Eth uf ttiv inlemul flii)^r. wbHi 
acts in 'uinu: tnuaiurc a» a thumb, vat one foot one line, mid 
the n.nil nix Itittii i Uie nvM fiii^f-r, or tint flayer, two 
iikIm-* nin« tinc^, nnitlhu nail mi liue* ; the xccond, ithiich 
ii nucli more dilicala and blender, beint; only one line in 
thieknen. was two inches nod aei'cR lines Ion;, and ibv 
niil ibree lines. Tlic ihini finger wa» throe inches, two 
linn in Imatb, and ihc nail nix Tiuei. TIw fourth tinker 
WAJi Mxm uuili, nina lines, und tbo nail six lines. Ttie bind 
ftfct tntlicMiniiiily of the dn^en wero tbiee inches aiid 
l«r) liiMs lod^. This woft ot fcfaalc. 

s (be eulgur as a niuik brown mixed with 

Kr«7-aslj. Otl the hood, round tbe eye*, on the 

!■- ~,nd logs, the culour wu deep niusk, 1:1 which, 

' Wk prodoininaU-d upon the back ai>d muny 

.. i'>dyandlc^, Tbo luU was enlirely black ; 

> Iff ilir heud. ibc necks, tlic jiw, and the belly 

. yAi. Tliere were trouAly hain uf this g:rcy oilour 

litu eroat bUek or white hairs, of two or ibreu iiirhc* 

which were on llic body and loi^; but the legs and 

tkifrli* wcrv of a r^1hli*h brown. Black prodominaied at 
tb* afipnmdi of lliu fnt, whirl) were oovercd with tmall 
lu^itul that culour. Tlio hi'ad wiut like iliut uf a srinirrel, 
%'ii the rar^ Inrgc. Daked, erect, and round at Uieir exuc- 
witli B wide opening. 




{CWUoaiM HHlatuc<n>iuH>| 

Tbfa Ulnul ia llw J^f-A^f H^uirrei of Fennattt Shaw 
sohIIhW it t9 be a ip«de4 uf Lemur, and ScUreber naiood 



Jit terror pt^oetactylut, a name adopted by Skav. Oar 
fixture \f. reduced from tliac ijivori by Sutinerat. 
CHE1R0NECTE3. or CHlHONECTEiJ '<Marama. 
li?Vy)i IHiKur'a naui« for a genua uf Monuiiial animals. 

[Dl.*yil.PHlD-K.*l 

CH'.HIRO'PODA-t. CHEIROPEDS, ananie propoaed 
by Mr. 0,i;ilhy for all tbg maminifcrouB sninmU tbul ara 
posa«s«d 0.' nundi. Tlic folhnring is on abatriLCt uf Mr, 
Ogilby'* tttran^tuBot ofhtsCheiropeds. 

ClaM - - Mainiualla. , 

CJ^dcr - - Cbeiropoda. 

MammaU with opp.'Mable thumbs on tbo 
untohor extremities oolj" • • - - Himana. 

Onbflihnnioriornnd )io«J'''xiur oxUomitics, Qiisd/uinann. 

And with snthrupoid icelh. 

-^■^^— abnormal t«eth, 

Jjnnuridtv,* 
On the poAteriof extrciuities only - - Pcdinianii. 
And with anthropoid teeth. 

Monkqft f^tKeHao ff'orld. 
■■ ' rodent tcelh, 

■- — ■ — ■ abnonsU t«ih, 

Obsemttiofis.COTiiinuticc<) in Itii'Janilmntn^ucd for mors 
than six yeflT», have auurcd tbiv iuu1a|iist t.\u the non- 
op[NMablu ehoraeter of iha innt-r flnoerof tho avilcriorcx. 
tremili^s. which Iw (Irst remarked in Myetlet Stm.vultu, is 
not coiifinvd to that genus, but extend* thn>uglioui the 
whole of the nenera of the South American nunlkoyi, 
individuals of all t>r which have, he itatet, bevn seen by him 
in n hting stole. In none of them. coiisuqu«nily, liu ub- 
Mrves. liueii a Iruo thumb exist on tko aiilcriur limb^ ; %nd 
ho eontidcM that it folluwt as a further euuMNjuviice that 
tbu whole of thvra have been hitherto ineDfrecily referred 
to the Quadrumtuta by zoobgtsts generally. He speaks uf 
D Axnra's rentark, ihiit the nnloriiir eitn'iniUos of lome of 
the i]wries ulisennl by him hail livv fincers, orit^truiting ori 
ih* same hne with each utber. hk a mjlitury vxtyptimi, and 
as having been either unnoticed Ly othrr aull]iir», or Id 
have bwn considered us unworthy uf attention, ui entirely 
were they at variaiie^e with ih-a pn>coneeivcd nuiioTw of all. 

As Mr. Ogilby's views on Ihit *.iil<ject ilitTer Trutn itioee 
of utlier WDlogiOs, and a|ifMMir to be the nntull ot uiueh 
attentive exannnalion, principally made on the tning nni* 
tools, we proceed to give ihi,- t.ub4tanc« ef hts ' ubuni alions 
oil Ihu opposable power of the thumb in certain «t<urimaf«, 
cutuidered as a toologiraJ cbaracler; and uti the n.iiurjd 
affinities which tubsist between tbe hinuma, Quadrumana, 
and PnUmana,' aa wt forth in the abatrsel of that paper m 
thu* Procaedinffs of the Zoological Society of London,' read 
on Ihc Uh of March, 183t. 

'Of the eight natural genera which inehiite all tha known 
ntonkejs oTlne western henusphete, one, Attlet. i> eniiielj 
iluslituleor H thumb, or has tliat member existing only in 
a rudinwnlar}' form beneath I1k> skin. In flveoUiers. Mif- 
eelM, Lagnlh'rix, Aalut, l*ilAeria. and Hapalt, (he anterior 
thumbs riMing the ordinary cipreasion foi them) are placed 
alisnlutrly on tlie ume line with the other fingttra, are of 
the utne form with then, net imariabty iu the <aiiw direc- 
tion, and are tulally incapable of beiiiR opjiutMl to Ihem. 
In Iha two remaining genem. Ctbu* aud Callif/irix, Ilia 
exitvratiies of the anturior linb( have a greater external 
reMmblann.' tu the bands of man and of tlw inoi)ko\-s uf 
ibe Old World: tbe inlenud Inger \» placed farther back 
■ ban the gmenl line of the other flogen, and baa. on tliat 
aecount, when suptTficially luiticsd, the sembtanoo of being 
OMnaed to ihcm ; but. as b«s been correctly ob«erved by 
D Aura, with roferenoe to Cuf. topvdntu, it Is lets sepa- 
rmtad tban in man.- it is. beiidos, of precisely ih« same 
slender funa with the rest, ia weaker than iliom, absolutely 
without power of opposition to tbeta. and habitually oMa in 
the same direction with them. The impTMuau derived 
froto conmnplating the hands of the Old World monksys 
might indue* the telicf that tho cxtrcmiucs of the Ctbi sa 

• N.n. CJUrMMttid'hllinlMy} U\ba Dinr idoiiUil lif Cuijar Be a 
■(•la it Aciiatlwpl<T|ciMi> {Aiini-*ri'i at fr-m.mmam\ tMnHlunt turn* 
tt i1m» flibH pwoliili LouvD natti ibr nun* ..T ^a^ri. Thli lUT be 
ibtuaaMOTHMiiiHi UiUi In lb* bMi«i ud llu rndn.kOi Uii i)iUBa«IU# 
liMMdMa iheidilliaduAcnL 



t Xi^.sluttd) WMI.sboL 



K*. 405, 



(THE PENNY CYCLOriBDlA-Ti 



NoA-N'a.^'^ 



CHE 



IB 



CHE 



fa* 




lirailarly constituted ; but if the knowledpo that in ifve*iet. 

Pitktcia, &c., thvra an? no opjimsblo Timtiib;*, kads to a 

cloM obsenallon uf the anleriur oxirctuitit-s uf tho Ce^t, it 

will Iw Ibund ibai tln-'y do not ai-'t ok handft, aiiJ (■aniiot ba 

contiditrctt av pasttouinj; Utu poweri of iJirn,* orgtirw. Frr^u, 

innumeralik ob«rvaiignB of many ipudiiit of ilial ^cnu-s 

Mr. O^lbyHitet that it was very efidont, notwit j^taiij ■ 

Ing tb« fallaciouM apiwantnco occnsionod by (he faackwuid 

poiitioti of the orgau. that th«y hud tint thu oowcr of di»> 

posiug the tliumbs \a the othCT Bngew in \ii,. ,^1 of prrficn- 

■ion ; and, in fact, tbcir principal powtif oT nrelieiision aeems 

to be allogeihoi indftpeiKltnl «r iW t^.^,m\,_ for. Kcuflrally 

speokiinf, that member wa* n..t bro<:,ght ij,to actiwi at all. 

at leut not ■imultaiieoiisly wiib i\,c other linger*. Wt hutig 

tooaely on on« aida, as Mr. O^jjlby has scitii it do, iti like 

dranmtance*. m tlie OpMrt-ra/, PAaJangert. and other 

an»rii»l Atammtih: mharj actually brouglit into play, hw- 

«wr. ilw thumb of the Cebi iavari^y B«ed in llw •amc 

direction u the oUiw ar.jjort. CrfcM ounM<|acutU asrw* 

i» the clmrtctCT of nofl-opuoBablwicss of tliwul^ with the 

near y alhw! g»&«9. And in this hitherto uniuspccltd 

pecubunly loofoglm ofelain a fai more imiK-rUnl chwactei 

52 which to dating -uiil, the inoukcj. of ih« OU ana New 

World than that 1 jdinrtc rulitd on. tlie cvnipataii^o th.ck- 

*'ff * 1 J I T^' *"" "«"'«•". or ihuii tlio Bcgobtory aiilt 

aUbraod by the abscncu of chock-pouch** and rnllonitics- 

■**""^««WTdi 'jgioMr.Ogilby.MtLcnionktYiof Amema 

. . _ BOW use Q oacvrtaincd to uu duBtiititc <il aiitviiut liuude, 

they can he, tiolongwr indudod aisotiK (he QmtJruma/ia ; 

and boP''jpoMa, in canMqusn(»> to rfgarJ ihcm at, Ptdi- 

muiW. 'He cocuders that the latur acncii, the iDoiik«)K ol' 

AncnCA, form a group pomllcl Ut that of tho taoake) > of 

thoO'jd World UBon^ tliw Qtuidmmmvt: and vinitiiLtc tlio 

Qraadfumatta m OMUUluig vf t«u ptiiuary xfuups, tliat of 

vrbioh Si'mt'o fbnu the If fw< Mtd lli« Lcmurida, h« proceed* 

to analyze the /MinoiM, in order to dctcrtiiiuc wheihuc any 

group Bualweua to the Ixmura sxici* iti it. llv Qiids »<ivh 

a fRWft in tM nnwiation of tW fcvoera IMdelyhiu, Chtinf- 

tutttn, Phatongutu, Petauru4,attd Phatsviurcto* (togetlicr 

with a new Kenua, Paffudodiinta, which he hiu lauiid it luicve- 

am-y Id MnaratefroiD PAafaiif^fea««t prwentcunvtitulcd}; 

and fur this afwciation he uaea lfc« oanw of Viiielt/hida, 

Awaio that ih« mudiGiutiona otawrvabU in tl'v dvolsry 

ayttema of theac Miicral genan kavo been regaiJcd by 

many Kwliifri»u <u betokening n diiTerviwi: of ivKiinbii. 

which had led lo their being viewed u i-vaatiluting Qistinct 

faindioa, he. in the Snt daDe, iteies. na the leault of bii 

obwrvazian of the liahita or the Duoaarouf ii|Koie» of all tlwae 

Bvncra which ha>e been, fion] Umv to liniv. exhibit eU it) tbe 

Sivii-ty'» ifanivns. that there i« Uttle or uu dLfiurcncv, in this 

rvapt-i^i, between the Qpt^tumi and PJuilui'f(ers, but that 

all areequally uianiv'uruut ; and ihca proceeilt to diicux the 

nodifloations that cutl among thein iu the numbar and 

form of the tenni kind* U loeth, which aio not, in bis 

eMimaiion, so very dilTeiunl in reftUty between the Oponuni'i 

and PhaUngert a» ihcy appear to he at firji »i|[ht. lii 

funber j.upp(jrt of hia cpinion that thu *«»ociaOon of Rcnera 

fonn» n uiitural family. Mr. Oyilby wfere to the gradual 

«nd unintenuptcd traniilion from tho naknd-iirohciiwle- 

tailcd Opoititvu oC Svuth America, through the equally 

naked-tailMl Cowacoiu, Baiantta, of thu Inilnui I>1», to thu 

lrt»e Phedaantn; and from lb«a« to tlu- Pelauri*1* directly 

on ihcvna band, and, by tneons of ibo PtmJoc/teirt, to tlio 

Jioata4 on the other. 

' On the prehensil* pown of tho tail Mr. Ogitby particu- 
Wli* inaiila, M «a a faculty puatHtWed by the i;TeaI«r number 
of Lbc /ValnnoRa. and a* wte which i». iu tntth, almocl con- 
fiiKd to then : ttuly turw known genera belonging to other 
groupN SyitelAerai. Mffr/ntctphaga, and CtrcoUplea. buiax 
•ndowed with it. He rcinnrKs on Ihia faculty a* on om* uf 
conaidenblp importance, albrding >• it dom, in some d»- 
groB. ■ compciit-atitfu for tho dbMucc of o)>jN«nLl>! tliuub* 
ou tix: aiil«rior hmbs. UorolMR<.-d wiib tbc pnOicniito tail, 
in every knowa inaunce. nlMtber imvnf the patUmana or 
in other ur^ups. ia a alownow and apfurent cautiousuosA of 
noliun. not abaorrablc iu any of the Quudridmana, cxeapt 
in the Nf/cttoebi, In none of tho Iruo QuudnmoMa ia the 
tail preiieruilo. 

' Anotlier evidence of the dUlim:tno«i, as two grottpi^ of 
the Quadrumana and the Ptdimmn, a furnithcd by their 
geeKiaphicul dtMnbulioii. Thu Quvdrumaua are xiriclly 
confined to the limits of the Old World ; tho Pt^mana 
shiLOst od eicltt&ively to the Mew WotU ; foi Mr, Ogilhy 



coniiid«;^ the continent of Australia to belong more jiroperly 
^^.merica than lo .\*iB. Tho vcr)' few apparent L-xevp* 
H'tins that occur to lhi.i luller jiiMilinEi are in ihe presence of 
soma epccies ut' Ph^Umgrra in thu Wk rlium of i*lanila 
tliAt connect tho aout 1 1- eastern shores of Aela with the 
north' ca^t era eoiut of Australia; islands wliirh may, in 
truth, be fuitly rvgunlei] a» bcloneinir partly t') tho one and 
pnitly tothu uihor, and t}ie {irxlucudiia of tvhidi mliiht con- 
fCqUGDtly be expcclod lo p.irtako of ihc chamcler uf both. 

'Mr.Osilby subsoqucnilv aJverts lo nnotbet PtJimimiiHi 
animal, the Aye-.iyr of Mida^a»cni', conslituiing the genus 
Cheirom\fS; rtim-ctitij; the ;Lflliii(ios of which he ii])eiika 
with hoMtation, Vecausc. having cicvorhad an upponunity 
of cxamiiung the animal iticlf, he ia anjuaintud with ru 
churaclersonly at arcund hand. He is. huwcrcr, ditpoved 
to regard it us re prenu tiling a third ^ruup among the Pntf- 
mana, to bo placed in ii station intt'rincdiati) hetwccn the 
J/onAfysorthcNew AVorld and the Di<^lp&idx, Willi the 
latter hv would, in fact, be disposed to asMciatc it, vera it 
not dc&titulc (;f the inarhupinl rhaTactur wliich hctmiga to 
all the other ttniiualH coniiirimd in that KToap. In some of 
tho Diddpkidai, tlic Pfmlansera and Petauri-tls espedally. 
theiv 'a a marked approximation to ihi;! lodcni form of 
inciiior teeth which iittuina ia C/trirom]/*, and which has 
hitheito been regarded as UBpccially aitacliiiig to it an 
abnormal character. 

'Man is the only other nnimtil furnisliod wiih haiitls: 
nnd honevurdikliiicl ho may be aa rcKurds his moiul ntid 
intoUeeluiil po^^en, ho innnl, xouluj^iLvtlly, he considered on 
physicd grounds. By his (.uuctuial characlera he becomes 
n»t)ciatcd with all thoac of which mention has prminualy 
been made in Mr. Ogilhy's communicatian ; although liu 
uitqualionably eoiixtitutcs among them a pccuhar group, 
sensibly ox&lU:d abuw Ihu luat, as well as obovc all other 
Sfofftr/iaJa.' 

CHRIROPTEUA' <Zootogyl, tho name of a natural 
fumily or diviiion of mamini^rou* anitiiRli ; the tiata or 
FlitUrotice, of the Engllth ; FtetkrvtUwnrr of the Ger- 
mans ; F«/>erfi7ione»orilio Latins; PitMirelU and A'of- 
Uili of tliu jtnhans ; C/iituve-siiaru of liio French ; for we 
affreenith ibcHV roalogitta who arc of opinion that Ualeopi' 
rA«fu^, which, taking lie organization and hnbitt into con- 
sideration, can hardly bo called a bat, should ho rather 
referred to the LemunJte than to this family, though iu 

f'lacv among created bcintfi U, as yet, hardly agreed on, 

The animals then which we considor to belong to tht* wing- 
banded family arc tho»c which vould come under the genus 
fietpeiiilio of LinmcuN. They all have the forully of aus- 
tained Hight, and Ihoir on.-aniEntion and habit* pQiiil them 
out as a sopiirute und weU'defiue<d group, dislmguished by u 
folding extension of the mcraViartous akin, which, rising 
from the tides of tho Devki ia Sjpiuiiid between Ibeir fure-fcct 
and their fingers. 

OBCANIIXTtOS. 

Skdetou. The ^U is (bin, mU there is « mukcd dif- 
frrcnco Uttweeti thai of the ao oulicd frugivoruus group 
tPiffCBUM sad CtfJtalfiUr) and the true or iiitrctivurous 
Bau, FenvTiiiitMiittf oT Gta),(tni lonaar tni/tg mueh luon: 
oloiigatcd than the latter, l^c bouy tfrUmum, so sirongly 
devcliKicd in the tnajorily of the cuniTora, is ontinrly ab- 
nciit ; but tliere baoonaidemlile development of the auditory 
pLirliott of tlio tempoml bona. Hie occipiuil bono is re- 
markably narrow. The supotor oMxillMy ia very much 
elongated, portioulnrly in tL« ao coUod tnigivunnis order, 
ii term which we voiud (Awiigv for uinnivmuus, Sur Uieir 
noil ilevelupod aWp L-aniM». Mul the emiciuti' uf some of 
their other teetbt would aocoi to be iuor' trunchont than 
&uit-caiing habits alone wuuld mtuin: : and indeed Cuvior, 
in the laat edition of iho ' lUgue Animal,' Miys of the 
genus PUropua, ' tbcy lire prtneiuully od frutt, of which 
they destroy ftSBMt (Uol; but tinr know, ncvcrtfaekss, 
how to pursue mnb ami amoU guMiufeds." and wc tl^nnk 
it highly probable that ihej necHioMlly piey on tlie large 
inneoti which are fbund in tke dinalo* thay iulMbiu All 
tlie (kmily li&ve four grc«t canine tc«Ui. hut ibcce ia con- 
sidcrmUe difference between tlie molun of the frMit-ealii 
Koclion and of that whose diet ia eonflned euUrvty to ii 

the crowna »f tho fiunur boin^ compantivcly blunt ' 

hullnwed out or groorcd lengthwise, while those of the latter 
are shorter and shuper, ud b«Mt with powls. Tite uulia 



* ;i;MfiahM<iMdm{iV, siris^ 



^m 



CHE 



f& 



CHE 



•njfia numlter In the dJITcrrnt g«ncnv, the smnllftst He- 
vriopineTit beini; three in *nrh jiw, and th« large*! five 
ftbdre uid tix boloir, or vie* veni. Th« inciiton set in llie 
■inall utd «hnn Lntermaxilliiry bones varv ati» in iho diflcr- 
eoi K«nani. Tbe smBlktt number in the uppor jaw i* two. 
ami the lofKeit four ; tlio iraalluKt number ii oJsq tiro in tbo 
I'lner j&ir, an<l ihe hirgest tix. TheuZ/otisuf I'onHiilcraMe 
jiiM, but th# dfiti'itii is not large. Ttic yrcakut iiumlier of 
the itoftal vruhrfir it twelve, llie timiilleiit tlevon. Tlie 
canal for iho tpinal chonl i* UrRC in tlic-M wrlelitw. The 
tumbar tfrtebrts vjry in number ; the sraaUest number i» 
four, tho br^tt eeren. Tlie ctta caecygit an ilvndsr and 
clouf M«<I : iHcJr use ceeios onlj to bo tu aubt (KOiiiewhat 
llk« a sjtKtit) in ipriMulinn llie inlerfoiuoral parliou o( 11m 
memlinuies. bv tlie itl<l of whieh Ibe ininiii HUlt in the 
nlr: their sm.illef't nauiber is six. and their brtfvattwelro; 
A>r til the miijofiiy Ibn tail rxtenils to the niarftin oriho 
Hivmljrani', whiln in lomc it [>n)trudei WjuinL it. anil in 
olhvn ii 'low* not teaeli more than halTvit}'. In Pterojitu 
there U no tra» of these bone*. 

The rr'f" :trr r^ranrksHly loiii;. except the Crst pair, nhieh 
is very short. ^nO luitiaTkiibljr broail, ctpoct&lly in ihe cur- 
Illa^o, which in cuified; and llic ttrmuat is lit)(lil) du- 
nrliiprtl, as mi:!bl bt: expected ft-om the exi;:cnde!i uf the 
inlinaL The ametiiif parllon is expuided laterallf into 
oluil L« t«rin<-'l nil' ma>mbrium.v\ath wiems to be Urecsi 
III tlw Il'iiif-thof Out i RhiitolopAiuU roriiiin^ a tuilable 
paint »f a 1 1 111- h met! I to\- the iirung:. lontc. orcbai) clavicle*, 
nhif^h an? aiiivulutiid both to ilie tterftum and leapttla; 
the latter is Aery lari^e and eluuunted, and tha lower siirfeoo 
14 nr - — ' >■. Tl« /tiiir fi>r llic atrong hiukijIps. both 
ab' vv thi> spine nflliia bniw. are iln-ply |[iin'k>-(l. 

Th- ..:■■-■ - - llie amntul required on iun|ile ili:vt?l>jpiiieiit uf 
these partis io ({ive the slivuldcr tti« mtuired soliditj' fur 



working the mc«1iani«Ta 'of Iho wia^, and we iceordiTiiTlf 
Snd tlio Htrenirtl) thrown into lh« sfn-itum, c/avtW«i. and 
trapula. Bui thcsi! sainir hnbilA vould have rendtrred (he 
rataliiry cinlinn »r tbe fure-arm w»rw tliati uselck*. fur aucEi 
a dispiiBition would have weakened the potrer u( \h\: limb in 
bcal>n|[ the air with the extended membrane. Wo ae- 
cunhnifly And that this power is abarnit : the ulna, indeed, 
in rvmarkahl>' smiill, and in some the bone is merely rudi- 
mniilary, r<irinin|{ a mere Hal process, onl)' partially m> 
paralufl from tbe radiut : tliere is no oltcranon (elbow). 
The /lumervt is lonn- slender, and cylindrical, and the lieul 
of llie bone large and round, Tbe ftnieturo of the im>/ is 
pMuliar: flrvtcome two hencN next to tbo nuftux, and on 
thdMi that Uinu rest*; one of thus la very larira. and 
Ihe oiliiir vury »inall— lit* •ei.-uiti] series eonsiatt of the iMual 
four bones ; but it u in tlie Kxiet of tbe nutacarptu and of 
Iho f]ii||ers that Ihe adaptation of Iba oaaeoua parts of the 
animal to its necmitiva la, perhaps, moat ■lrOD|[1y shown. 
Tl)e«(<,wilh the exception of tha phalanuet of the thanib, 
are |{i«ally eUmic^teil. and run outwanls and 4o«nwan1a to 
ibe edge of tbe ninu-membrane, something after the fkihion 
of Ihe wlialebones that nssist in vpteadinff an umbrella. 
Tbe first fln^^r it th« shanoat, and vxiend* to tbo npner 
angle of tho uiitar cd^ of the membrane; the second i« 
■[eiiendly the lon^iMt. anil thetlurd end fourth nearly of a 
length: the three last descend to Ihe loirer edse of the 
membrane. Tbe jnr/ii'i is iilraigbl and I^HElhrn'Ml, and 
ratlirr wiHf-r bolow Ihan it U nliore. tb" ilia lieinR very 
narruw and elonpitti). Tho mtn tVAii appniacli even to 
the contact of their tubcroJUiu's. onr| in sfime exBtnplw Imirh 
tlie osta rorryifti- The ottu iwAfr. in some niii-cien. r^-wde 
frooi «aeh ailier, tlie intemieiluii!i sparv iwinit tilled hj a 
liltameni ; and in others thi.'«e Xv^wt tutirh meh utbor in 
the mile, and uro Mparntoil in tin female. The lacrim 
k 




[Vf ii-^tniB HvlBiii. ■'tvlBliin of flat] 



1 ««a«lliri*IUwit.xI|.lB.>tawiaM>ir.r»w^«HS>«»i '.«Ui)d«i r.AfMctVMtt fihanani f^rkQnSiA, MtlmM «r nlM] twlfM r*iMl| 
l^Mcftrpn* rtCfnink, Onmnti^ i>> ihi.l 0.i[Mltii«U<ni r.ntSinipUbawsMf ilitilnmii «, illfiut (tabocMi •■ p(4nt.- « IHinii f. »H>I 



I r. |u4 M^rtof n>*ti •.■tfl'ltirw ii|>(.>'t'4it(* liiaanilcli; I, mHIutvSiuJ Id. 



It niK«l>i 
• ^ (.Ull. 



and ttia at* anehflosod early tii liOr. The hiwer etiremltiet 
dooot oSer any wry «!riVm;(ditIefeows IVom ihnse of ot tier 
Diammiferii, eleeplm;^ (lot the ibicltq bcfn'! dirtvled 'vul- 
wanis, tlie banes of tlie lei; nrv partiully tnrnei) round as tt 
wan ((he /ibiUa appearing nt tlio inner *iil«> of tlm tibia. 
an4 abttla pustutor tA tliat tione>. and ihst ihrre is asin- 
gvluily about the bcel. An cloncaled delieale liony 
prvnn it lti\m off ftoiti tbe back pnrtnf tb^ finT. i^ In- 
cli««d in Ilia margin of ibe Inierfemaml mem* -■■■■,■. -"' 
(traeaed* cbout halfway tn ilto tail Oivier ii 

a ^tioA iif lb> oaraMi: Daubenlon, that it w^^ .: ■- 

h«M :.Uk] Meekel, that it is only a dev<>lopmnnt t,( the In- 
iBMilr of tba dnne, disunitnl (Vom iu l«idy. Mr. Danloll. 
on the lltb NosWBtwr, lfi34, exhi))ili.-<t lo the 7.iyAoz\ta\ 
Sixdvljr of Omdca dutoiona of the male and female Pipis- 
Irttl* twl yoettttf Ball, foe the purpose of poiutiog out a 



ivcrnlliirlty in the ftmMe. eontieffoA. as lie conccirci, with 
Ihe m'ult' of puriurition. detrrilied unrlpr the hcail of 
' ftabift'. Ttiii pfwuliarlty conslsU of a pr"WiK<i''o'^ "f 'lio 
fit niHt aliina tbe marsin of thn mi'tnhriiie. extended 






lH.il. of much fcfivatcr 

111 iti Ihe iiulf. By 

- ■-■ ■■■■■ r >'■■ i'>bo 

[ o{ 



.iif Orffnnt. Bwtide" (he dlffrrehce of thb molar 
tocib in tlie frui(-«ialtni{ tor urani»orciu«) and the invrciive- 
rou* Bal«. alrooilf elln&l to, Iho Motaach and iiii«-ji|iB« 
proirnt a ronsarkablc eotreapondrnc rarlaiw*. The stama*h 
of tbe former is very compllejl«d. and llw inlustnica very 
long: iaPffrapsu, for example, they ore BOi«n times aa long 



CHE 



20 



CHE 



M tho bod^. In tlio Inltcr iIid ftoniEich la fcry alinpW, and 
ni«raljr (Jtndiiil into thurupliut^ and pyluri'cpntiion^.anj tho 
inteuiniis ara hoc more Itmii (vrice Uio lentcth uf the body. 
These differ CD CI!!), loetLbor %nlh that of th« groalor or ItM 
dovclopmcnt of ihc Ud, vrbich is pDmrful. Konorally tpcak- 
ingi in (he tru« ini«ctivorouft bat*, and cither abicnt, rudi- 
Dicnlaryi or companitivoljr JnelHcieitt in t)i« fruit-caUra, 
vliich Inst io BDt require la turn so ragiidly uUlfldtsttllor; 
lligtit of the pry)' of tli« formor tnnkoa it nccosuTjr fw tlifia 
to do, fcnn. it a tnio, a inaiktid diatinetion between the two 
RTOUint; but WG are, notwitbiiUitdintt.oI opinion tb&t ver^ 
IbiT UutftCDiiflno themselves entirely to a vegetable diet. 
AerpOTfJ Sijtttrm and SenK*. Tatlf. — This Benio i« 

{rubablr wvll dewluptd, lit Pleroput Hiif suffn«« ia rough, 
n PhyUoiloma llnsto i» ft pocoliar striicmre, tlio tonjruc 
beinu suctoriul by tho aid of tcvoial wart-lik? clcvalioim, 
cniinllo of formini; a di»k for c<(lraotin); tlio juicea of fmils 
ot tlio blood of animali throuKh tho operation of niiuctdnr 
fibres iKliitg on tbcM wart-liko clovattont by a tcndan trana- 
nittod to eacli. SmeU.moit probably ocul«.eapccinUy in 
the ItfnnoJvjt/tinar. SigAl and Hearing. — The oyo is di- 
minutive in iho lusectivorou* Hal*, ami <if fair proportion 
in the other Mciion; but tliia x* componuicd for in ib« 
former by the cxtraordtnnry development of the extemul 
and pari of the internal niuulitrtf amparalut, while tliat of 
Iho Inlter elTcr* nothinf; romarfcable. The external eur of 
the Rritiith lon;;-oarcd bat fpfffnlut anritus) almost eqtinis 
the hody in [on;;th. 7 wcA,— TbiK. or a BMite iuin1a)*oiit to 
il, must be highly duvidojiecl. Spallnnvnnt — wti emiiiul 
compbmt'nt him on his bumuiiity — extrauted ibo ejos ef 
bata and covered tlie empty sockets vilh le.nlher: yet, in 
this condition, tbey flew round hia nM)m, avoiding the Hiilm, 
nwer xtrikinK againA anything and Hyiii^ out of iho door 
without (fliichinR the door-case. In SvinK through a Eower 
whidi made a right atiglo. they turned at Ibo pnitior point. 
tliougl^at adiitanceof two fiKt from the walU. Tliey found 
tbtrir ftisiing-plaee on a eomiee, nnd flow through threadi, 
suspended pnrpendicularly from iho coiiinfi, withaiit touch- 
ing lliflm, thoiiyh acurCHV furihor apart than would ailmtl 
their eilondod wingi ; and ttiey afeide^l ill obstacles with 
efjiinl facility when the whole iieml wa* roverwl with Tor- 
nish, But, acronlincc to the eiperimenti of CarH^le, the* 
British lonK-eanid bat nas entirely ai a lots if. whiti Llindual. 
iu cara were itapped,* for in itiaC condition the blinded 
haCt Htniek agatntt the Nidet of the room, and Mtomcd to be 
(luite unaware of their situation. The rallawiRR additional 
nole to the Engliih trantlation of Blumenhaeh, however. 
corroboratM SpallanEani. ' BaU hara bern suppotod to 
possesf R 'peruhar power of poroeivinir external object*, 
without rotiiinit actually into contact with lliem. In their 
rapid and irreicular flisht. amidst varioui surrounding bo- 
dies, tliey nei'cr fly aKaintt ihKin ; jet it driew nut x^m that 
the »en*e« of hearing;, lecincor smelling, aene ibffm on 
these occasions, fgr thc>' avoid any obstacles with equnl 
certainty when the ear, eye, and nose, ore clqscd, Henrn 
naliiraliiiu have ascribed a sixth sense to these animals; it 
U prDbnbly analogout to thai of touch, Tbo nerves of the 
vring are large and numerous, and disirLbuled in a tninuto 
plexus between the intoeuments. Tbo impulse of the air 
a^^aint't this part may probably bo so modified by the objents 
nearwhich the animal paMes.u to indicate thcirMtuaiion 
and nature.' Cavier, tn lui LefOtU {fJnalonne Comparfe, 
had, in a great mcatare, so'lvw the myslcTT by obsen-in);, 
U is remarked in the note just nuotcd, that the whole sur- 
fae« of the flying memVreiio, on Voth sides, ia ondoircl with 
extraordinary aeniibdity. and may be considered as one 
continuoosly expanded organ of touch. Nor is this the only 
pcculiurily connected wHh the int«gtimonl of tbo bats, for, 
1(1 the Roaut Nyelfris iheio exists a power of inflation to 
such ft doi^reo, that when tbo faculty is exerted the animal 
looJu. according to OeofTroy. hke a little bkltoon llttol wiib 
winf s. a head and feet. The subcutaneous tisaue is the port 
intlated, and as the skin adheres t4 the body at particular 
points only, the eonoexion being by mean* of loose cellular 
membrane, spacat ara left which cati be ftU«d with air at 
the will of the Sycttrii, through the ohMk Muchea, trbicli 
ore parfbrated at the bottam ra u to comntinieato with tbo4< 
spaee*. When the A'yff^n'j wishes to inflate iti skin, it 
drawl ia ita hnatb, olosM its nostril*, nnd tranimits the air 

■ XluvwTt (hM,nevllr.Iiiriiw'« uBuailHl aSMnulonion ihM* iil- 
■■H It *p|nii> tlul II II i| liiii ftvranJBit lit DCKrf it .iiiuiilnl on ih< 
UffBijaK.ilianniiiv.iBa lliawtuariifimij: naliliui i|ip»»d lo hla. 
lBa(naliiafi«p,louaoaatfc* ifa^lratrlMiij bculiy abinc dmiJbHi. 



througU tl)0 pcrfonlions of the oboek loUchee to ilia sub- 
Gulineous spaces, and tho air Is nrevcntod fram rctuniing 
by tha nelion of n sphincter, widen closes IhoM opcnin^fa, 
and by velves of coneidcroblosiseen the neck nnd back. 

iffprodu<tion. — Tho male organs nearly apiiroacb those 
of the quadrumana and man in many respecls. The prin- 
cipal organ is pendutoua, but it is fumisbod with a small 
bone. The katicles an situated in the abdomen, exoeptiiitf 
in tbo breeding seuon, when thay descend and aro placed 
on each side of the tent, nnd (ho epididymis hes behind 
them on either sido of the imcrtion of the tail. There are 
vaticuUe wnimtlet, a proilale givwi, and Coti'ptr't 
ghndt. 

There is no great peculiarity in the foraale organs, Hie two 
teals are placed on iho hreoit u in man und in the quadni- 
mnna. As for tho»e so-callod ti'als, discovered in the givin 
of the HMni>lopAi by Monta»u and Geolfrey, Ktihl could 
diseo-rer no trneo of mammary glands in ihcm. 

Gif>grapfirfal Dittrtbntion. — Tha cheiroptera are widely 
spread over the globe. They are to bo found in the Old 
and Now WorM and in New Hnllnnrl. A tolerably lem- 
pcrnte cittnate teems necessary for thorn, and ihc groatost 
iloTclopraenl of tho form takes place* in warm eounlhcs. 
Dr. Kiehnrrlton {Fauna linrpaU-Amrnc-ana) notices two 
tpeeies, I'fmertilin pruinfiiui (Say) caught nl (Jumbsriand 
Houtc, on the Soskalebcwan in laL H. and VetptrliHn M- 
bulaliis (Ssy) which the Dr. nbs<>n'os is the most eotnmon 
spidot m-ar the eailcrn IraKe a( tliu KoeVy Muuniainson tkft 
uppor linmohiis of t)iu SasUutchewau and I'uacu n^'ors. 

tiabitt. — Genemlly sjtenking they Tenioiu in ooneeolment 
during tbo dny in cnix>riiK, niinouK biiihlin^ hoUow trees, 
and cueh hiditiu j>lnccs, and llil forth ut twilight or 
sunset 10 take their prey. While, in his ■ Sctborne,' thus 
doscrilios tho mode of fi-cding of s Isme hat : ' It would lake 
dioa out of a jiur^on's hand; if yun i;nrc it anvtbing to eat 
it brouitht its winKS round before the mouth, liuvchng and 
biding its head, in tbo mannerof birds of prey when they 
feed. Tbe adruitnes* it showed in ihoftring off Ibe wings of 
Hick, vrhich uerr^ 9J«a}'s rejt.'ctcd, waa worlbr of obter^'iilioa 
and jileaswl nie luueh. Insects seemed to be most accept- 
able, though il did not rvFu^n mw lli.>»h when oflered ; so 
that ihu notion tliiit 1>:it<i ^o down chimneys ard g:ian men's 
bae(in. sui>iiis nu inijirolmlilo story. AVbilo 1 smusrd my- 
self with this wonderlXilcjuailruped I snw it severul limes 
confute the vulgar opinion, that hals, when down on a Hat 
surface. cuiiTiot get on Iho wing again, by rising wiih great 
OB8B fiom the floor. It rsn. I o^sonwd, with m"r« iliKpatch 
than 1 uns awnre of. but in a moat ridiculous and grotetijue 
manner.' The laii'u-oan'd bats, rollected by Carlise, n<- 
fused. according to SUuw. every spM.-iesof food for four days, 
as did a large hiimbtir which wor« afterwards cnughl and 

SircMri'vd in u d.irk box. for above n week. During the 
lay-lime they were extremely desirous of retirement and 
d.-irkncss; nnil, whdo confined Id the box. ucTcr movi-d or 
endeavoured to get out the whoV- duy ; and when iipicod on 
tho cnrpet ihcy commonly rcsltd tome nnnules, and ihen, 
beginning to look nbout, crawled slowly to a dark corner or 
erericQ. At sunmc ttie sceoo ftiu (|uiU) chnngod : CTcry 
one then endeavoured to scratch its way out of the box ; a 
continual chirping was kept up, and no sooner wss the lid 
of iheir pnwiii openeil than eadi was active to escape; 
either flying away iramcdinlcly, or running nimbly to a con- 
venient place for uking wing. When ibeic bats were firU 
eotlcclvd. several of the females nad young ones clinging to 
their breasts in tho act of sucking. One of ihcm flaw with 

Krfect ease, theugh two little ones were ibus attached to 
r, which weighed nearly SB much as tlie parent. All tho 
young were devoid ofdown, andof a black coluur. But ono 
oftbe most ialOiestiDgaiid detailed oceounla of tho habits 
oTtheseaitiDialsiB to be found in llie statement rando by 
Mr. George Dsniell lo the Zoological SueJcij of London «n 
the 1 tth November, 183J, sod wo accordingly give it from 
the • Proeecdmgs' of that socwty. The bats consisted of 
two species, the PifitlreUt (Vttperlilio Ptpittrellu4 of 
Oeol&oy) and the N<Kliiiii(l>^perttiio .Vociw/.iof Sehteber). 
Hr. DaitieU aUted that in July. 1 633, he received Dvo spe- 
dmens, all preganat females, ^ooKlvotham in Hampnbini. 
Many more were congregated together with llivni in tho 
ruins of tbc bam in whi«E Ihey wore taken, but all the rest 
eseapod. They hnd been kept in a tin powder canister foe 
several dayi;, and on being himed lo'>s« into ■ common 
packing ease. With a IVw i.tiip» of dval uaiWd over it to form 
a ease, tbey exhibited muvh nctivily. p^grossing rapidly 



I 

J 



klonelba lettoiQ «f Qielxix.iiMeDdiag hy tlio bars 1o tlw 
tap, *nd then thnmint; tlietnselTa uffss ifendeavnurinu In 
fly. Th*f nte lUot wncnolTvrctl la tbrm, nuttaii them vrith 
Ihe gnaitcat cagccaeM, tai 4«rouring Ihom grocdjlv, all of 
then congnKatiliC togelh«T at Itic cn4 of Ibc bux at wliicli 
iboTwerafea. ana crawling over, tiiapiiuig ul, and biiin^ 
ncn otiMr. at the aama liino uUcrine k uratint; kind of 
>qu«iik. Ccoke^l mcnt woa next prcivntod to lliem, and ro- 
jcctctl; but nw beef was citcn by tlivm witli Kvidilv, niitl 
wilh an cn'idcut prv-rerencc fur such piece* as bad been 
iBotateDtsI vritii voter. This aimverud a duublo pur|iciic ; 
tko noatlior bcifli; warm number* cftbo bluo-botilo llie.i 
^•nutta comitoriaot LinnsDUs) wcr* attracted Id the niuikt; 
awt QD apfiroochinK wilUiii range oftho baU' wings >verc 
struck (luvtn by ib«ii Mriiun, ihe uniual itielf fallinK at the 
samv toQiocntwuU dU its mumUraiivs expnndvi], aiitlrnivrr- 
iNK uvvr tlio pnwtrnUi fly. with ill hciul tbruat uiiUt-r iii 
Older to secure tia pnty. Wiirii the hctul wbd agnin drawn 
fbilh the raeinbraim w:n iminodistcly cIdhoJ, and Ihu llv 
WBS otMonred to bo almoat tn^-niiibly taken by the lii;uil, 
UoatintiQn appeared to b« a Inbourou Qpcnitioii. coiixidtini; 
of m auoc^uiou «f eaf;«r bitct and inapt, and lh« sucking 
proce>9 (if il roay bo bo lermvd), l;y which (he inscd was 
drawn into the moutb, b«ing much awiitted by the luo»cncu 
oftbclips. Several caiun lea wvm vinyhyad in duvoiiring 
a lantv "f- !'■ I'k Unit in»taDC« the tl^et veto eaten entire, 
b«tUt. lAiniell artenraiUa olMcrwil detached wings in the 
botloimaf Ihe t'ox. Thaw, how«vpr, ho never aaw rejceted, 
aod h* il inehned to think ihut they aro generally awal* 
lo«ed4 A thee uT Wf altaehcvl lu the iide of tlie Ikix was 
fiiind nvt only to !>i>vo treuhle in fi-cdinj;. but alio by at- 
tnctinjt the Hhm to afTurd K'l^i ■<|^''t in ubiervinK the ani- 
nala o)A*in thuir fixxl. Tlicit vlfactiry nervt-s appear to 
Ik TCI? acutely >enKible. When hanging by ihcir poaloriur 
axtrvmitw*. and altachi;d to one of the bar* in front f^ the 
<«C«, a UluU piece of be«r plaeed nl a lilllo dintauce front 
liMir noan veuld remain unnoiicCTl ; but when a Ely woa 
pl>w«d in Ihe aame *i(i;ati»n they would ioilantly bcjcia 
knappiBg after it. llie bi>v( ihcv wanld cat wbon bnQgry ; 
but lAM mrer roruMKl a lly. Tn the tlty-timo the; lORie- 
limea ftluftorad togetiier in a corner ; but towards evening 
the> beeono v«iy lively, and gate fajiid iilloranee to theit 
barab grating note*. One of them died on iho! fifih day 
alter lltoy eamo into Mr. Dsntell's {mim^od ; two on the 
tuttrltfenlh ; Ibo fourth nurviTod until the eighleontb ; and 
tb« 6nh until tlio nineteenth day. Each waa foiind tocoD- 
lala a aiusle/if/iM. 

I the Uilh AtaVi IK34| Mr. Danidl procured frotn Hcn- 
iiire lira MicciineiM of y^jxtiHio tioclnh, four foiaaka 
Iwie laale. The Utter VMcxeecdingly rustle** and navBKe, 
QIg Iht ftmale*, and bri>Bkins hik tocth agaitiat the wircii 
<f tbo tflge. in hi« ult<>Mip(« tue-.cap« frotu hh ptncoofogn' 
QuetBeut. Ho r*jocind food and dic<l on the tt«(h. Vy to 
lliia titBe ihc remammg four continued «u!ky ; hut towards 
eveiung they ate a f«v unM pitctti of raw tieof, in profrr- 
eoee lev flies, beetles, or (rentles, all of vhiah were o9bred to 
tlten : only one of thum, however, f<"1 kindly. On the 301h 
one dieil, and on Ihc 'i-2nd tivo oihiYs, each r,( which was 
fMind to he pregnant with a iin^le /tfiiu. The aunivor 
wk« tried with * variety of food, and. cvineing a deciO^rd 
prtfercrice for the boarto, livcra, tee., of icmlt. was M <«n~ 
■lantly upon tliem for a month. In the courae of thik linaa 
JlJra wero frt-ipiently offered to her, but they were 
ra rejected, olthongfa one or two Ufaif ^Aa/ert, JUfh- 
rulfariit, were partially eaien. In taking the fooil 
rin);» were not thrown forward oi in the Pipttlrfllt, 
I the foi-J w-ak iciietl uilh an nation similar to that of a 
The vaierthat drainoil from Ihe food waa tanned. 
Imltba head ms not raited in drinking,nBMr. Daniell had 
ced it to 1}« in (ho Pipittrclle. The animal took eon^i- 
Itle pain< in eleanin? henelf, using the posterior extre- 
; aa a eomb, parting the hair on either side Ihna head 
I kiid forming a atraight line ateng the middle of the 
Th« membrani' of tho winga waa rlanned by farcing 
the rtMO lhr<>ugh the folds and thereby expanding thciD. 
Up lo tl>o SOth June the animal fed freely, and at timet 
veraeioudy, romaininc; duriim tho daf aBaneiided by the 
pMt*fi»r extremities at the top of the oago.aiM coming down 
m iIm rrening to io iooA • the (^uantiiy eaten sometime* 
c]t«e«d»dh>1f an ounro, althonub the weight of the animal 
ilHlf wna niX mom than ten dmcfcmi. On the S3nl Mr. 
l>aai»ll>i>b*ertin;; her to he very reatlot*, wa* lndim<d lu 
Vilefa bar pnooedingi. The nncssinen was coalinne*! for 



upwards of an hour, tKo nnlmal remaining all this timo in 
her usual nititudo auspcndcd by tho postcriur exlreniitica . 
on n dudtlcn ahc reversed her punition, and attai;hcfl bcr«clf 
by hor aittorior liiubft to a croxH wire of the cage, slnetcli icig 
her hind Irga to their utiaoet oxienU curving the tail up- 
wards, and expanding the intci fttmoml mombrano sq as to 
furm aperfi-rt ncM'likc cavity for tho reception of tlio young. 
In a few moments the anout of the yiiiing one made iln njt- 
pcarancD, and in about five minutes the whole ofita heud 
was protruded. Tho female then ttrugclcd considL-rahly 
until the cxtTemitiuxortlio radii hrul pas tvd, after which the 
yuuiig one by mmns of a lateral motion uf it.t fitrc litnljs rv- 
lifved itself. It was bom en its back, poifectly dasliliilu uf 
hair, and blind : and was attached by an umbilical cord of 
about two iticlies in length. The fomalo then licked it 
clean, turning it o\or in itA nent, and aAorWiirJs re»uniiiig 
h(.-r utuul poiition. and placing thu young in the memlirone 
ufhcr ning, proceeded to Rnan oCf the umliilieal conl and 
cat the j/l<trinta. She next cleaned tieraelf, and wrD)>ped 
up ihc young to dosoly as tu prevuiitany ubtenation ul the 
process oriuckliiig. The time occupied in tho birth was 
i>evont«en minutes. At the time of it* birth the youn^ was 
larger than a nuw-boni mouse, and its hind legs and claws 
wetu remarkably stron); and sur^iceuble, enabling it not 
only to chng to its dnm, hut also to the deal sides of tlio 
cage. On the S-4th the animal took her food in iho morn- 
ing, and appearud very careful of her young, shifling il oc- 
cakiunally fioin tide to side to micUc it, *nd folding it in 
tho membranes of thu tail and wings. On tboEC occ<iisi<>n* 
hcrusuol position \>as icicricd. In the evening she was 
found duiu]. but the joung wu still alivo, and altoehod to 
the nipple, from which it wu with Mmo diHtcuUy renmveil. 
It took mdk from a *pon(;o. was kept carefully wrapped up 
in flnnnel. and tFun'ivod eight days, nt the end of which pe- 
riod ittt eyes wore not opened, and it hid nri|uircd verj' htllu 
hair. From these observations it is evident that tho pi.Ti(id 
of gcstntLon in the yaelula exceed* thirty -eisht days. We 
have only to a<]d to this interesting acc-ount that the Cheir- 
opt*ra hybernoto, 

»\»TltM*TlC AARAMSeVieNt. 

jlmong thconiicnls Aristatio lays hullittlsobntil iho Hi. 
and I'llny is con>>iilered la have pl.icod it among the birils, 
none of which, he nhncrvcs, nilh (ho exception of tho bat, 
have leeth. < lUtt.Nnt. lib, xi., c. xxxvii.) Agnin (lib. x., 
c. Ixi.). be iioiiceK it nt tho only ningml aninml Ihnt sueklM 
its vnun;:, and ollKor^'CH on its emlmeitig lU tao little oneH 
and llyin)(Dbiiut with them*. In (hii arrnn^'emcnt he w:is 
followed liy llio older of the more modern nmuruliso; Buli^n, 
Gcsncn', nnd At'lrovundui. for uisianea. The former, aftor 
ex|iri.-!isin-{ soino d<mbt. plaret il at the end of the mifltt 
bird'i, in bis HittoireiU l.iN.ilure dtri OyitniuTfM'o. 133.1 J, 
and it nrrupk« the Minio pusitii^n in llin t;mall 4tQ ttJJJ7), 
with iliu lullutiing C|uatrain : 

' Lj •>a>jrii Chiuraeit iiu Marin rtr dsIcI. 
(Jill ji»id4 n' pon^. aiiit *i^ |H-(«tt Bnrjsultfw 

Kn fii-Ut ffif |-i zikkilouiiwi f|.I,iit.' 

The hat, Attaleph (bird of darknet*), was one of liie iin- 
dt'un animal* nf the Hu-brews iDeal. xlv. 19). nhcK it is 
placed nraong tho forbidden birds. 

Under tho title 'Yct]ierti lie' Ihe fourlli and last genus of 
his first onler, PrimiUf». Ijnnmu* arranged all the Chdro^ 
pUra ku'iwn to him. and tliu number of species rcconU-d in 
Lhe tweinh cdiiion of the Syistema Nalurtr nmotinls only to 
six. In the thirteenth edition (Omelin's) the number of 
species 1,'ivcn amounts to twenty-three. Tliis edition was 
printeil in 17fi9, nnd few fkmilies afTord stronger evidence of 
the great inllnx of the now •ptrics wiitiin thu last Arc and 
forty years than is ta bo found in Ihetiiniibi-rtof f7AnVo^/-ns 
wliidi bare been described vriihm that period. Of Englisii 
bats alone Jenyns enameratesaiAtocn species, and the uu' 
neral numWrs have bct^n increased more titan aix-rulit. 
Cuvicrmailc \\n Cl^eirrijiia-a the first family of his third 
order of M.immifers, placing them next to the I^imtri- 
ilet. which cfosA his second ortlcr, Quadrumanai Jenyns, 
in his 'Manual of British Vi-rteWate AiiimolH.' places them 
urulcr the order Primates, which lie makes Ihe second m his 
anangemcnt of British Mammaha. the Fera being the llrst, 

• Inltl* ladtStDlhs Leydrn r-ll-lnn f AIW IS*").!)* olifrHln* •■•nl k 
• ViiiwrtlttoKilaHlan ikiii- -Mdncriiai Uihmnn-Mk-E in ilw 

\tX\ hull (l«lj»k K,««dl' llfc 1JO«H»(«w ■ li-.|p,l!.il krf»« 

■•niib. Mil Ibf baits lOiO' .r rsd «(lkitk«|4ai ou loxll t llw 

ml of II.* Book twiafannpH >i<ii i<wrn Mttugkal < ' 




»nr! tkef POTQft inmmlhlcly after llrf jTwwirj'owf flieBMfiC- 

JJAztirn, Illrs^r. Otfifffoy St Hilolrc, Deimnrost, tho 
Cmicr*. LfMnri.' Br-ctislein, KuM, I^isIm, Nnttcrcf, Tcm- 
minrk, Riippp|,an<I SpiX. nrc tiinon); itf^ mo*! ■Jiitinj;uishi;d 
rfireirn wHIcm im lhi< fiimilr; anl PcrnnM. Mi>ntasu. 
Sowtrhy. Cirnr. HnrilK-M, iiiif! FrJt. nmoni: thnspof nur own 
roTinlry. y.o-ihe'mtt teem c.ciuiailv Ij liavo oerccl Ihal ^^o 
irfih ilioiild III" tnncle tlif t'lrnt fro u ml- work ofrlMtiflcaficn 
in lUis t9 in olhor mnmitiifcron!' fnrnili?*. Temmiock. liow- 
eter, in hii fixlh MnTt'tx'''*}'^"'^ ''"^ ifnmm'.it'isii', shows thfit 
tiic Kcniis Dg^np''* of I!li;wr :■* Bvnonymtfui wit'i tho yt'iht- 
siis nf M, (iMiffm* St, Hibltr. nnH nlw wilh ffffclinomut. 
('hrirf>m*fle» ttrnaatia of Ilonfielit if ftUo tviinrde'l l»y 
Terominnk as n ntfOf-f. To i'*labli!i(i the i<lemlty of .Wu- 
httut Bti'l NffrfinnntHt wilh Di/mj'fs, ibe di6liiidi'>n 'of 
wliii'h rc*!!^! onlj uri tliu number of the incisor Itolli of ilic 
jaw. Teniminolt fhowa thnl Ihc chuniclcr »f Hiou teuth 
variei aci>3r<line t(r llic aso of t!:v indiviJii.il, and (liut tlio»e 
of llic Hpfitrjnw alw ^arr in nxiiiibcr, the ilenlar>- formula, 
Wp-iili Tv-tT'^tfi (o Ibe inoiiort^, l-cinc cillicr (. I (. J. nod cTcn |. 
Th« lijner inci^ars arc (hj^j'tntcd irroJunlly bt tUo devulnp- 
m«nt of iho bnwof llic caiiiiitf k-cib, hIiJ Ihc prujwiini; la- 
teral points cTcntually perFiinn tha olBrt of fiiri&or*, licinjr 
oppuM") wliilf in aetion on foo'l to ihc iilcisoTS of ihc uppct 
jaw, wliirli ore worn away by tltnii. Th« aiiltior of the re- 
view on Tpmminck'* wxth niriiioi;r»ph*, where lli« latter 
(IcMribc* t!iE fatl* uh they were otufKtsl by Mtn in seven 
of Ihe cicien (pcHej, lima proccctU : ' In otilpr l^ sho* ilie 
mode of proof udoutd by him, vi fbllow him tfarauiih one 
of the ia«tonrcs wtiich ho ha» aJiIuccJ, thni tif llw; D'/t'ipci 
naiiHhi*, (Iwcribcd Iry M. Isifloro GeyflVoy Si. HiUirc as iIib 
ffffcUnnmus Unitilifinn. In one younc individual of thi( 
8pe<ic! there csi^tcd in the lower jaw Bix ineivon ; in ano- 
ther lire. Ihr'c beinc on oin' »iile au'l lu^o on Ihc otiicr; in 
a ihirtl fuuroiily ; ond in tbv upper jn* of ihi* ipeciitlcii, 
three infisore, with tb" fikoohi«, paitly cluml, of n fourth; 
in about thirteen other »peeim«ni'. the number of incisors lu 
the lower jnw wa« four; an'l in tno full-grown individuals 
there were cnily two. The entire »t»tncv of evoii Ihci-c has 
been f^und in Dytuvf* cirxcurui, Aiiolh<tr obporvulion will 
carry almost bovonil the poiiibihiy of doubt the proof of 
the identity of ^'t/ctinomva with Mi'htttut, The typo of 
the former genws, ^•'yc.'iMomu* MKyiUuru*, Geon., poi- 
ses9e« in its early ajjo tho fuiir im-iv-'r leell], vhich have 
b«on inadft to f haroMDfiio the fiionp. but Ii.kis two of Ihum, 
when arnvs-d at it* full on-wih. and ihii» becomes ait unOin- 
pnicd MrtlrH'ti*. On tlw irii;">rtmice of these remarks we 
need not obflervV' The aiioruahei wbith exist in tbc Hcn- 
tatf Byslem of the Chrirfif,lern h»ro long beeu a btitnibling 
block to xoologiHtK, aivl rntt only be explained by a con- 
tinued and exl«nsi«« Mri«» of minule ei^aminnliotii, giinilur 
to thow to which M, T»inroiiifk ba* hubji-i^lvil them. Tbc> 
afford an additional proof, if kurh were vcnn'liiiit, thnt a lys- 
lera founded on any one wt of or^kn*, boweter imtxirlunl, 
inuat hocomo in tome of its parts dcncieiil and inadequate; 
it muftt di'K^niirBte inton more artlRrial melbud, the nntiiral 
ono bein); attainable only by o nvl|-dirnpled study of tlie 
whole orfrnnizalion. Having dranii the ailontion of the 
reader to tb«te ol>«err>lioni, wo proc^d to n eluiiiticaiiiiii 
of the fainih, lalirii. in t;r<'at ineaturr, frum the French 
auih<44, nnd adnptcd tiy I>»mnn»it nn<l L«h6oii. Galfopi- 
iJutfut, whli^h li IfiO type of thi> tin triho of CJieirvptfra, 
oeeordinn; to Le*5oii, wo hnvo n>mov«l, in accordanc« wilh 
th4><tpnnitinii of other jn'^li^iKt*, from Ihi-t fumilyi find though 
the Vi-tp^rtiiinniJ^ mny be divided into twu natural »ee- 
Hon*, the inseeilvoTonit liats and ihn friiil-oiitor«,*o hare, in 
eoniideralioii of the ffrnduul ihadoBof form whrn ihc nume- 
mu« c^weiM are hroufjht under ob»«n'i»ioi), followed H. 
Lmmr t amngemcnt, with the cxeojytion «hov« alluded to. 

TESPKIt1II.IONID.il. 

\ 1. lallo-phori, Spix. 
Hall haTint; a mnubrane in form vf n leaf upoa the note. 
Holar te^th i*ilh >hnrp luberclea. 

1. Bub<rDniily, I'hyUaiiamatlna. 
Nose-lcif limple. solitary or unequal, tho foi«Dngot com- 
posed uf lAojoifila. 

Genera. Phyllostomn, Geoff. 

Four ininaort alioTt, nnd ih» »umu nurabcr b^lsw. Canine 

tooth Tery stMng. Nooe tupporlinx (wo nattal «rc*ls. onn 

latf-Lke, ihe other hke * harec»hoe, S^n Urge. Internal 

■ Eiid.]aar«4nLlll.,p.<n. 



able in length, «onietinie« amt. IJectary formula: Ineiaon 
4 1 — 1 , 5 — 5 .. 

-. canines -; -. niolarg ■■ - - = M. 

4 1 — I 5 — 5 

a. Tail shortar Ihnn the intorfemoral membraiw. 
Example, ph^lhttona enmth*um. Tho bonltif of tllB 
na<t3l loaf arc dcDtclatod, Itic eiid of ihe till IVm. Loeklity 
uiiknoH'n. 




b. No UtI. 
Example. Phtfltfutfima pfr^HI/atum, Geoff. Vesper 
titio prnpidUatut, Linn. 




VomplniB, Goff. nnd F. t'u*it>r. 

Tito utne chumcier nti ir tlie PhuUi^lumata, with the 

exception at Ihc dental forranl>i, whleUli ai fuHowi : inciaort 

4 . I — I , 5—5 
r.canlnea ; r> momw -= 31. 




|T**ib irTH*|4ni*(i|>cnmi.) 
Fxamplff. fiamfinii i^ifrlrum. Tltii i»tbi» eelehi 
V,iin|>ire But of wlnrh v\ ninriy liVfalihiraiv itntiea 
been told; the Vhtitt'ni'ifim tj-.'^lmm nf 'mine nutf 
t'ampintt t^ngiiixi.ea of r-tjinr*. tho .iiJina-KUam of 
Pmu, ami ihn I'lsjj^rlifh tpftrum t\l Linitniic Tin- no«o- 
lenfia eiilire, hiciier than ii it wide, alltnunh it bei-imiM 
nidencd at ihc base. The following it Fii»'a aerotint of iW 
huliitK. ■ Tlicy seek out o\-ory kind of animal and «i»et 
ilieir blooil. But in Marunhan (M^ir.mham) thore i« a oer- 
tain kiitil of IkiIi whieh apprtMch hy niflhl iho nnkcd fml at 
Dien, and wnuixl litem willl their mtritm. fur the sake of 
tuckinir human litood. Tho hile ia so dight and sDlrtle 
that the wounded du nut fMl it tiefOTO lh«twd eovenrd with 
blood fti>'es token of the wound. 8u pmt ■ r{iinniily of 
blood Hows from the envenomed bile ttiiit ii ei>n only be 
Hopped with dilficuliy, and t)i« peril in imminent untpu a 
cure by the prescribed tKmedia* be eflV«ted. Tlw iitha- 
biianta drat wah Ibeae wound* with hot sea-water. WmI 
eftemardi apply but aahea.orevcn cautery, d' the blood be 



J 



B 



CHE 



acarcci 



not rtme^.' Captain Slcdmui, w)m »tatM that he was 
iMtUa. wiuOesaiiKBtlii; unrration: ' Kiianiu;; by lUAincl 
tfaii ifae persou ibcy utUiuJ lu kiiack is in a wuiiil sluraW, 
tfaoy gcnenlly tiigul near ibc feel, vbctv. wkiW tlio rrca- 
turu coniinucA fupniDg vilh its cnarmqiu wiiik-s witiub 
kcvjis one iimil. iic biles a piece out of tliu li|> of ibe i:reut 
tosi ao ver; Kniill itnli-cd tlut llic livud of % pin could be 
acarccly teceiveil inUi Itu: vruum). wbich is coiucqucnil)- ncit 
' I ; yet throuKli i!ii» orifice bo coaiioucs lo aucV Um 
until be ii obllued lo tUfgorct-, Hv ibuii Wniiis 

in. nnd thun conbnura liuckiui; ami i1i>;:Mrv;iii;; lilt he in 
\y able to fly ; anil the sutTi^rt-r ba« oi'il-u bixn knovn 

ioep ftxini time into etenitty. CaUle tbcv gcnsntlly bite 
■a the enrtbut alwata in pUco* wWro th«lmad flows sjvm- 
taiKouiily. Havint: applied uAaeoo uhcs u tbu W->t 
nmeily.anit wnalicd ibc eon; fraca myMiraitil iiiy hammouk. 
I obaer«vd antL-riil huiuII Wajn uf ctiOKenlcil UImmI all rounil 
tbo place wberv I hail lain, upon the Kround, on exuniining 
which, th« surgeon judcvd that I bad ln»l at IcMt iwulvc i>r 
fonrliTcn ounces dunng tlii; night.' Thi« ia sul7i*ii;nti> di- 
cumstsiilial, anil the iiurraltve ib antisled by Mr, Woodi 
who (juoies ibe paiu^e in bia ZoograpAg, and who in- 
tatvu ui ' that il ia wij (OMrfgrm iho opcntiion by inxTting 
it* arulnilol longoc into llio vrin of a nlcrping iwrvuii with 
■0 much d«si«Tiiy u not to be feh ; at the sume liiae fau- 
ulac Iba air with it* lartre wini;s, and thus producine a 
KOMtloa » ddiRhifnliy tKuA that tbo ste«p is reniJcred stilt 
taore proAMiod, und the unfortunate ponon reduced ulnnwt 
la lUath before ho nwokcs." And ihr name author fiirtlwr 
infonni u» that 'there in nranon to believe that tUid ihirat 
alU-r blmxl i* not confined to thv buis of one continent, nur 
to one lyecmk aince at Jhyb they seldom fail to attack thoK 
pMWMs who lie with their feet uiKOvctcd.' The snnic nort 
tit Morit* are U) bi; found in mi>»t bookt of Natural History 
vp to a Ul« jwriod. ^'u<xi'» «iirh *a\ pubii^bctcl in 1007. 
■ nd the talci arc c-niitiiiued in Bewick in the edition of \b'ZO, 
Cavj«r, in the lul edition of tbc Jlr/^nr Animal (Itilh 
■ays. ' They have accused this i>pcein vf having caDtcd 
mrn aad facaata to prrish by M:rkiiiu' thum. but it contenbt 
it«df with laaking rury ntuiilt noiuida wlneh may lotaetiinei 
beoDfD* Miwnuiaicd by tlie clinutc' Lc^^au Il8'i7j, in 
hit notioa of tbe [(i-nui. ■3)6. * TIlc hinki^e Aniuriion bpccica 
a nt^\tnXt^\ by the fubk» with uhich thoy bavu accum- 
panied ila history.' I>r. Uoi^qIiI. who paid partieuliir 
auatuiiD to tbc Jitvancu: lali>. due* uul kay a Axird of thuir 
bload-Uiiiaty piuf)cn>ititf>. That hoiuc of inc Phyllo^tamalit 
•utk tlu9 bl>Miil lA animali aa well aa Ihv juion of auoculcot 
fnuU. xnokqciita are agreed, and we bavcabiiveviidcatourcd 
ts describe ^e paouliar nppurotut with wlii<:li lliey are fur- 
nitlud. WhaTv liiu * aculontvd li>nguv ' fitted for iiibortion 
* hita tbtt win of a iteeptcijr )>CTsan ' is lo Xxa found among 
lbs knunn 1>at», vra are ignotant. The rough tuiiguc of llie 
Vtnu* Pteraput haa bam vupimwd ^a hara been wuployed 
for abradins the skin lo enable thu annual to tuck the part 
abraded, but xoolo^iKtu are rn^w ai;a-v:d that the suppoution 
l> groundlvM. H h iiii>rw tbnn probable ihAt the rclcbnitcrl 
mnpine kU[wr<titMn and the tiloMl-»ucliingqiinliiics3ttrJ- 
htaed tu ih« hit have tume ruimtrxion with eaeli other. 

Pi%» dehcribet llid bodm of bia BaU i,.iHtlira-gii*Ktt) as 
Wing as large ai> Ktiropmii pigeuiiK. 




Madalciu. LumJi- 

' !Aut iueiMr« in each jaw ; llie Iwo iiihir- 

are luuitar lliiu) tlio laioiul i iliuy arc 

'-' rqiio!. niinplu. auil poauad. 

•tnd live 111 ibL- tuwor jaw oD 

1 -^ ,...,. -. No Uul. ]Jp» I'uruuihad 

I Mft (nikgad and eewfrused papdlra. Tuugue billd at 

Jiudalma Lmnw. Nual laaT suddcaJy 



pomlad ; eanmodcfale and rcninded. Fur Marklsh. To* 

tcrfi^incira! itictabnuKi Dolchcd, Eipnusion 16 iiidiea. 

Locality, Joiuaica. 

Gloswphigta, 

Four iaoinors in each jaw ; cuninca moderately stronff. 

Tonpiu very long, extensile, ami terminated W a sort of 

bucker. Hate aurmuunied by a rrcit in foria of n piko- 

bead. Tail none, or variable in U'ugih. InlcrfcniiTal 

mcQibtaae very &mall. hardly any. Denial formula: mtiuji* 

4 1-1 .T - 3 

~, caianos ; — -, molars, - — - = 24. Locality enlitely Ame- 

rican. Tlur extensile longua. uys Lesson, eiinbtes (be ape* 
ciea lu nek iho blood oi animals. 

Ksaisple. Girmopfiitffa mricitta of Geoffroy, Vt!apgrliHt> 
M/riciKuj of PalliU and Gn>elin. InlerTcmoc^ nwaibntoe 
oomparativcly UrKO. N» tail. Lunultty, Suciiuun and 
CayuiiDo. 

Rhinopoma, GcolT. 

Two iiwinor* in the upper javr, four in the lower. Now 

long, coniral. cut square as |L were ai the oud, iinil tur- 

mounted with a small leaf. Nostril* siUaii^ht. trmavvni^l, 

and i>pcreulated. Eus larite. cerlcT inreiUtm) exlcrnul. 

Tail lung, enveloped at its base in tbe intcrfenioral tucDi' 

bnincwhidi iacul, OS il went, square, aud free at the ex- 

z I — I 

tiwmity. Dootal formula: iociton j, eanines — ^ . 

4 — 4 
moUra , = 26, There uo two spccica only, one Afri 

can, Ihr other American. 

Kx3mpl«. BhiHopoma micfvph^ta. Tliis is Belon's 

ChuHVK-t'mrit JEgyf^e. The fur la ash-coloured, and the 

■nil \«rv long and slender It la the species that abotindK 

ill the loag and dreary gallcriei of tbe Egyptian Pyraruids. 

Artihonts Leach. 

Four ineisoia in each jaw, of which tha upper ooon are 
bifld, and the lower on« trune:it«d. Two canines above 
and tha Eame number below ; tbo upp«r onaa hafe an in- 
ternril Innior at thoir base. Konr molara above aitd five 
bc'lowon e\eh si'lo. Two na&al Icatlets, ono horixoiUiil. the 
other vertical. No loil. 

KxampU. Arlibetu Jamaietiuii, the oolv special known. 
Brown above, (;r«yiib below. Flying membnuMS, and ctra 
browniiii. The lipa are surrouiuled wilb a reciilor serittH of 
warti, and tho nkouth ia providcxl intornolly with a narrow, 
Qatbriatvd, cribrifbeui membrane. £xpAiui[>n about one 
foot, thn^o iiir^he*. Lencih from IJic itiuxxle to tbe ex- 
tremity of llie intcrfomorai inombmnc, fouv induis, (on linos. 
Ur. llonificU calls it PhgU/ittrimtt Juniiiiivtut.Uii saya that 
in mnnypBfticuliLrs it OKtvi^ViUi nf/^Jonloma ptttmrt.itrKm 
of Spix, though it is cli-arl) diatinr*ui«lubltt from iL 

Menofihyllu*. Ijianb. 

Four uneqaat iooiaora in tbo upper piw. of whieh tho tw.t 
middle ones are longer th^n tlie laiorij, and bifid, nane In 
the lower JAw: Twn caniiiu* in ca«b jaw. Five mulart 
abov*«nnd sis U'lw on each side. A biiiyle slrai|;)it leaf 
iipun the nose. Tail ^h■n*. 

Example, Min^Ai/ltHS tiMtufiitmil . Brown ohuw', 
gramb li«liw. Kai-* rounded, Nd-i'-Uuf. vh.rb is sliurp, 
eovarcd witb amatl wliMo tiaiiv. Monibmnea brown. Ijt- 
mltty, Jamaica. 

2. Sub faintly. Hhiniiin^ihina. 

Nasal leaf ramidicnie'l, racmi'UJiDii!>. Index vilh u 
sini;iu |diaUnx. Wings brgcly Je»vlo|*J. Fcuiuica with 
perlnnil Icab often acoviupanied by pubic waits uiuulaiiug 
tuainlilw. 



'^ 



>^ 



''^^ 



iltnU uul akull or KhlaaUtHet bidMi.] 

Genocu, Rhitiulopbua, GcolT. 

Noae at the bottom of a cavity bordered by n wiile etert 

of a honeaboe shape, md surmounted by a leaf. Enra 

moderato, Utond, without anearlol (gnOlmX Tail loni;, m' 



tirolj cnvvloiicil l>y tlio inUifemoml membrane, wbl«h Is 
Very mui'liilevelu|iej. . Denial ronoula,: inciion, — . ca- 

niiiua, ■——, molan, = 39, Seven) epeciet. 

1 — I 6—9 

Exantple. Ji/iinolopkus nobilii, k rare ind fine Jiivune^e 
tiieciet; Kffthtck of tho naiivus, flescribcd liy Dr. HorsRelil, 
wlio ob>ervea (tiut it beluii]^ to ibe tvcoiul fiorUoa of the 
Kenu«. Tlie nual appuralut contiaU of s bt\tail metnbrntio 
§iretc])ing tnuuvertely ocrouthc noM in form uf a slivlf; 
lliu sides lire boun(I<!d by M?veral narnllcl Milx, unci iiifutiurl} 
It ninililulea mteinicircuUr cnvuluiM;. vhi<^li ha* a iiIiorl> oW 
luiely-rounded point in iha midtHe, Colour nbovc. pu.ro 
brown: boncatli, brown varicgatod with gtcy. Fur ir- 
mnrkalily lonK 3i>*I (ilky, atirl nuppliud witb m most delicate 
flown at tlic b»kc. so aj to be tliroui^haut vor^ son to the 
touch. Body four inches in length. Hspanaioa ninulcvn 
incbci Qtul B bulE. 




F 



Megadcrma. GeolT, 

%K* very tnufib dcvolopeil, nnd brouglit rorwarit «n tbo 

heiul. Earlcl internal, wide. Tiircc nasal creiti, one vcr- 

licttl. one lioricbutal, and <>ii« infi-rbr of i lioraef^Iioi- »i!)Api>. 

No toil. InlcironioioL mornbran* cut tquaro. Dcntnl lor- 

tnuU : mcuKtre, — . canines, , molur^, = 2G. 

4 I — 1 & — b 

Example. Afegadermo Iri/olium, Locality, Jura, irbero 

il a Ibo Latv uf ihe naiivtv. 




[«.II*>i]orU>tftd<nt)tT(lluliiimi t. sktiJatVtidftnuil'fiM)*.] 
Nyclcnj, Gcoir. 
A Trty deep lonKitudinnl nUna upm tho cftun/iein, 
Noilrils Knercil by n carlihginous moi-caUe operculum. 
Ear* Inrifc. iiiiiU-d at Ibcir buc. Karlrl cxlcrnal. Intvr- 
fieiuiiiml iiMMiliriLiio tury Urite, camprvbr'nclin^ thu tail, ilii! 
last vtrtvbra of whiih a luriniDulcd by a bifuictiti-d cor- 

A I I 

lilo^o. Dental formuU : iscisora, — . coninei, . 

6 I — 1 



ino- 



Inrt, 



<— 4 

5— a 



33. 



Etiiniple. l^yetfrit 6mfnn/i. Fnr, gnry-broirn abore; 
briu'liler b«low. Ears rcry latRc, A ui^ll-dcveloped wnrt 
placuf) iLpun llw low«-r lip. bolWftcR two liaurr*ieli liavttijf 
tlie /oriu of n V, Locality, lh« Ttiubaicl and Suuegal. 




Taphrouua. Oooif. 

Chan/fvin wlih a iHlon. Upper Tip thiclc. Kara mod* 

rale and wide apart. Tail fine towards its point, bi-juiiil 

tlio interfomor.-ii incmbranp, whicli ii lai^e, prnlongud and 

angular at iiscxtornal border. Dontal furmiib : incisors, 

— , canines, . mobrs, -^^ = SS. S^vnral speoics. 

■1 1 — t 5 — 5 

Example. T^iwhoeous Mauj'ilianus, Fur L-lio&tnut above, 
ruddy below. Eatlot terminated by a sinuous border. Lo- 
cality, lalu of Franou. 




tI'M,;l,ui 



M.iUTJt1iuiii>, aud iitalllcsf lliti lanc] 

Momia'ps, Leach. 



[.Vrcitni Qtott9i\ sad n«a.] 



Four nppur unucitnil iuciburs. of ubich Uio intormeiliulc 
on-iiit are <iiuL-ly nuirbi'd. untl fwr bcluw Hbi'ob 8r« (Viuul 
nndtnM; t^va tratiinos in each Jaw, tliu upper one< ivioo 
tho lEii(,'tb of tboM) liL'lciw, nlmosl compresKi^d and caitnli- 
culatml bvfora : livo tnulars slwvc, and iw bulow on Mch 
iiida. A singlu nosul leaf unit vd toUio eara, which ore wry 
complicated. 

Example. liformops Blainviiiii, the only Rpociae; and it 
is romarkablu fur llio exiicme elevation of lU mni, iho ex- 
cavation of i[t cbunfrvin. Uio lobated. crenelated form of ila 
uppi^r lip, and the di^iiiun uflliu lower mio into ibreenaem-. 
branous lobes, the existence on tho loninie of pa pills', of 
which tho niucrior are billd and llio iioMcrior mnltittd, ihe 
folding of ili« nutul leaf, and the uivuion of ilia upper 
border of its can lulo two lobira. I>ocalily, Jatnaica. 

Nj'ctopliiliis, Leach. 

Two upper, clon^itod. conical, pointed ineiRnrs; six 
lower one* etjual and trifld with roumleil lobes ; two canines 
above and tvo below, the lower ones having a small |<oint at 
Ihe back prnt of their base. Four molars on tiieh uileof 
tlio jave, with cruwns furnithed with pointed iiiberelvf. 
Two tmeal Icavn. of which ibo posterior is the hrgesL Tall 
prcjeMinf; a little hovond the mtcrfemorsl membnuie. 

Example. A'uc'tophiltia Geajfrrjyi, ih» only tpiwios 
known, Fur. Tellowiih sbov-«. Bolly, lirBait aiid ibront 
dirty whito. Ears Uf(;e. Membranos brownish^bhek. 

{ 5. Anittiophori, Spix. 
Bats without any naml appciidiLijcc. 

3. Siib-fimily, VttspeftiUnrtitiu, 
Molar teeth with pointed lubciclcv Win<;s wide and i>x* 
tended. A single phuliinx to \\iv futvilnucr (indt'X). Uuad 
clonijatcd. Tlv/i lijM Miiiplc. Tunitue ithort. T^il long. 
G«nerfi. Vespcrtilio, Linn., Ceotf. 
Upper inriiore tour. somolimH two. Lower inriuin six< 
MuMio very tiraplo. Ears scptratcd, but somotimcft united 
ul lliuirbavc. Rarlet inicrnal. Tail long, ctilircly enve- 
loped in the inictfemorsl menibniio. Cheek ]>ouclius. 



4 



I — I 



molars. 



Dental formula : incuont, — , ^canines, 

5 — 5 

Luoion o1>Mr\c> Ibat many Vospcrtilionc* have but two 
imiiore. The specify of the {tcnus are many in number, 
Utd tbcir ^tiographicul diatrtbdlion it very wide. 

d, European species. 
These aio numerous. W9 i<luct os an example Vetper' 
tilio muritM of Liruivus, This i* the Fhtlermoiue. 
PtuHer-moiiia*aiItcar'n'»Ufoftba}Lnf(\it.h; LaCftauM- 
tourit of fiuffiu, and, sccordine to Pvnnont, the ViHum of 
the uiitiunt British ; Nitltola, j\f4iila, SparUgHoaf, yit- 
piiireHf ui\ yilpiflrtJh at theliabans; Muretiiago and 
JfoM-ii-yu/ooflhcSpiniirds; ^/wwfoofthe PortugUMc; 
SperkmiAvt and tJ'^frmaus of tlto G«rmans: Vifdmnufi* 
ol iliB Dutch ; LadtrUip and tfadtrmu of the Swedes ^ 
fy^^friTMut and j{/ltnii(iidu »f the Danes, lbs 
aval, ol the lenstb oC tbo h«a4 { tba sulcta adeiliwv. 



CHE 



C IT E 



furaflbAtdnlts jsraddy-lirown abori!, «Mluh-gr«j bctow; 
■hit off TouiiK Individuitu is ^rey*a(li. 

htaitij. VetptrtiHo mwinuti* common in Europe. It 
haa iMcn inippMeil in oxirt in Asia, anil ev«ii tii Auttralia. 
lis haunu ars e&ve«. ruined buildini^, cliurcti-towen, ilie 
roofAortiousMor churcliM. and hoUant tnic*. wlt«r« il h;- 
beniuc* i)uriDi{ tlia witola wiiiivr, «migly wnipiMiil tip in 
Lha winic-membniies. and iiu«peudad by the tiind feel. AVe 
liavo |'iT«n lli« ikelelon of this spwiiM, anil \)v\avi will l« 
fimnJ a Iwad and skull of I'tupfrtilia fxipittrtUia, uiiolliir 
European ipecx!*. 




[Boil u4 nan at V«*i>trlllii> PitMiftlai.] 

fi. Alhcnn )i|»cicM. 

lamplo. ffsperliUo ni^rila. A'liitison discovorsd 
I «|ivcipH 111 SiUM^^I. Tilt) rare nro oval, Iriniitfulur, very 
iluut, onc-ihiid of till) l«nglltaf ihu Iim>I. Karlei li>n(^, tuid 
icmiinalinii in ft point. Fur yelLowUli-bruwii alwTo, guid 
yellow i»1i-i»)i botow. 

^. AaUticspccios. 

Exunplc. FetperUlio piettu. The cors arc itliortor than 
the lieafl. oval. WLilt^r than lliey are hich. Hurli-I oi'itl- 
kbaped. The fur Ja reddish, pauing into bri^lil U'IIdw upon 
tck, ind of a Urnubou ydluw on tlnu belly. Cilron- 
A njt murk tlie cuurae of the llngora in tliu wini^s. 
an dMtiiiut-brown. Locality. Ceylon, whcro itio 
: naiM is Kirhioula. 

t. Amoiicon specicfl. 

TlifM are lery nuiBctous. 

Biani|)le. VrtptTlUio Naio. Tliia KpedM, TemorknlV 
for tliB kaiitli of its noee, iraa first d«hcribod by ihu Prince 
dc Nmnriod. Tbc nasal organ i* elvngatvd in a itraifibt 
line above the upper jaw, almotit like a probutoi*, Tbc 
nar« are araall, and verr mucb pomtod. Tlie Tur in ^reyitth- 
broMTti above, and yelluwitb-grey bctow. Locality, IJraiil, 
iu Ireei. 

Plecoliu, CeoIT 

Thin irenui in many iir its churBricrs ngrfcs wiib Vaptr- 
tiho, but ibc cats are very much <k-velupL-it, briiiK larger 

tban ibe head. I>;nt3l fumtula: inciion, — ; caniiiea. 

6 

.•^— ; molars, -^- = 36. Tborc arc »«\-ciraI specie*, and 

I ^ t — 6 

ibc brm oecun in all llie f»ur qu«rlert uniie filubc. 

Kxanple. PUmlut Timonenm. Thi« spei-i<rt was Jiv 
etnend by P£roaand Leiticor in the t»tnn<l nf Timor, uiic 
of the Mwaccaa. The ear« are ample, uttit4.-d at Ibeir lioau 
by a small mambraoe. The tax is blackifch-brovru abuvc, 
sM uh-lnovn below. 




(nKolB Tiawiiiail*.'^ 
l«««a(th*taMh.ftf.t Armilf vllbtikill; «, pnaiB or ib> liud. 



The genera Ataiapha. Hyptnxlon, and Ngflietut fl 
Rallne8C)ue. ar« considvred daubtAtI by Lesson and ot)i» i*. 
Myoptoris, Geoff. 

Th» nhDnfrv'iin it united ond nimpl^. The cars are largfi 
in&ulalod and tuleml, with an inioriial vdiIdI. Tail lop R 
half «nrelopcd in the interfsmorol mcmbi-ane, Muit.o 

&!ioi't and Urge. Dental Cumula : incisors. — ; eaninee, 

I — 1 , 4 — 4 „, 

; ; molars, ; = ?6. 

I — I 5 — s 

ExAinpIe. MuopteritDaitt'monii.Gvoff.; Lfllat rolani 
t.i\yin^f\t> of Daiibcnlon. Tlie li>caliiy of lhi« spciios la 
miknown. The iip)kcr part of tl)e heaii nnil bo''ly \* brown; 
beneath, the colour is dirty white, wiili a slifjltt tinge of 
yellow. 

4. Sub-familr, Naeltfiamna. 

Molar» tubercular. Wiiii;> lo'iiK and !(lrui:;hl. Tira plia- 
Inn^Hioihe foreHneer (indox). Hend shuit and ohmse, 
Lips Tory large. Tail rccun-cd. The females often fiir- 
iiithi'd wilb lateral poucHes fur the tuceptivii uf the yuiiiix 
ia tiui'siiitt. 

Ccnero, Noctilio, GtwiC. 

Caiiirius vory Ktmii^. Miiitle short ind swollen, and 
divided and t.tuddcd wilb Heshy tubercles or worls. Note 
Kimple, and tiMm^ itnelf in ihp lips. Earn »iiittll iiiid l.tlerat. 
Iiiitrfumoml niuinbrano rery murhdtvclupLd. Tail cnv«- 

4 
bjwd at its base. Uviitnl formula: inciion, -- ; canines, 

; inolars, - — - = SB. 

I -^^ ■ I d ^" 3 

Example. Nactilio leponiuu. Sizo of a rat. Fur of a 
luitform reddish- ycUaw. This is t1ie Ve*j>eTliUii leporintu 
of (imvlin ; Nuctilh utdailor of GeolIrosF. Luc-aLilieSi 
Btasit, Peiu, and Paraguay. 








[Ntsinia t^pMlniu.] 

a, F*afU»o(lH«I| S,r*0<U««f*killl| e, (TBDtrlmi efnaBlc: il, Aonl *bv uf 
mill, kc 

Dyiope*. llliger- 

We have already noticed M. T«mminek'« opioiiin of tb« 
idKnlitr uf Molvtiitt, St/irtinomut, aaA Chdromtift wiib 
DytojMt. The follooiup; is the oharader of Ihn tooth, im- 
<.-ordikif; to F. Cuvter: two incitors above and four below; 
two canines in otich jaw ; four molar* on ea^h s:de of \ho 
upper jaw, that is to say. two false and lw<t nnrtnnl: wn 
molars in the lower jaw, i-ie,, four fnlw and nix true. Tv^. 
Duaoftfi ifoopt. Wo proceed lo Rive Ihe ileflnilion of 
Jl^oisM, Cluiromfltt, and Nj/dtnvftti*, for Ihv nssitlunw 
of the student. 

Molofltua. 

Head short ; munle swollen. Ears larp-e : eatlel ex- 
lemsl. Inlerfeiiu»}d membrane straigbt, with a squsra 
terminntion. Tail long, enveloped at tU base, and most 
frequently free at its extremity. Denial formula : idcisom, 

^jcaninoB, ~%;nwlan,7^ = 28. The B*offmphioU 

dtclribulion of this form ts wide ; Africa. Asia, and Sovtb 
America ponscao it ; but ihe species which ore numerous 
occur ptiiicipally in the two last-»«ut»onod localities. 

Es-iraplc. i/o&*»»i» obteuntr, Uohuiu Jum^iriat af 
Spix. Dytupet oimirta at Temminek. St»« of ibc Bar- 
iosteUs of Europe, Fux oampMfd «( bair of two ea\omM, 



ii9.40G. 



CraB PBNNY CyCLOP,«DIA.] 



\trt„\Ur-"^ 



C H B 




W lilMliiih-limwn aIm-.*, ui<l H'tlibrawn belov Wbtaktn at 

I lbs border (■( )liu hf^ Lni^tli about tiira« inebce, Uino 

■ Jliifli. fxpuioMci nin« incba*. Loealiliut, Bruil and 

^ Gtiuuift. 

■■ 

^^^P Chcin)in«le!i, II or* II eld. 

^^^P Twoincitor* alxn'o miiltwo betow; llin upper on«« tar|>i>. 

^^™^ approxinule, i«tutoanii-al. oiid acute, ihc lower wry »ni!iU 
and Riinpl«. Mui/Ia cuoical, iul»t>-4l. and with Mrlifotutui 
HUndulvi. Ear* dUtant. imenl. with i iliort. irDiiranIat4r. 
obluH oiieranlum. Axllbry pooch ample: but ihc bini) 
foot. MconUnt; to Dr. IlantBelcl. ctinniituta ihu chief di»- 
tinguishinic i-huracii-r. Tlie hiiiJ foot, of ratlio: hand, 
'oonuHs at four fingvrv. vhicli hovu dtv »&mv iliapDiition 
anil structurv o» is oilier snini&U of ifai.i rami]]', and at a 
dUtinct ihumli. enaenlially agneint; with this tncinbcr in 
maay QiMdrwnana, nod in. several animaU of the Hudcatia 
■nil ilanupiatia. It is a complcta niil«K<J'ii''t Ui the fiii- 
Run. «n«hlcs Ihu nniinal to tultc liold of oijccls, and llius 
catutituias a perfect twiul.' 

Example. CAetmmeia torqualtu, Ilcnillnld. Rcfrxrrhcs 
in Jttta. Jtfo&iMMf Chtrirofrnt, AucL; Itunptrt fhtiraput, 
Tcmmincli. LvnctU. five im-lMni and a liatf. EKpuaion 
iivarly two feet. IjocaUlicc, Sism and WcaU.-ni Aata. 
NyctiiioTiiuB, (JMpfr, 
NoM llat, Wing lUi^ir in the )ip«, which arc deeply shI 
siul miaklul. Ban liirge. and hangldi; « ltl> an external 
oarlet. Iniarftmoral mumbmno lowUrato nii'I an^kilnr. 
Tail lonii. and nearly half at it eoretDjMsiL Dcitlal formula ; 

i«cidoret";caninefc'^^;ipolar», 3 M. Locitlittes: 

thid rnrm oooura in Africa, Amu, iiimI Suulh AtBcrica. 

Exainple. tit/clirttmuii Ji^uptiacua, Ocoff.; Dviopu 

ft«oj^«y7t. Tvnniiiiick. Kctldmh abiivc aftd bccrwil bclott. 

Toir slender. ]nl4trfvuiorit.l ii)i:iiitir.inu enTdownK onW half 

uf tlic tul. Localiljr. ruuit and tuhtcnatWTlU pUK«f in If gypt. 

Dinops, Savi. 

Ears united nnd extended od the frouL IJps pendent 
and plailcl. Tail ronloptfd IhrbaU ita length in the in* 

5 
torfi-Tnoral DHiatiruTic. Dental fonnata ' ineUors. - i caoinos, 




». 



1—1 . 5— S 

Kxample. Diaopt Cfntnnii. Sati. Pur thif^k nud soft, 
grey-brown, lendioa shchily to jellowitih. but a little 
bmwneron the back. \Vit>g« blarli-brown. Muzzle. hp«, 
and eara black. the luUerlnrtic ruumliHl, and a litlldnololi^tl 
on llMir evtemol bonier. Tail Ioiir. of a btoun-blatik.. Iai- 
oUitJii the enviroiu or Piaa. wbeio Sari diacorered it. 
St«nod<^rraa, Gooff. 

Noso tinytle. Ears small, Uletal, and laolated; cU'let 
mteniat. Inletfonioral memtaiuc raditncDlory, and bor- 

dcriDg Ibo legs. No tail l>eDUl IbrmtUa: iuoiscn, ~i 

1 — I 4 — 4 

flfcnitt*i.y3-^;il»la«.^-^ w25: bnt H AovH be re- 

nienhcred that Ctivier onlv atlova of two inciaon in the 
*?£*>* jkw. iujit«ad of Tour, ide number pvcn by Gcoffro^. 

JBlNUpla, Stenoderma rufy. Piir uniform. cbeMnut- 
red. EiLta modente. oul, and a little uotcbad on their 
•xtemul border. 

Ccl Ano^ Leach, 

Tm tipper inciaon pointed and aimple; four low«r one* 
eentlxaoua and cyliiidrwoL Two canines abovfl and below, 
the upper ones lai^iieM. Four molaLra on «ach Me of the 
jnwji, the 8nt poihled and simple, and the three last with 
ilieir rroWRi beaet wJlfa points. Third and fourth flngcr 
wiih three pbalan (tea. the ftlth or exientnl with Ino onlr. 
iutecftmoru membrane pn^loiiced n liUk bclo* tltc loea of 
(1m hind BbH. Ban Mpaiated; caileti simple. No 

Xxample. CaLem Brookriana, Back (crruginoua; bellr 
ud ibflitlilni ydlgviili-luiiigiiwut. E«x« poiuud «iut 



1 nini 
anaaft^ 



the anterior bonier ronndod and the postoiot one Mtaijflft. 
Hombniuee block. 

Aiillo, Leacli. 

Tiro umiet mciMirs large, cotnpressod. bifid, nnd villi 
rounded lobes. Tiro lower equal, triQd, villi niiinOvd lobet. 
Two upper cantnos, long, rary tbarp. with a small pre- 
jecting point before and behind tneir base ; ilie iwu 
lower nnallor and leas pointed. Four upper molarg on 
each, (he iwo first pointwland Irian^lar, llie mwoihI larfjnt. 
lite ihird bidd. aud the rouilti trtfld externally. Third 
flncer r.f ihe winter with four pbalongOi. fourth and I 
with ilinie. I iitrrfcmoral memorana ttraiKlit. Ears 
tiguous. ibbit. very larKe ; no eorlet. Tall not exc 
tlic nicmbranc. 

Eiiitride. ^eUo Cuneri. Colour ferniginous-faabent. 
Wiiiiis obscure brawn. Bars truni-afiid, as it went, at thu end. 

Socio phihis, Leach. 

Four upper tnoiaor* unequal, pointed, thu icitormodiole 
ones beins loiRcat and aira[jie, and the lutwal ones bifid 
nith «)ual ivbca : six lon^r inciaocs indi»tiuctly trilld. Two 
cnninea ubuve and tclirw, the up]>er uno» with n ^mall point 
bcrliind Ihcir boNo, nnd llie corner ones with • aimilor oiiv in 
fr»nt. Four indnn with omwiii armed with point*. Fourth 
and fifth fmiters of the wind's with three phalan||;««, 

Kxnnitilo. S^ol/^titUtit KuMii. fur vernigitioaa. Ears, 
no«c, ona wing* bronn. 

a. Sab-family, PUrtipina. 

We ROW eomo 10 n nunteroui and widely dittnl 
(hmily eomaining tome of the larfCMt rormioriha Vt 
tilionids, and »ubsi*lin|$ principHlly on regetablos 
fruitn. It is not improbablu that Ihe fabutotu harpy niuy 
have hod tu origin in some of tltesc enomont bate with 
Ibeit well developed peclural mumnuB. 

Molar Itt-lli (ulHitculated and ki^iovciI luiisitudinallr. 
Winij" round(«d. Iiiierfcmorjl membrane and tall often 
wanting. Index with throe phalaiigea. Head long and 
hair}'. FcinalvH for the mwt part witn nnning |iouch«a. 

Genera, Plcropui, Brit£on. (AoMfef/wof tbe Frcnch.i 
A tmoll nail on the index wing-finger. Head conical. 

Ears shurt. Toil abient, or ruditasittarj. Interfcmoral 

ucmbiana vary littla developed. 



s^fflP 




tnmtai DwMialMt*] 
a. Tajl'len. 

Example. Ptfrojmt Jtnvrneiu, Upper part of the 
neck sBKiky re*!, test «f the Air blaekbb. aatmi white hair* 
initiglv-l wilb th« black ones of Ibe back. Exi>aa»giin five 
fc«t Tbi* ia Iho Kai'Mg of Ihe Javaaese, wtuch. acconlini; 
(o Dr. HomflDld, is vxtreBi«ly abundant in the lowi-r part* 
of Java, and uniformly live* in (ociety. 1'he more elevated 
dtstricta are not visited by iL ' NumemB tndividiieU,' mb- 
tinues the Doctor, 'select a Urge tree for their ra<iOrl, aad 
tutpcndtnu the1ns<^U•* with thu claw^i of their pesterior ex- 
tromitifs la the nated briiwhci. ofK-n in c«m|Minie« of 
H^veral liundredM, nffiwd t^i a ttrnnger 11 rerv sinEriilar spee- 
turle. Aapeeiea of Ficuc, m liabit rcsemtilifi)^ th* Kicut 
ri'ligiriaa of Irdia. wliicb in often Tuund Dear Ih^ villa^ea of 
ili« iiaiirix, allonis lliem .1 wry fuvourilc n'irv,it. nnd the 
exKnded branebeaof oneoflheee aie umctiniea euvwed hj 
theu. Tboy pass tba jpaaier portian of the daj in llaajp. 

* rm itiiiiiaaiiMa|iitliiimiiri«iii|iiii Maraiiitiai 



4 



27 



CHE 



huigln} BftttotalMs : nagffd in taooMiioa, vitli' the liead 
dowDwvd^i tile ncmbraiiB contmclcd kbout th« body, nnd 
oTlwB in cloM eontict, tlicy haw lidk n.-sGniliUi9W to Imng 
boin^ uid bjr n pareon Dot ocouatoioeil tu lli<;ir uconomy 
•I* nkdjly tDuUkcn for n part of llio tr«c, or foi a fhiit of 
unoODUOOD UM tuipcndcd rniiD Ha bniKhos. In policial 
thOM wcjttwt prM«iT« a per&nt sikuH durintf llw day ; 
but if tbtf IM dkturbed, w if a oontantion ^riMs itmoDff 
tlMm, tb»y oonl tbirp piercing sbiieka. and tboir •vltwurd 
ftttontpU to extriralc tliciu*«lvca wticn opprcnitwl by ihu 
light of th« tua, «.\lubit a ludiciuui vpvvtscle. I rt cciii- 
icquene* of Iha thatpno** of tbeir cl»w», tli«ir Bltichm«nt 
u ta atroiiK, (hat Ihcy caanot rotdily [cu^'o their h'^ld ttitli- 
fiui tha MtiitoDoe or iha cxmudcd membrane: and if uid- 
denl^ lulled in the niktunl altitudv duritiR dto d«y. 1b«)r 
eontinuo nupcnded aAcr ilcatb. It i« DecccMiy tbereTotc 
loobliKB tluni totake vinf; by alumingtbcRi, if it b« de- 
■irad ta obteta th«in dunnf; tb« day. Soon after fiiriMt 
tbcT graduAlIy (]iiit tbcir hold, uid puniM thalr narLaraal 
fight in qucit of fbod. Tb«j diroct that course, by an 
HCrring instinct, to tb« fhrvtti.rjllages, and bUntaliin*, 
oensioniufi incalailable ni!itohi«f, tUtAcking Uia 4<}Vourina 
inliterimiiutely every kind of I'niit, from the Dbtntdant and 
■mAiI coocMt'Dut which eurroutidB the d<r«Uiiig of the 
nHuiMt pewutry. ta tine tmro ami mntl dclicato iimduc- 
I wtneb at9 cultiTstcd with care by priiicea aoa clileb 
liMtinn. By lh« latter, as ncll at by the European 
'its; varioiM mothodt are employed lo pminet thu 
'a and (taideaa. Dtlicaie fruttt, sui>li as man);(H, 
lanaa*. tlw , a« tbey approach ta maturity, are inge- 
ly seeurvd by nwana of a loose net or bntknt. tkilTully 
nuiodufapht bamboo. Wiihuul ibin precaution, little 
laUe fhilt sould eceape tha ravagei of the Ktilottg. 
Then am fewBitaationa in Uie lower iiarta of Java, in 
whkh thb niuht waiMl«icr i» not coiminnlly ubierved: as 
•uoQ •■ Iha Uslil of the iud ba* retired, one animal is Men 
L flDllow the otliei at a Binall but irregular diitanci!, and ihb 
IMuion ooatinaos uniDlvrrupted till lUtknca* obitrucU 

!Tio«. Tb« fliiibt uf the Kalontjt i* iIok and tteady, 

pcraiMd in a sUaifiht line, and capable of long emtinuaiicv. 
The ehue of the KoloDg tbrns occaiionallj nn nmuiement 
0[ ihr culoiii«U and inhabitants durtog the moonlixht niftbts. 
vhich ill ihi: latitude of Java are uncomcDDnly seivne. lie 
11 «Bti:bcd in hb detcent to tbo fruit trees, and a discharK« 
itf antall >hnt readily briniia him lit lb« Kround. By this 
ncan* I rtvquonlly obtained four or live individuals in the 
coune of an hour. 



^ 



\ 



very abort. Ka nail on lie index. Win^ apringinK from 
the middle of the back. Expaaaion two CuU. Lorality, 
Tinivr. N.B. Temminck thinks that tbe Pteroput pat* 
lialut of GcoCTniy ia ibc young of tfau Sfieciet. 

Harpya. Illigor. 

Diirerins from CoiiholoLc^ in the want of lower incliora 
and of Ihclasi small mulars In hu(h jniri, GcoOroy tliinks 
ihat the diffcrenco tictnrrvn iho aystoni of dcniilion in Har- 
fiyu and CeitSulatea Puronii ia attrihuuhle to age only. 

Denial fonnula (Pallas} : inotaora, - ; cnninos, -j — - ; 

4—4 

molars, r^Ti = *^ 

Exaiuvle. Harjtyti PaUatii, CfpAahUt Pallani, Geoff. 
Fur Gonaialin); of scanty and taft bain, li^eyiali-aiih above, 
pnlo whito Wlow. A nail on the index. Expanaiou I foot 
1 1 int'hea. LiooaUty, tbe Moluccas. 



p. liilh tads. 
Baampk. Ptvropu* »iramiH4ut. Fui icdditb ytllaw; 
latl ««ry »U<>tt. Uxpaiuioii two f<;«t Bmu^hl froni Timur 
fly Vkwt aud Lkfuvuf. 

y. with winiis on tha baoli, 
CcpbalciCi'*, GoolT. 
'a small nail on th* index in one ipt-ciuA. Ifea'I conical ; 
nn abort i toil but little spparuiit, Iiilei-r«nw>rjl taora- 
itme notched. Flank -iBCBObranfl ipnnging from the mc- 

4 
rial line of tbe bftob. Dental fonaula : incisors, ri cuiints, 

— ,i»oI.rs,^-Z5=3!l. 
Kiample, CtpHaloItt iVronii, Fur bnwn or r«d, and 



w 



V ^ 



[llni'li'tllitprii'tiUvJ.} 

CyuopUtrut, F. Cuvior. 

Fotir inrisnn and two niliroonlirT false raalnra in ea«b 

Jaw, like iIk- I'lcTi'iii, but lU/ nnlirvly niint the loal molora. 

The Jaws an) abWuvuted, and thu liuaiU much retcmhto 

thoM of Cophaloiei. 

Matroglucsa. F. Cuvler. 

A ecnu* appniuciiing very cIoMtly to Pteroput and fotmud 
hy U.F. CiiutT fur ll^« Louy>-a$iu o( tho JaranoKi', J'lerv- 
put imiait/iu* o{ GvufTio}, itfrr^ut rattratut of Uorstlcld. 
Its cbftt-nctcr dqionds up'Xi th^ uxIrMU* lanKth of tlio head, 
tbe al«unc4> of fnlw Diolai«, tlio groni dtvelopmont of tlto 
posterior molar and tbe oxicntilo tongue. Itental feruula ; 

■I , 1 — 1 , 4 — 5 „ 

iDcisoiB. ■; ; canines, ; : molan,; — ;=34. 

4 1 — 1 8 — B 

Bxamplo. Mn^rngi'vta fJorifittdii. Plfrapiu rattratta, 
Horafldd. Teniminck i* uf opinion that ilaeraghua &'io- 
dolm, Puropu4 minimut, Geoff;, and Uaeroglota Hon- 
JUidii ore id«nti<«L 

i, Winj^i placed <>sln>mety haekwards. 

On the 13th Ofkib(<r, IH4)S, at a nwciing of Iho Zoo- 
loffieat Sodcty. Mr. Beiiiieit called attention to a Pit' 
rvpifif Bat which hnd rty-rnUy b«cn obtained Oom tbe 
noighbourhund >if tha rtv»r GainUa, and which was oxbi- 
bitL>d. He directed cipccial notice lo two Urge tulU of 
while balm placed upon iUt shinildora and forniiuj; a tvry 
ronaplcuonB feature m lU appearand. Tlicw, ho remarked, 
might probaMy oarer cuuneoua glands dntinrd (or tbo 
l>n>pxraiion of a lecrction flttcd to dofciid that part of the ani< 
mni ill its piu»j;« tlirou|{h ihiv air, ur pKrhapa to attract Ilia 
uppoaice sex. It eould acaictdy be concci^'oa that they have 
any influence in tncreasJns tne buoyancy of the anitnal; 
alibouj^li tbo backward poaition of the winiis mijcbt Mwni to 
render necessary such a supplemeatal aid) their position in 
advance of the ordinary *br nembranv* girca tboiUtia fact 
Mttne rcacmblaiicc to aupplemcntaiy wtaga, 

He staled that on account, cliiony, of iho mitlon of th 
winifs su far backward as almost to tftsta to tw placed b« 
bind ibc centre of gravitvi he wat diipowd to consider the 
but cxbibil<:d might be rcguded lu tlio type of a new go 
nus, to vhich the name of BpomopSorm might bu giTcn. 
But tbe genus would, bo conceived, rest almoat entirely on 
llm single character, and he beatlated lo propoie it deSni- 
tircly until h« bad an opportunity of examining a apeciutoQ 
|>rrKrve<l in aptril, >nd contMUcntly not liable to tAnt du- 
f.ftion to which the iadi<iduat >lun exhibited miKlit have 
been subjected. In one of tbe two other apacioa of Pt«rupi 
preriously obtained ftom lb* tame eountrjr by Hr, Kendall, 
and brought under the notice of the Society on July Nth 
I PitTf>p*t» Oamhianua and Plervpm maeroctjt/miut), by 
Hr.Ogilby, the a*ni« backward po«ttion ofthewinBa etisu. 
In dcntary cbaraeten the new speeiM agrees with ihoM just 
referred to, the enly esoeptun boing in the pruMmoi of f 
third abnormal incisor on the left of tbo upper jasr. _ 

Koganling it a* a lorm of soma inteieat to loologtaU. Mr 
Bennett sUled bis inUntun to dMoriba it iDore fully in 
a paper which be pnpoaed to prepan on Ibe nibjeeL He 

S2 



CUE 



28 



CHE 



clwrnrtoriteil it as tho Pfet^tu eponoo^orut', Palo bnwxi, 
llic culour being iwler posteriorly ; belty while; kuinvrul 
bruili (orciinuletle) wbito and largo. ToUl ItsigtU. six in- 
rhnn lliroi- t|uuTt«r( ; lonetli of the ko3«l, two iiichc« snd k 
i|uarier. Espan»ion twi-lvu Lncbi»4. 

On tlic mh April, I (I3C, nl a modtin;; of the Zoolngii-nl 
Society of London, cLmocKw w«re rcn'l of VftpurtiHtnidar 
obtcrvcd in IhccciitralreK'^no^Ncpuuli Veingacammtini- 
cation Imnsmitlcd lo Iho Si>cioiy hy B.II. Hodgson, K<fj., 
Corr. MoTob. Z.S. Thi.>y had alrfnoy been publi!>h«d in the 
'Journal of tbo A»i»tio Society of Cali'Utla. 

Tho foUovrinK aro ll>o ipreics chnnelcnjicil in this com- 
imiiiieiktion : 

P/tinnpfinfwr armixtr, Flodgd. 

/?A)n. Iragalu*, Ej. 

Pter'jpiti Ifuf-ne^vh'iliti, EJ. 

Ptfr. pyrieoTus, Fj. 

VetperUHo fnrmvsua, Ej. 

J'*^, fiiliffintaur. Ej. 

J-'i'jyj, lahialui. EJ. 

Mr. Hodf^Mtn's obaniclera of tb^so Rppeim uV MeOD- 
ptini«d by ramnrka on xtui habiU ol' tiii; uvural geoen of 
bal« in ihe ilinlncl in which they occur. 

Bonc!! of bits i>f oxisliti^rBpccieswiTPrguml in tliu cavilioa 
of th" cypiuni at Kiiitril», tni.xi'i! with the remains ofulhur 
vtistTiu iip?iMi?4. and wi[h the )iones nf rAtiittI animaU. 

CHEIIIOSTE'MON IM.ATANOl'DES. « tno»i »in- 
gnlar pliiiit liHuiii^iiii; lo ibo natural order ItumbHCcv, xnA 
commonly cillcd the 'hand-irco.' in canicr|ncnce of its 
tlamciii being *a SLrrsngcd u to prrMnt nii nppc.irarif'o 
loincwhat Hiirdar to thut of a human hand. Ii ii n tuny 
tree, with the habil of a planr. nnd n tnink a1>oiii ns thick 
na a mnn'a body ; its head divides intu u niiniher uf rlnnc 
hiinxonid bninr.lie*. which aru of a brownish colour lowaida 
their csiicmilics in conseiiucncc of tbc tinmlirr of short 
fawit-cobured hairs that be^el ihem. Tho leaves aiu bi;arl- 
fthnped, slightly »cTcn-labcdi six or ci^ht inchtja lonK. And 
Ik link tootLcd i thcv arc a rich dvcp Krecn an the upper 
Hide, and aro eoveral with fuwii -coloured haira on the under 
aide. Tho flowna at« of a bngbt red, and appear at the 
ends of the branchca: they coimit of three external Isnrco- 
Uto browuisli btacU, and a bell-ihaped tleshy angular 
caljx, about an inch and a half deep, bright icd ioaide, 
covered externally with n russet down ; it in deeply (lividcd 
into five lobea. and is marked on tho outside al the ba»c 
with five proDiineucQS, wliicb corceajKind with an cigiiul 
number of litllo pit* Dllcd with a ulitthtly viind whitith 
■fluid, TlieTO is no corolla. Tliero are five Mainens ooin- 
Uircd into a. central eoluinn-hko tube, from tho api>x of 
whii^h proceed five long i.tender ihini-poinled proeeMca, 
wbirh are all curved one way, coloured red, and look very 
much hke what one might imaf'ine lo bo Ihi^ elaws of n 
dc-Rion's hand; on their convex, aide theae nroecisen bear 
tlie anther*- Tim fruit ii> ii largo woody llre-e«ll«d flv«- 
valved capsule, with from nitecn to tweniy weJ* in eacli 
rcll. Tlio ainuiLlnr foriu of lbs stamens and iheir large size 
bj* rendered thi« tree an ohject of curincily and veneration 
ill Mexico fn'm time immenitinal ; the naline Mexicnni call 
it by ibe uiiprinounecable nfttiw of Morjmlj'yehiqtusiJiiU. 
which (he SpaiiianlK trmislatit Arbitt tie Munttut, and tbo 
Eiit;li?<h Ifufiti iTfT. Wlmt nude il a itreatet object of ad- 
iuiriilii>n w.i« thai in all M<'Xtco only one tree waa known, 
which was near the tciirn of Tuluca. about ^ixlcen teo(iti*'» 
west of xiiv rily of Mexico. The Ilowers of thin plant were 
ao consldiitly t;aihuieil by iho Indium as objcclk uf \eiie- 
nlion. (hat the fruit never ripene<t. and it wiu not idl the- 
J'car ISOI that eultiiii::! irauJerml m itic Bmanic Garden 
al Mexico »lruek root, uud bc^aii lo muliiply iliin veceluble 
wonder. The oriiriTial tree tDU»t be iiiuuli more untieiil 
Ihaii ihv cviiquiHt of Mexieo, fur it has been dikliiieil) dc- 
scrihrd by (he Spanttb hittoriaiis. The people of loliica 
imagine Uiat iIm tree i* one and indivisibU, that iiu oilier 
was ever crtiat^d, nor any ever prupa;;atcd ; gceds. however. 
h«v* been producetl from tbw vuitni; pUnii in the Uotaiiie 
Ganlsn. Mexiro. whence they may now be procured wilhnul 
dilSfuliy. Hont* of it were ibtis obtained wme years aince 
by XIr. Lamheri. of Boylon Eloiitc, in Wiltshire, and tboy 
UK not uneomnion in larjco eolleelionn. Ai^ many Mrxieun 
plants are hardy in thu etiuntry. il has bcon hoped that llns 
ciirioua tree would prove so too'; a plant of it, l)uwe*vr, ex- 
poaed to iIm winter against » wall in the garden of tho Horli- 

• fUIMrUmiiiH WhlM lolhtisiln. 



cullurn.1 Socidy at Tumhani Green, ne&T London, penthed. 
And i>i.-rhiip» il >(• not likely that other atlcmptf will prom 
muni foitunate : for. in tho fint ]>Iaee, it WIoii[;h to tho 
nnl Ural oilier Bombneew, which consist* entirely of pbnis 
impationtof cold; and, iwcondly, nolwithttnnding thi.- I<«]k'f 
trf tho Mexicans to the contntry, it i* really found wild in 
Gufitcmala, where whole foreits of it vere ob««n>ed nearlbo 
city of that name by one of the pupiUof Profeiwor Oervante*. 
Tho bond-tree is «atd to form a very tarj;e tree, whieb pi^ 
•ervcs Its tcATes all the year round, and forms a fine shady 
canopy, llowrrinf; in Novorabcr, December, nnd Janusty. 
<So« Heroandcx, tfijit. Plant. Noe. Hinp., vol. il., cd. '2, 
p, S:tl ; Vetaneoun, ThMtT. Mi'Tte. : LarrontCKui. Dmerr., 
Juno. I "95: Tilofiu* in AeUPetrop., i, 'ii\, X.ix.; Uanli. 
and Bonpl, PI. /RquinviH., i., S>.) 




nero 



[rha^wMrninn p'tlxiniilat.) 
e, nidiofanni: ^ tHilonvT Tflw: riuii, iIuvIqii thi dliiiHir'iAn af ili* 

*f.'4l«( f. JklBllI 4 ml llf«LL-1«. ti. Ill>"'t UfrQtl k> thv* 1 tlT tuW ^r lIlF •!■ IDrtia 

aikO 111? nvr mtLlMii; (nil t]if«p fijritn ntv alwul uiir-tiuh Ins Ihmjj Ute 
nal'Put iiiMi IIl.k- bIiMi kill..f> AH •oniritf Itir nntu>.<1 tlla. arul till-m 
•lixliily mucDiOcil , I r,/,giKvdi; A. 1. mlloiit ihavinK the tllunllDC af its 
tiiitjryu, A.lltr piiiri^)i\ ^UapmI 111 allow tliwqifiolaihk. 

CIIEKK, SIR .lOHN, a learned writer of tho sixteenth 
retilury, desccndnl (mm nn nntient family in the I»ln of 
VVijiht, WBh bom at C»nibridj,-r, June 16, 1514. He was 
admitted into Sti John's 01l*((e,CAnibriil^, in 1511. where 
hiH early studw* were chiolly directed to the Lstm 
Gn'ek language, the laitwr of which was then almost 

versallt neglected. After taking his degrees in art*, ha 

ehosen Greek lecturer of (he univewity, and about 1 i4il hft- 
ertnie iha llrst profesjuir of thnt language in the univcrvity, 
upon King Henry VIII.'* funtnUiion. He wan highly in- 
strumenial in brini;ing it into repute, and direeied hi« atloii 
tion more ]Ktrtieulnrly to rof'irm and restore. wh»t bt) eomti- 
dered, the orijtinul pmnuiieiatiun of il (bc^ke. wliite pra- 
fcsaor, was at ilie same liiDr Univeisity Ocalur. In I&43 
he was iiieoTpiimtvd M.A. at Oxforti, where he also studied 
for D short iiine; and id 1344 *a* tent fur to court, to bo 
made i»ini<[uior for the Latin tongue with Sir Anthony 
Cooke to PriiK-e Bdwuitl. He aeema also lo have hail tho 
l.-idt Klij^nhclh for •omo linic iinilcr his care. Abotil 1544 
too l»e kecunie a esnon (it ia holie%ed a lay caoon, for ibei* 



CHE 



29 



C H E 



is no proof of hii liavinj; takifn ordcrR) afKin^ Hcnir VIII.'i 
flnl foi)n>]atinn of iheiMllejfe in Oxfcird, whioli hat been 
•inra cHtlnl CkrUl Cliurrli : but iirwii thu (Ii»»o1iition of Ihat 
fi>Uiulalion in I iAi, he wu allowuil a pcntiuii in llio rouni of 
hi* rmwmnr. Wh«n B^ward VI. came to the tixrvne he 
revardtti ChvlMi with an annuily of a hutidroil tnarki^. and 
oiide Ura OCM or tiro famurabk' gtuiiU in |mr«hi*a nf mii- 
Da«(ic propenr- In I i*a h« had a grant of ih« collu";)! of 
Slake liv i:inr«i, in SulTolk. anil in Ids year foUon-iiiK ilie 
bouie ind iile of tin* priory of Spalding in I,icii:i>liiiiliiro ; 
but surrmdered hit annuuy u|wn nceiving the latter Krmit, 
The ktnic tikovif a ciuud him. by a iDBudamtif. to lie cycled 
ptovost of Kinic'n CoUc^e. Cainliriiljtc- In 3^30 lie u'b» 
made Met gentleman of the Vtnit'i privy chantWr. aiiJ in 
Hi] rccKived the honaiirof knighthood. Aliiiul Itim lime 
hti w«a eafptgcA in inrimif caiir«TUTicr« and iliipiilatiun^ on 
Ibc ProtnCant tide, on tbo iubjfcl of the sacrament, iruii- 
»ub«aotiation, S». In ISS3 be became clerk of the roiiu- 
cil, and soon aAcr on« of ilw iccrctarinorstak. and privy- 
evuncdlor. Thii «» lb» haigbt of Sir John Cbtke » far- 
lunes. Hit aeal for the Proicttant religion induced him lu 
approve or tba Beltlument uf the crawo upon Lndy June 
Gray ; and fa« acini tar a vtinr fihort lime u accreUry lu her 
•ad ber oounril afW King Ednrd'a decease. Upon Mary'n 
•ee«Mii>ii lo (he throne be wa> committed to the Ton-t-r, anil 
an indktmcnt was drawn up aeainst him : but hu ruiuaiiicd 
■a pcitKin, and the year following, having been strip|i»t of 
hi* «bale «ub»tflDr«, recoiled a purduni and nas »ct at liberty 
SepteniWr 3, 15S4. For«*eoiDi; the days of pertecutioii, he 
obtained a lifcnTV to (r%vcl for totno lime, and went tu 
HmIs, and tbence lo Ituly At Padua ho renGWcd liia 
Greak atadiM: end a(ler»»rAs, in lii> return frum Italy, 
MitM at StiaaburK. nhcra lie wn» so rcdiiccd in eitniiu- 
■uuiem t> to bo obtij:od to read a G[e«k lecture for vubsitl- 
enee^ In th* l>eginniiiL- uf 1536 he came, by a trva«ii'rtuu« 
tantation* to Bm«<icU, though undor miagivings, which 
warn ohlf lUa^ad by th« comuUaiiun of ailrolo^, a paeudo- 
viaaesHwhieh Sir John Chekowai unfortunately attached, 
and which upon thi* ocenKion deluded him. BnttvAcn Hrus- 
ada and Antwerp h« fell into a Hnara. Ho wo* leited by 
order of Philip II.. blind-folded, tliroivn into a WBgi>an, con- 
veyed lo lh« nenrmt harbour, put on board a ship under 
haiebea. and brouKht attain to the Towar of Ijmdon. H» 
(Aun foond that thi$ naa on aceouni of hia religion. The 
dcxiTfi of gaining Ilin roeoni^il iaiioTi of so grpal a man to Ihe 
Church of Rome indureil the (|uuen t^ «eiid nni only tvw of 
liar ehaplaitu, but Ur. Feckenham. at that time dean of 
Sl Paula, toendean>ur lo Mnverl him. The Hinplnini hiid 
no iuece» wtlh tlieir ar^umcnu : but yeukaiiliamK wnre 
hnjuglit inlo a narrover compaBs : he iBii). ' Either compli' 
or bum.' Chi^ke couW not withstand ttio drBi4rul alier- 
DaliVB. On Jidy ll. adur a previous negotiation with 
Coidinal Pole, he wrole to the queen, and declared hi» 
icadMMM to obey ber law* and other orden of leliKion. He 
afterffwtla not only made hiw MJl^mn Kubmisipion bcfure the 
cudinaL. liut on the -llh orOrtober made a public rcronla- 
Itet liefurc the (jtirtm, and aftrr ihnt UYorB the whnh! courl. 
Upon ttiese nMrtiBcatioiis Wis lands were restored to him. 
hut upon condition ofan exrlian>;c with tbo queen for nihcn. 
TImi papiaK, by war uf triumpli. Mere not merely uinicnt 
wilb watdiing bim : they ul1i;;cd him to keep company gene- 
rally with Cuholicft. and oieu to be present al tbo c.\aiinna- 
ttOB* and rnnridiana of iIium they termed heretic*. It«- 
inune uid vexation ssto at liul eu heavy on Chekc'a mind, 
thai hu pine>l away with »hia>c tndicutel. HodiedSep- 
Umbcr n. 1337, at the age uf furly-lhiev, and wni buried 
in Ihe nottb chapel oflho choir oflhe ehufch of Sl. Alban. 
Wo«4 8(r«*t. Lendon. For the litl of Sir John Cheku'» works, 
w« refer to tUc aulhoritiev whtnce the prsMinl noliea of 
biiu hat been diawn. Som« of ihrm ar« m very eleRant 
l^lin. One of bi« pic«e«, entitled 'The Huit xf Sedition, 
how grietmit il ia to a Common wealth.' wi-iiton on ocraaion 
[iba inuitrcction* in Devaii«hire and Norfolk in 1619, vat 
linted by Or. Gerird Lan^bamt^ or Queen'* Oolle^te. 
i, in l$4t, for tlie no and ron*i<lfratuin of thote who 
■rmit againaL Charles I. Few of Sir John Cfaeke'a 
k« would kuil ttie reading of the ptewnt 'lay. Htdl he 
aaa of the tnmt learned nicn of hia Ofpi^. one of ill 
^_ Heat BrnaiiM'Hla. and one of the revhera of polite lilora* 
1ttr» in Enifland. ( Slry pc's J^{/« ^CAtfAcBvOu I,«nd. I7C3; 
Hmf^. Bnl., olil edit.. Vol. ii. p. 13U9 : Bliia'a ediL of Wooil'i 
^lh*n» ';.r>>n fniacr, nd. i. p. 341 : Chalmen'a Biogr, Diet., 
ml ii. p. TO.) 



CHEI.TDO'NIIJM, a smtlt PapftV^raceoni n^nus, the 
only specieiof which i« aglaueoua rather bairy annual, wjtb 
small yellow How era, a siliquoaaeapaulc, andorango-coloured 
juice, nut nl all uncotnnion in waste ploees in thU eonnlfy ; 
It i« coramonly culled Celandine, and poucsset no mcJul 
prop«lies norln naming. 
t-HH'LMON.n upriuB of Rfhes. [CnATanow.] 
tJtiKI.M^iFORD, n markvt-town and parish in the hun- 
dn*!! of Ciielrasfocd, and neorly in the centre of the rownty 
uf KwH-K. or«hich it IS the county town. 28 milea N.E. by 
E. fmm l^ndon. un the hii{h road to Ipiwich. 

Cliolmaroril derives ila name from its situation in the 
vicinity o!' im anlieni fonl on the river Chelmer, near ilt 
rordueiice with the river Cam. In ths rcigti of Edward Ihe 
Confessor, and at the time of ihe Norman survey, it was in 
Ihe jxiMeMioti oflho hishops of London. But it was nnver 
a place of any imiionanre lid the leiKn of Henry 1., when 
Maurice, then bishop of London, built a stone bridge over 
tJiQ nvcr Cnin. nnd diverting the road which ptuvimihly 
passed throiigh Writtle, made Chi^lmafurd (he great ttio- 
rau;;hfArc to Suffolk jnil Norfolk. From thta time the town 
liUK gtnilually incruased in iiiipartancc. It coniiils ptinci- 
pnLl} of three e.lieei!i. which art' miicuduintaed, and partinlly 
lighted with gas. The hoUEcs arc generally well buill. Tlic 
inhnbilnnta arc well eiipplicd wi^) water from a spring, 
called Burge's Well, ahaut une tnde frum the town. The 
wnlor is conducted through pipes into a rcbcrvoir, uvor 
which Is a dome supported by six Doric columns. A hand- 
Home tib>ne bridge wiia circled over the Cam in the latter 
part oflbc last century, GoaDectiDg (be (own willi the baialcl 
»r Moultham, nnd rcplaoiiig the old bridge buill by Bialiop 
Maurice. 

The *hiro liall i< abAndiome huiULing, rron(odwith Port- 
land atone. The ba9em«iit. which ia rustic, Bupport* four 
lo^nie pillam; hi^lwreii the piliara are three llgurca tn bA»m>- 
riUovo, of Wiadom, Justice, and Merely. In tlie upper part 
ol the buildinft, betides (wo comtnodious eourU, are a grand- 
jury-rooiD and witness-room, and an asMinhly-room, 8fi feet 
l>y .)0 feet, where nubhe ball* arc held at Kntter and Chritt- 
maa. Over Ihe ciiimney-pi>ece of the grand-jiiry room ia a 
handsome bust ofThomai; Ganlmer Hram*ti>n, Ksq, twenty 
yetni a cliairmun of ihu ijuurter-wsiioni. The old jail, 
built in 17*9. ts now oiily u»ed for debtors, nnd the house at 
corrwetion. which adjoins it. for rvrnnle ronviet*. A new 
jail hoc lately beenemeted abuut a mile from the town. uL 
SpntigHcld. It it. built on thi? rsdi.iting principle, and is 
capable of acootniDodatinu 'i''i prUoncn, althuiij^li it haa 
contaioad many more. Dating the late war two extensive 
barracka were erected near Iho town, which could areommo- 
dali: -1000 men, but they have recently been pulled down. 
The Ihi'aire la a neat building. Racei take place annually 
at Gallcj-wood Common, about two milea from the town. 
Tlio market-day Is Friday ; and fuJrs aio held on the I iXh 
May and I'^ih November, principnlly for bones und cattle. 
The a-iiirea for the county are lield tieie, as well aa four 
quarlcT seaiiunn and four petty mssioDS, 

Tho population of Chelmsford in 1831 was 5433i of whom 
iWi were females. 

The living ia a rcrtory in the juri»ltclion of the rommis- 
snry of Btiex and Kent. Tho church is dcdicitted to Sl. 
Marv ; the body hon lately been rclitiili, mid n a hanil><i«io 
building, in the Inter alylc of English erchi loci ore. The 
tower is square and ombnttlnd, and u lurmountcd by a lofty 
spire. Ine arehdenr^on boId« hiA court in this chureh, and 
the will* and records are dcpoMted in an office over the !>oiiih 
porch, A new ehapel is now being creeled by aubtiviplion 
(August, Itf.tOI. The ro are two places of wnrship (or Inde- 

!icn<lcnt«, one for tlio Society of Frionda, and ono for Wes- 
eyan Method ista. 

The fVoo pammar-schoot was founded and endowed l>y 
Kdwnrd VL The ichool. in common with tlioae at M4ldon 
and BrentwooiL has an p\hihiiiun ai f,l. per annum at CaiUa 
Collir,;e, Cnmbriit)^. The management of the sebnni n 
vested in four hercdnary trustees. l1io telioobhoute was 
rebuilt in 1703, by K. Benger. }iin\., on the site of a mora 
nBlient one built by Sir Juhn Tyrrell. 

Chelmsford has a chanty school, fiir the rnaintenanee. 
rintfaing. and education of liftv boia. founded in 1713, and 
one for twenty giiU. founded in 1714. both supported by 
Toluntar>' contributions: a Lan^astonan, an infunt, and a 
nntionnl school for children of both icses; six alm»-lii>u»ei, 
tiundcd by Sir ThoiDas Mitdmay. were rebuilt in the end 
of the last century by Vr'illiam Mildmay, Esq. There sra 



CUB 



ao 



CHE 



tiBQ four alm^lxHues in BaJJov-kne^ ((AiaauaiiMtion 
fnvt Chetmt/orJ.i 

CIlELUNA'RIUM.'a eenui of Coleopteroua insectf. 
[KlatsiidsI. 

CHBLCyKlA (Cbdiui). a grnus of Lopidoplomus 
init«ci4. of tha ccction Nactnma llAlrolUe). and tantWy 
Arcliidta (Lencli). Bofuru «c proceed with an account of 
thw gniiui, nliidi oontains In-o orthe mosl cnnspicuoua Miil 
bonuiiful of tha British motliN it tnny be well liriefly to 
■taU) ibo chsrsctun uf lbs ^inily Arcliidte, u far u (he 
diversified habit of the snoctcs will admit. Ttio palpi aro 
Inro ill noRiber, nuwtly thn^oinlod and hairy. Tli« an- 
biOQfe hare a douMc m-ciuh i>I iientiiiatiunn: thurux largo; 
ibe apex of the bud) Kti('«t"IV iuniithuJ witha tufi; vin^a 
doring to as to brm an imgle by Ikcir junction, or foldiiiK 
hoTuantally. Tho mitio* arc uMislly Inrgcr than Ihu tv- 
malea; laivn pmerall; very hairy, ftc'iuuntty furnished 
vith nanicrous lulb. (lioso on tbo tail and low&nlt tho head 
the luiiger. 

Tbo KCnus Chtlvnia a tjaonynioiu with ^n:'i<i of 
Schraiilt ; (bo latter caroo is (cenersUy adopted by Uriti»b 
«niomolo|tiiU fhnn its priority : IbotAno Cneknia i* op«n 
la another objoctian, being oommoDly mod to debif^oto a 
»f«tion of tortoliea, ■ 

Airlia Caja, fA« hrgt 'ISgtr itotk, U teitTf common in 
lti« South v( England, out apparently leia si> in tho Nurlli, 
The «xf andoit vunfE* meamto awn two and a hftif lo thron 
iDchca 111 width ; tbo uppar winR* ftre of a nhocolato-bTow t\ 
colour, with numerous irregular cr«acn- coloured roarkinci ; 
tli« under winn ara »oarl«l, wtlh fivu or tix larg« bluo-blark 
>poU; tjiubod)' tsalMSi^arl^t, or pinkish aboro,wlth nctfnil 
traiHTOTSO b1 nek b.-in(U ; on the u nd<^r icide the ground -tolour 
is black, with pink bandi: the head and ihorsix ar« brown, 
Mparatcd with a r^d riiii; ; tbo I«^ are red at tbo base, and 
th« nntonntB QK while. 

The catuTpillar of this tooth is fbond in f:ita,t abundance 
noar London, and is frnqtiently aoon CFawling on pathways : 
it is covered wdth long black hair*, and vrhen touehed wilt 
roll itaelf up in a ting : it foedd upon a gr**t variety of 
ptaotg, but sMtns most fond ol leltucv. ^mindKct, and 
chi^kwoed. Tbo lana U ftmiid in tlie Kpring montht, and 
turns into a pupa about June; (ho pupa is enclosed in 
a looM wob of a white colour; the moia appears in the 
auluiDR. 

Tilts species is exlrcmoly variable in ita imago slato ; we 
hare seen tpeciraons in which the upper wing Is nearly all 
white, and «t)i«irs ill whipb tlie white ts aliaoatobliteratcd: 
the spots on tlie under wing mry olw coatidvrably; thuy 
ioiii«ttme« run one into the otlicr so as to form a hand. 

Arcliii VtUiCii, the cream-spot tiger moth, it the only 
other wnll auOif-nticsinl Uriliih spooies ; it is Ear Icm nbun- 
dnntthan the otbtT. Tbeujiper wmg« are black, with atwut 
eiKbt largu crcanxaloumd spots; the under vinfis sre 
mlooisfa, spotted more ur tewi vrith block, and has an 
tneffular btack fascia noor tho aiBrgtn ; the abdomen is 
rcdilksb, spotted with black ; the head and thorax an block ; 
tbe latter ^las two cr«am-«o1oured spota. 

The colorDUInr tcry touch rcMnibles the one la»t ilo- 
flcnbed, but nos a rod ticod nnd legs of tho tamo colour ; 
like the last It feedi U|Mn various plants, pariioutnrly the 
cliickw(»sd. Tbo moth nppeara about tho end of Juiie, and 
is rathnr Ic!"* than ihc large liRcr. 
CIIKI.O'NIA (H<'rp.H(.lo(r>-.) [Tortoibm.] 
CIIKLO'NIANS. rToaToiiis.l 
CiiCL<>NOBIA. fCiiiaiiifBOA.] 
CHKLO.NU'KA. fToRtoisas.] 

CHELSEA, formerly a village rccluinod about two miles 
from l.on>ilon, but now corfsliiuiinK a portion of the suburb). 
It is on tbe north bank of the Tbsnius. in (he hundred of 
Ossuhion, Middlesex. The parish of St. Luke. ClieUen, ib 
sUUxt in th« return* of 1831 to contain 760 stoluto acres 
ami 32,3ri inhobitanls. 

Chelwa la on a shghl eminence, about fifteen feet above 
the Thames. Tbe etymology of the tinme has raised can- 
aidemble discuuion ; in ' Domesdav' it is written Cer^bede 
a!id Cbelebed, and Sir Thomu More, who hud n hoote 
hero, wrote it Cbelohilh. In the li'.th century it bagan lo 
bo written Clwlsey- 1 1 was one* a favourile plaee of resort, 
and many of the nobdity and gentry hid retideners ber«, 
and there were aevera] noted taverns nnd public- houi^o* 
with gardens, whi^ www much frwiuented in the I'th and 
1 dtb cenlorin. 
Tbe Roj'ol Hos{i[lal for inTabd aohliera i* at CbeUet. In 



the roignof James I., Dr. StttoliSe, dean of Exeter, projoetsd 
a college for tbo study of uoleniiiml divinity, wluch met vith 
the king's approhalian. Tiio fuundation-stono of tbe buQd 
inj; waa laid on Ms; Stb, ISOd. In Ibe charter oTiooovw 
utioii it is tenncd ' Kiag James's CoUcgo atChotsoy.' B«t 
thoDgh royally pntroaizcd, and also endowed with rmiriilfc 
abla reTtouM W Dr. Sulcliflu. Ilio collngo o«?«r flniiriilml 
It was ullimstely aciscd by the parliamtnt dnrinir tbe cnil 
wars, and appropriated to diUetcot purpoMe. ^ CiMilen IL 
ca\o it to the ihvn newly -established Royal Soeieiy ; bat not 
bciikc adapted lo their use, it was reatored lo tbe king tat 
1300/, in order that tbe site luiicht be occupied by the Royal 
Hospital. 

Tbo arohitoct of tbe Royal Hospital was Sir Chriatopbet 
Wren, Tbe foundutioa-stune was laid on the 16th February, 
K&'i, by the kiag. who was attended by a KT«at cmicuurso 
of nobility and gentry. The building was completed in 
iCM. at an eipan»«, it i> stnlcd, of liO.OOOl. It iaof bnck, 
oruamontvd with stoiiu quoius, cornices, pediments, and 
columUB. The buddin;- r:on«isls of tbr«o courts, two o( 
which arc tpncifus ousdnuiglcs ; the third, the central odb. 
is open uu the nouln aide next tbu Thames. It constsis 
of turee aides of a tquaro, oruamented with portiooa sad 
pianos, and has a pleasing appearonoa, Tbo north front 
IS simple in ita style, and consists of a ceotre and wing*, itt 
a straight line, with »u other ontamenl than a plain por- 
ttca. In tho eontro of the hospital are the chapel and the 
great dining-hnll. 

The business of tbe Royal Hospital at Chelseaiinanajred 
by enmniissii^nfrs appointed under the great soal. The 
eclnbliihment cunitits of a goveitidT and tioutiinant-go- 
rernor, with various subordinate olHccrc. There are usually 
upwnrds of iOD invaliils in the hospital, who are divided into 
classes, and rcgulat«'d by military aifciptino. Id sdditioa to 
their pro^iaion and cloihing, they receive a weekly pay, 
varying, according to rank and service, from StLtott. 6d, 
The oui.ponsionenit of CbolKci 'hospital amounted lately 
to upnanu of B.I.UOO. who receive fnim SdL to 3r. W. per 
dav- 

rhero is nlio in Chotma the RayaJ Military Asylntn. 
The buildiu;^ ■;. on an exlensirn plan; tbe foundation -stone 
was laid by the DukoofVork ui 1801, and it wna eoto- 
pletdl in IttOS. Ii is approprtaicd to tbo sunmrt and sdn- 
caiion of children fetpecially orphans) of soliliors and son- 
commissioned olHcors. 

The Apotbectiries' Company of London ban abotaiueot 
Itorden at Clioloea. Id tltoMotreof itite statue, by Kys- 
hraek. of Sir Hans Sloan?, fmm whom the company re- 
coif-cd tha freehold of the ground, the consitleration paid 
bcint; an oiinunl presentation of pbnta le tbe Royal So- 
ciety. 

The old parish church of Chelsea not IwingailaptodCo the 
wants of (bo rapidly -inrreiwin^ popuUlton, a new church 
was erected, which wni coDsecrntciI in ISS4. It is asps* 
ciousandmagniQcent building, in the pointed style of archi- 
tecture. Tho old church is now tlte parish thspc). Thu 
parish is in (be diocese of Lomlon. Tlic aventf^- grots aii- 
niinl income of the rcoioror St. Luke's, Chelsea, is 1003/.; 
he uppijiiits the minislcroftbe parish obapel.vbMe LnconiQ 
is 3(ittf. 

Iq tho educational relums of la.td. it was slated that 
there were forty daily scboob (exclusive of tbo Royal 
Militnry Aaylum) in Cbelsea, in soTerol of which these 
wero endow roenta for educating diiMren gnUuitously, 
and thirty other schools, beaides Mreral not eauroei«tcd 
in tho relum. (Lywina's Banrona •/tonJoK ; Faulkiiers 

CUSLTBKH AM, a town and wrisb in the hundred of 
CbeltenlMio. eastern division of Oloucaoteislitre, Mmile* 
W. by N. from l.onclnn. e miles N.£. fran Gloueealer, 
and 89^ miles N. by B. from Bath. Tlie area of tlie parish 
it 3r4* acres. The town lies in tbe east quarter of tho 
ponsh ; it b rapidly inetoasing, particularly N.W. and 8- 
in nbicb diroelions the limiU of tlie parish iftbrd ample 
«pgr« for its oxtension. CbelMnbom was created n parlia> 
tnentary borough un<Ler the Reform Act; the Wougb is 
CO ox tenure wiih4lui paritUi, and returns otM member. Tlie 
town is a polling plooo tat tbe eastern dii-iHun of the 
county. 

The town of Chollenluira owes its oxistenee toilsmtnural 
springs and iU pleassnl situation. Tho Oliwold hilts fona 
on inmoBse amphilbaBtm on the N.B. : and the valley ia 
s bieb it Uh boUtg open on th* S. and W. renders iu teit- 



"B 



parMnrasqublt ud agTMabW. A Mtim >priiiit wu dii- 
oowrad here Kboot the TOtr 1716; Bomsrcttnanuiwiirds U 
WIS inclosed, and inniidt tMgsii to *<Mt llie |ilsc« ia tuu- 
BMT ; bol it «ras not (iU Dew Uw «fMl of tlw URhtMiitb century 
thftt liie taw bouaes cvaitituliiiK ChdUabaim uiun»4 tho 
■PpeannM of > tovn. TIm diBDomry of k number of aiildi- 
tionAl sptin^ fcTiMnd ha incTBUB, InlSlt lliv population 
of tlu)(nnali,iiiar» thunNM-hBlforvbicli wu ctincunlrotctl 
ia Uw kmn, ns USd ; inieil itwaa 13,306; nod by lil31 
it vu SiiMS, akowiDir an lacreaM of 9S46 io ten y vars. Thu 
Dunibot of bouses in ISSl wu 8,A&0; in IS3I. -IIIO, of 
wtu«b latlvi number 4067 wm luod at 10/. And upward*. 
Tbe oiauunt of uoened taxei paid by tbu tntirv p«riah 
<whkh includes tbo timn) wss.in IS3D, 21.184/. 

CbclUtntum is cntiroly dependent on tt> finilvrs, wbo otq 
ftcnenlly either pcnon> wbo ha.To no vroupalioD or inva- 
lids of tuo more utQueiit closMin. TbiA citi:uni Stance, ind 
tba ftddi^onid on«. Ibst Ibo tuwn is of ncont creation, will 
nfleisQUy Moount for the fitct that u to Ibc <onatruclion 
•f Ibo butfdioirs and Ibc )i;euerakl arro&gvnwnt of tbo pliiov, 
Ch^tMtluim is » i«ry a«T««abte re«idofi««. Tbv tovn con- 
■ist* of gno sDBcioui ftrmt, about a mile in tcnstb, with 
Mvc»J bronenitig from it nt nght nni;lGS. Tho dillcrcnt 
e* ofpaUie sniuii«ni«ni, Ibe ptimp-rooms, boteld. and 
i»g-btmuie, aro rultifr superior to wbst ar« luually 
■d ui phxtt of similBr rasorl. Thvro is a laree graroIlM 
pnKnenada, cilM tho Well Walk, about 600 feet in length, 
and 'JO in br<?adlh. 

In wldjiion to Ibo parish cbarch,«hicb is nBaeold build- 
JttR tberr arc four cpi*oop«l cbnptls. Twoofthcso, in m35, 
I hdd by tbe parfoh incumf.'ctit, » hcoe ^ss a^-crnec 
■ad iuMtne is Muni«d at I ITU/. ; tli« iniTiiilers of t^<; 
two rbspclt bav* 350/. oacb. Tbo parith is in ih« 
Mcf Gloueeiitcr. Inl^d t lie number of «chwl*, daily 
SuDday, in C'heUenbam irss 53, of vbiob tvo wore 
chanty schMS. Thct^ it an bespit*! and sonM minur cha- 
rities. Thwo is A TflilroiiH from Cheltenham to OloucMUr. 
A smsll hvulet called the Chilt, wliich hu given ham« to 
Ibo pahsb and btrndred of Cheltenham, mns past tbe town, 
and (Ub into tbe Boirern. There are a variety of detached 
houMS, tODo cS them v«ry handsom*, in 0)o vidnity of 
Cbtltenhnm, which add t9 the beauty of tho suriouiiumg 
country. 

CHiELTENHAH, WATERS OF. In all ibesTTinn 
which em4T|;e from th<i aamly inli> of Chfrltonham, the stfl- 
phatA «r uda or chloride of sodmm pmloTniitntcs ; so tli^t 
tbey belong to the clus of saline sritcrs. It ii worthy 
of aotiea that most of the saline iprinRs of Oteat Bn- 
t^n take tbeir rise in tho new rod sanditone fbrmation. 
Mr. Oairdner renark* bowcvrr that tbotc of Cheltenham 
rae in a atrttom of blui^ clay aboundinji; in (ton pyrites, 
whieli te^Mwes on tbe inferior oolite liraettono; a circura- 
stuieo which, aceordtn); to him, fnrDisbcs an esplanalion of 
Um wcll-knowB fket, that thccc min^rral v.>t«ni arc itrongetl 
wh«n lint opctied, and gradualltr deereaM in strength until 
it bMomas ne«si8ary to sink new wells in order to obtain 
wstvrof tiw rsquieita strength. The Mppcillr Rnvity of iho 
water of Rmr of tbe tprinz* belonginf; to Thompson's Spa 
wws nbsofTed to be diminisli(.'d. and two to be iiM:feai»il, ho- 
t»wn ISI7 and ISt'JO, to auoh a dcgrro U to oxcito tho 
surpriM of ebcnitls. The nnmbcr of iprin|;« at prcwnt 
Is Itaurtocn. each of wbiRh presents some slight <Iif- 
' io th« aiBount or tlio saboe ingroilipnts and ihotr 
_iil8Bls. The most iniporUiit dilftroiiws ar« owlns 
_FttM pnatneo of iron m some, oeeasbnally aceomponied 
with cartenie avid and sulphuretted bydncen. Iodine tit 
the pfoper tl op of about one grain to a gallon of the walor 
•zbti Ii molt of tbetw, except the Pittrillv spring. In which 
tr hranine is found in the ptoportion of one ({tain to 
Uoosof tbo water. Those In which no iron exists 
much of the DBtur« of sea-water, and retcmbhi it 
itril^etl wben used inlemally; while thoso in which it is 
pvm n t aiw of a chalybcat* nature, and, cipeclally when 
am quantity of carboaie acid la eensldcfnble. ean be borne 
hf persuos who eannot tohnte the simple s&line waters. 
and cui likewise be naedlhr n much longer tinw VLihout ln> 
dneiOK d»h41tiy. ll la Mraotlra<.-f advisable to change tmm 
on* kind ta another, oeeording to tho state or progress of 
the patient ; all which pAsM wQl be regulated by pby^ians 
en the tfOL 

Th« persffns moat benefllod by the Cb«l(«nhain waters 
aro thoM who. after a long residence in hot cUmatw, an 
tflbcUd wtlb tltMaied liter; and oUo Ihoae wbo hf ia* 



dulgcnpc i*>im>i living hare weakened the stomach aod 
inlvtitiiies. The mncous accnmulalion.i which occur in the 
bowels of children subject to woms are b<!5t rcmoTed by m 
courte of the pUM saUnu wntors. followed by tli« n&ated 
chaltbcatc or the sulphutoou^* chalybeate. Chililrfii sub 
ject to Kltindulor enlu;gcmon[a lUrivc much beuHIt ftom 
lUow which contain iodiim olon;; with iron. 

CHEMlSTRY.rroimce^-'afci^oBflM). AcwrdingtoSul- 
das (in voo. xvf<*M<> it was 'tbo making of silver anil gold,' w 
what is now more pencriily known by the name cifali-licmy. 
(AicBiMY.) Suidai ad4s that Diocletiaii burnt all thu 
sQtient boqks of the Egyptiaiis on cbombtnr (as shove ex- 
plained), in order that tba Egyptians miRht no longer be 
able to acquire wealth by the jiractico of this stt. and thus 
be encoun^:od to resist the Kunians. Wc may pnlnbly 
infer from thij that chemfiu is an E;rvplinn word : and if 
to, its rcscniblanctf to Cham or Chcm. the ^uuuino name of 
the country, is a conflrmalimt of tbia supposition as In its 
origin. But whatever may have been the original meaning 
of ibc word, it no lurgcr includes the imaginary proc«s 
abc'vc-mcot toned. VativuitdeBniticnsofits pri.-Mint meaning 
have been giTcn, which do not materially differ; iheie is 
a collection of theie dcllnitioas in (he ' Supplomcnt to 
the £iioycI«|«dia Britarinica,' toI. iii, p. ), From these 
wo shall sebcl Dr. Blank's, which is m fullows; 'Che- 
toittry is the study of the ctRxts at heat anil mixture, with 
a view of discoi-ering Ibcir general and subordinate laws. 
and pf improving the unurul arls.' According lo Dr. Tliom- 
«n, 'the obieriof chemistry is lo determine the consti 
tunnt* of bodieiL, snd the laws which reeuUtc the corabioii- 
liunsand s«parat(un« of tho elementary partides of uattcr.* 
— Inorganic Chtmittry, vol- i. p. ]. 

It would be uMuiexii to attempt an early history of che- 
mistry : indMd it has been uucitad, and perhaps truly, thnt 
it sprang from delusion and supcntition. and was at its 
wMnmcncflmcnt on .n ln\el with nwgic and astiolotfy. Tlio 
knowlcd(^ po>«fliict1 of this sclents befure lie time o/Con 
staniine hm boon thus sumiaod up by Beruman : ' Sonio 
renornl idea may bo formed of tho Ktnlo qi ehcmiilry in 
InoM days, from tho <ion*idc ration of tliu ucveral subJccU of 
the art with whi<?h they «ccm to have bad ivo ncquaintance. 
Except the acetous, no Imcc can bo die^^vered of any other 
acid. The mineral alkali (carbonate ofsfMla) ws known to 
them by the name of nitre ; but of the wgctablo alkali 
(potMb) they knew tittio ; of tho toUlde (ammonia) they 
wore altogether ignorutt. Of neutral sails thoy had Ihi' 
marine (common »lt), and ttio ammoniac (muriate of am- 
monia). Of onrthy salts, tbay had native alum ^nly ; and 
of the metallic salts, copperas and native green vilnol. 

Of earths, (hoy 3M>m lo havo distin<;iitsaed the catcarMUs 
and orgillacoout ; and of intones, a very ccusiderablo number. 

Of Intlaumablu limplc tubhtitnccA, tbetr wore acfjuaintcd 
witU nilpliur, cspreswa oils, and uiU (liitilfed ptr dttcouum. 
But they knew no othof method of cxtraetingtho esMnlial 
oils than by the means of the unctuous. Wo find no ac- 
count whaterer of spirit of wino or niher.* 

or the seven uerrect mtiuU hitherto known, they wore 
iic(]uainted with all but platinum ; but they were iflnonni of 
|h<; imperfect. Somo nuttiun, indood, mako a distinclton 
bctHBon tin and while lead, which wod ^rhaps zlne. his- 
mutti, or rogulus of aniiiniiny. But it is impossiblo lo draw 
ans certain euncluiion with respect to this ; wbdQ even 
Plmy dittinguishes between byarargyrura xnd argvutum 
Tivum, 

EsprassioDS, digestions, snd decoctions, were almost the 
only operations in their obomislry. liVrbain iiidn-d diey 
usM sumo variuties of elixation. evaporati>>n, :tnd iukpisaa 
tion; as likewise of ciystalliution, sublimation, oalciiiviiuu. 
distillation ptr detcrmum, fusion, cliqualion, vitiiOv^ition. 
and Ibrrnvnlation. From the authontius, llwrcfure. alrtsdv 
cited, continuos Bergman. *it may be ualurally inferreil, 
that at the periodunder consideration the dAWn only of cli«- 
mistry had made its appearance- ; and that it was rather a 
ooIl«ction of unoonneolca snd ill-fcu&ded axioms. IImi result 
of obwtrvalion- and remarki. than a scienoo established upon 
tbe iWd basisof aninflnitovanetjrafexperimsDb. At ibis 
time they were in want also of tfa* proper instniincnii. and 
unacx^uaintcd witli tha DacMsaiy steps by which the prin- 
riplos of natural bodies ean be oxactly separalcd. collected, 
aod properly defliMd. Th«j were, thenfm. vltfaont thoso 
neaas so neeeswjr (o tbo avotutJan of truth, and tbe con- 
struction of a c«sniiw n yiU ff s' ^Ayikiaf and CAtmiGat 
Etta^i, ToL ill p. 01. 



■ 



CHE 



32 



C H R 



From the MvaniH to the tevenlMnth canliiry. or wliat 
Bergman lermt lUe inid'llo ag«. niany iiiiporlunt fncU nerc 
iIimnjvlTikI, anil wvemi pruduetn mrm added lo the mcat^re 
li!>t which luebnoii gi^eii. We Bball now notice ih« vh- 
riviis new pr^pirxlionf. whicti induile kdidi) muHt iiu- 
p»t-UiiiI inktrumciilK or aiuhaU. Il )i>a Itevn tnenliancd 
lltM lip to llio pn-wnt (M-'rioil, the acetic ncul was iho only 
ons kui>i*n: but neteral new m-.uh were now aildtid. UhmI 
Valentine ilaAcribcd the )irx>cc>t fur making wtmi ho calls 
olQum ritrioli. ft name liy which it i« coimnonly yet knuMii. 
tliouKli more cor cectly coll nl »iilpliurica(?id, fnim mrtmn vilriul, 
or Bulphat« or inm ; and iJurnivux iletcobcs anoiUoi- process 
for nrepannit ttn- nflitie wid, which, on account of the form 
of lite veMul UM(1 in making' il, wu calkd tduuni Kulpliurifl 
per campaTiBin. Nilrin acid was obiainod by Rayiaond 
I.uUy from nilro ; lit* process Tas much imp«»'c(l by 
Glatiber, who omploTcd. as at tlic pt«*cnl time, sul^fhuhc 
acid to decompose the nilia ; by this be produced lb« acidum 
nilri fiimam. »r Glauhcr'HSjiiril of niUc; from Goramun salt 
the Hume clwinist procured by means uf Bulplmric aoid tbv 
flpirittis salis Olaubcri. tuiii^u oalliud oiarin«, muriatic, or by- 
drorldori'^ nciil. Aiiua rogia »-as oicparcd by HolUndan, 
by diatdlinf; a mixture of iiilro and uriU'D ; lliii lluid va,i to 
■mined on dccuuiUvF its powurof ditsolving gold, tb« king 
ofmulnU. 

Sewtal ftolls ond tome alkuUnc lodio* wore alto dia- 
covQr4!d,or more iiLTfi-clly known, diirini^ this period. CScWr 
doscrilu* th« |>roeess of reodcrmg ibo alkiilt of tartar (cur 
bonutQ uf pi>tai<'h) cauttie by moans of hme ; he takes some 
notieo nUo oFlltc carbonate of iHMlft, and bo ni«ntions liorax. 
Glauber deacribt-d ths salt whii-h yet boars lim name, the 
gal mii-abdit Glauhcn, or itilphata of loila ; ho described 
aUo nbit bo terms sal scoivlus, which is suljihalo of ntn- 
monia. Raymond Liilly uddcd »omn iro port nut dhstina- 
li'>ns: be mnnliom tbo de1iqui»c«n1 property ofiwtash, and 
the production of tlio volatile alkali, or ammonia, by putro- 
faotion; and Basil Valvntin« notices it^ «vultiliou from aal 
amtnuniac by tbo Qied nlluli*. 

To OoUiuiiehcmistry is iiidebtod for tha preparation, or 
at any rale far thedescriptinn, afeovond Knbne «ubfitanoe«: 
thus ae l^rtas lb<' salt uhtainud by naiumuti^ vilnubc ai^id 
with the nlkah uf tartar lartarus vilriolalus. a name not 
yt't (luitu extinct; but he i1<h>* not appear In btivo bettu 
aware that this Milt, whim ohluiiiod by other prDcet«i!«, wa« 
Similar in iu nature. Crulliiu also inenlions Wm ssit or ae-id 
Olambor; and Baribolclus, BUgnrof milk. Tho dltzcslivc 
■alt of Sylvius was n1«o discoivrcd by the chemist wbawt 
tisma it bear* : it has miic^ been iiame^l muriate of potasb : 
its »r«t«nt appellation in chloride of potassium. 

Of Ibe cartbs in general but little was known, and oven 
tballiltlQ, Bergman rcm.irks. n-a» uniujiporiod by the prin- 
ciples uf cbcmistry ; clay was dlBiin^uishpcl ftotit sand, but 
not by its ^nuine eh«mical chnrnrtprs. F.xoepl alum, feiv 
earthy salts weiv known. Hullaiidus dcscrdtcs cltluridu uf 
catciuni under tbo name of sni iioimunii lis; lit. 

Among the mclals, aiilimuiir was desoribed by Bsiil 
Valwntinic in 1 490 ; bisitiuib by Aiciicola in I S30 : and xinc 
by Paracelsus also in tbo siitcvnih century. Bergman 
says that Schrocdcr describes th« prucru of rvdudng 
ancnio in bis Phannacoixris of Ifi'lO; bul Brandt first 
examined it vitb cnnsidcrablo accuracy in 1*33. Maiiv 
metallic salts were known and rxatnincd in this pciiod. 
Nilralc of silver was called in a(iifttci'ium >iri^nti> vel cbry- 
stalli I>iatiD; nhcn fused it was, as now, used oi a caustir, 
and WBsvidled by AnRolvSulaLapin infurnUii. Crolliuagavc 
tha appoUalion of luna coniua to chlvrido of mUci ; bo 
moniioiu alto mecourius dulcis, or calomul. Tbo bmoxidu 
of mcrvtiiy prapared by nitricM-id,b«<alU Arcanum Cvralli- 
nuis Parseolsi j acetate of tin, sal Jovis; and deutoxide of 
UitisaonT. antimonum diapboiotieum. 

Baail Valentino gioes aanccountof acetate of lead, under 
tbc name of lacnharuin Salumi. and laenlion* ll)e butter of 
antimoDV. or chloride; and the white precipitate obtained 
fram it b^- water is called laerrurium miip by FnraceUuri, 
and pulrii anselicus by Algarotti. That iiufovtant in«di- 
cino, the torlrato of pot«4b and antimony, wiia first used by 
Mynsiohl, and called tarfanim tnuticum. I!a«il V(il«nline 
and Paraoilnte observed, that muriate of ammonia combinrtl 
and sublimod mib some tnetatlia oxides, p reducing in the 
ease of iroa a compound originally called Horcs niariiaUii. 
It has been already noticed, that the sulphate* of iron and 
Mppcr were knnwn by ibc namca of green and blue vitriol, 
and tlieix naitire wu undcnlood; in tbii period tha while 



vitriol, or mlphate of zinc, was made, though itioomg-ovitiiiD 
wild imporfceily oUicidftKtd. 

Tliai t>npbur wiix known befuro tb« age we are now treat- 
inc of has been already mentioned : but m this period Ba>i' 
Vnkutino doxcriltet a aolulion of it in ihu fixed alkali, pa- 
laib. Bdifuinus nientiunt it as dissolved in tliu >ulalil« ol- 
knli, or ammaiiia. and Viitenerut suspoeted Ihat it was coos- 
poscil of pbK'iiiKton tiiid vitriolic acid. Bull Valentine 
mentions tliu sul|ihurie ami nitric wllii^i's. but tery shxbtly : 
but Crollius bas di'scribod ilistincdy tbc art of pr^parins lb* 
foimur. TliQddciis VilUnovnnUN mid Rajinoiid Lolly 
descrilie spirit of nine, and ibe last callii tlm slruiiEcM spirit 
alcohol, a name which it yet rclutn&: bo mentions ibew- 
iiaration of ibe water by tncui)* of rnrboiiuti; of potiufa, while 
lluail Valenlinu prcfiir? lima for tbu aainu purpose. Hay- 
moiid Lully described tbo aiiratcd volatile ali>ali. or carbo- 
nate uf ammonia. Ai:rirumi bodioa b^tran tn rxcito atten- 
tion lit thU puriud. Van Heliauiit noticed aoiuu uf ibr pro- 
ncrtics of what he calls gas sylvcstrc, or carbonic nnd kos ; 
tie obsorvos tbnt iC i* invisible, but that it was Csod in Ixidin. 
and be ultnbutua ttie pluuoiiiuua uf the GrultTdvl Cant to 
(I » presence. 

From tlie middle till towards the ond of the scventetnili 
conturysevcraUeanicd societies wt'fu funned. Tlie Ataitomj 
del UimoQtu wiu fuunded at l-'Iorcncc in IGjI, Ibv Royal 
Society- at London in ICGO, and the Academy of Scienvca at 
Purls in ICCG : Ibeie suciuties |,-Tcally prouioted and advanced 
pbyKics »nd ox pn rim cental clKnfi^lry. In 1*00 the Prurtian 
Aeadcmy also look its rise, on the model of lb;il ot Franre. 
Bufore, however, these sucicliL's existed, a eunoua work was 
puliluli<id in I &3U by Joan Roy, a physicinn of Peri);«rd ; it 
)s entitled .S'tiJ-Zu Ufcherrhe d^ia caute par iaqueiln hftmn 
ft le J'tomb augmftiUtil dt poidt qimnd on Ua calcine. In 
tbift wi.rk, which excited little or no attention amonj; bu 
cutilempornric^, the author, without appnrenllv makin-; anv 
cxperiinenis, but relying upon ibo^e of others, sliuws tba'l 
lilt! wci^'ht which metals acquire diirin;; calcination is de- 
rived fiulii the union of nir wilb Ihi: metal ; be SUppiMe* 
Ihmairis miscible with other bodies besides tnotaU, and 
stales thnt it may be espelled from water. Rt.'y is generally 
eunsiJurvil as Ibc nor^un who tirst showod that air is Hxed 
in bu-dius during calenmtuin ( but in ^uppurt uf this opinion 
he quotes Libavius, Cardan, and otiicns, as huvmg ukcor- 
taiiiod the increase of weight in lead hy its conicr»ion into 
a cJilx. 

Newton bimsolf contributed tome now and general ideu 
on chemical phenomena to the Royat Society; ho nbsurvM 
tliut »ugar dissokos in water, alkabs unite with acids, tncials 
■li&Mih'e in aeiib. and lio imiuire* wlielher iheiie effccls are 
not OL-c^iuoned bv atk atiractiuii between tln-ir particles. 
Copper dissolved m aouafuriia is thrown duwn by nun. Is 
nut this, he inquires, bocausa Iho partieles of the iron have 
B stronger atlrwctioii for tbo particles of the ocid itiun tbm-e 
of copper; and do not dilTerent botlii» attract each uiber 
with cliirerctit degrcLs uf fciice? 

The principal and emly cUcmical investigators of ihe 
Royal Society were BoyV, Ilooke, and Slare. The Qrst (if 
IbcM was ibe greatest chemist and une of the mini active 
experimenters uf his age ; to bins the science is indebted 
fur the iotroduclion of tests, or rc-agcnis, for detecting tlie 
pieaencc of other bodii-s ; lie OTcitumcd tbc idea whicii was 
then commonly entertained, ihul tbc rraullsoflhc o|Wra- 
tion of lire were tlio real e1em«nta of things. Re^iicctmg 
iidlummnlilc bodies, ocjils. alkabs, and combinaiiun, be as- 
etirtaincd several important facts. .The air pump, which 
bnd been invented by Otto von Guehike of M^Kdebuig, 
wa,% improved by Boyle and Hookc. and rendered un mi|)or- 
(ant instrument in chemical investigations rci^pccling uir 
they concluded, also, that air was obsolululy necessary to 
te^piTDlion and combustion, and that a portion only of the 
atruaspbere wesemploicd in these processes. Iloukc, in- 
d««d( oiiiTcd at the sagaciaun conclusion, that the part of 
the air noccasary to the above-named pror.esses it lUo same 
us tbal eoataincd in itiUe, atid thol daring the cliemicul pn>- 
ei-aa of combu»tiun this matUit combines with (Im: burning 
bod). 

In VaTA, Mayow of OxTuid published histraetaon various 
jiliiluscpbical subjects, lie seems to liavo bean struck with 
tbc snalogy aubautiiig between the phenomena of rcspira- 
lion and combustion; many orfaiaoonclu.iiuiia were corieel, 
though some of thom were errotiooUB. Uc burned a eandU 
undui u bell gtosi. and fjund the residual air so deteriorated 
as to be incapable of contiuuing couibtutivn; Le 



ihui j 



HOHW to >ii«atl)0 1 sintilw quantitf ot air, and ibo 
beMMily at iu rmcwal wu soon appsrcnt ; after this, be 
|>al > nouM and % caigdtv toi;ollier under ihe »&»i<; claM 
^-ca*e), and be fvunil iliut U lived anly half u long iu> ii 
bad exUlcd wlivn >l4ii« under lbs glut. Ue ibcQ rcvcnod 
liia oidw «f vxpenmciiliMK, and ciidcKVOured (o ftrc com- 
bu>tihl« mnlttT in air winch Iwl Won spoiled by brvnthini;. 
and RndiiiK no combu»tiaD look plac«. lie c«nclutlt,'d thmt 

• iho nilro-avriul pactictci are nbiorb«d Iwtb by tli« cundlv 
ond th* animal.' Mayow's work oontaini a chapter rvlatiii|{ 
to tlio * inutuftl arlitin of aalts of ». contrary kind,' or to 
ebomicsl combination and dccom position. A Ercnt number 
of now ftad ctir>uu» facts are described in this oin»crlatign. 

Although * certain d«KT«« of aimilnrity ia olis«rvuble in 
tbe tievrs ol Boyle. IlMke, and Mayow, rttpcclinft the opo 
rationa of eotubiutiun and rcipiration, y«t htlheita nc 
thvory had been altemplcd on t broad basis to account 
for cnemiral )>hcnora«n>. But about Ibis period, Gi-r- 
tBlRy, which tlill continued the preat •ch<Ml of practic^al 
ffbomiBtry, gained addtitona) credit by Ibc labourti ot Boc- 
ebcr, wlio was born at Sptr<« in 1645: be studiLui motal- 
lurffy and inintniloiiy with great n««iduitv. nnd allhoiigh h« 
did not fp^atly ada to tliu collection of* i^licmtcal cxpeii- 
mcnt*. ho tmprorad th« inatrutnents of reaeurcli, and ren 
dcrcd maiiipubition man simple. Hi» oraninns W(rr«, that 
the (-lenenta of bodiex are air, water, ana tlirre enrtlin, one 
of whicb is infiamniaUo, another mercurial, and another 
fuatUe; ihMW thrao eartha. eaiiibin«d with water, lia su|)- 
poted to eonatilute anniveisal acid whirli iit the baiit of 
all other acids. He entertained Mrieral other notion) which 
are iww known to b« utterly at vatiancAwith tberemlta 
of cxpehEDcnt : hit gr?nlcjt merit nas the contri^iince of a 
theory by which atl known fncts worn eminocted. and ds- 
ducad Incii one general priiiviplv. Thin theory waa iidu|itw] 
Bud nmalderably modified by Stab), and was by him ]rto- 
uiuljCBUnl tn to iropooLn^; « (onn as to be rvumvcd by tli« 
rbeuiwal worid alinwL unitcntall} for ntmrly a century. We 
atull therefore now ^iv« a bii^r'atfoounl both of ihin aulliur 
and hia opinion*, lon^ known as the Stjbtian theory. 

Oeotfi* Enwit Slnbl wn* lioni in the year IMV, at Ans- 
park TheniMl iin|Xirtnni of hi* works u hit ' Fundainvnta 
Cbymis I>afpaiic» ei Bxperinienlalia,' which ii divided 
into a theoretical anU practical part. The idea that tbe 
BMtala ««r« earthy aub«tances inipregnat<Nl with on inllam* 
maUe pnneipla tud beoti odvaneed by Albrrtu» Alugiius. 
Bwcber maintained the esiui^nce of thia piindpte. not only 
a« lbs r-iuae of tneialliialion, but likewise of (^ombtitlitidity : 
«nd Stahl much improved thta view of the ■ubjuct. and »tip- 
ptrted it by many iRgonlou) and ebburute eiwninenix. 'lo 
(teculor priitciple he gave tbe name of pnloRiMon ; the 
'n« waa called the Slahlian theory. It laiaed the ri'pii- 
I of lb« anther to the hiKhoKt dctCTM, and plac'ed him 
In iha im rank ofchenia-al philoMpltcn. 

In CXptaJning the phloeiilie or Slahlian theory, it is lo 
b< understood that Bccrher and 8tnhl ronMdered nil com- 
biuiitdo botltoa a* oonipnuniU ; dunnt; wmbuKtiun one of 
Ibo pnnciplva U luppoMd to be diimipated. wbde the oihur 
ivmaltM. Thui when charcoal ia burnt, it is entirely dis- 
•ipativl. Stahl tbeiefora supposed that it win phIoj|(iiton, or 
ilic inAamioahle nrineiplc, nearly pure ; by beating chnreoal 
wtih metal* which had b«n reduced to calrcs. or what were 
lenaed metallic cartba. ihcy resumed tlicir mtullic appe«i- 
anoe and propertiei ; therefore tbe rtietaU arv coiii[K>iitida of 
■Datallic earth* and pfalogiaton. Aicaiu. by heating Gluu- 
ber'a aalt. which la a compound of aulphuric acid and loda, 
or iba foaail alkali, with charcoBl, a ruin|K>uiid of aulphiir 
and alkali i* obtained. Sutpbtir.llicrcrare, was nuppovei] to 
be a compouiMl of »ulpbiinc lu'id and pbtogiitun. Now 
iluiugk It Ml) been ihown by Boyle tbai aulithur would not 
inun without air> and th^iiirh he had «tate<l that aulphur 
wa* Bontoined in the acid, and not the acid in the sulphur, 
tet Subl entirely neglected, in loiminK his theory, the in- 
fluence of nir in pruducini; tbe phenomena on which it 

• a» Ibundcd. Tbe tnt promulration of the theory oicr- 
luoked ibe aitoplo fact wbMh had been bcfora ataied, that 
io»tala.iiiat«adorbecom[n|j[ti|jihter by being bunil. asou({ltt 
Lu bnve happened, had the; lost anjthing, actually become 
bearier by the aperatton. Tlioso who uferward.i reflni-d 
upoa tbe theory, endowed plilo^iitxin with a principle of 
kvity, aiid thn* the difficulty was fur a time removed, but 
OQly lo he revircd with redoubled foico, anil this diSicutty, 
when it came to be duly appreciated, pio^ fatal to tbo 
theory of ^ilogUton. 



The nictits of Stsbl are thus brieSy ilatol by Sir H. 
Davy; — 'TliouKh misled in his pcncntl ttotioDs, fow men 
have done luoro than SlabI fur tli« proems «f chemicuL 
icicnce. His procetsoa were, many of iTivm. of the most 
bcaulLful and satisl^ictory kind : be di^coTercd a number of 
gitupvrtics of lite caustic alkalis and mclalUc calces, and the 
italuiv ofiiulpburuus acid ; hu rc»aons upon all the opera- 
tions of chcRiihIry in which the gaseous bodioit arc not con- 
cerned with adniirable precision. He gave an aatomatic 
form lu the eeicnee, batiishinf; from it vagiic dctailn, cir- 
<^umlocutton«, and enigniatic descriptions, in which even 
B«<ehcr bad too much indulged ; he laboured in tlic spirit 
oF the Baooniait school, multiply in g instances and cautiously 
raakinK induction t, and appuuliiig in all caic* to experi- 
ments, whicb, Ibough n&i of the most r«(ined kind, wcro 
more perfect than ony which preceded them.' 

Several eheoiiits of the phlogistic geiiool fallowed, who 
contributed to tlie advancetn^nt of cheuiicnl Kicncc. Cas- 
par Neumann was born nt Zidtichau, in Germany, in 1662. 
In 172) ltd wo* npikointed profi'ssor of chemistry iu llio 
Iloyal College of Phynic at Berlin. Dr. Lewis, in the 
yi'.sp l/j'*, piihlishpd a trnntlntion of his worku, entitled 
■The Cbemioal Work* of Cmpnr Neumann, M.D,' &c. 
It would p(!rbaps bi? dilHculi lo mention niiy veiy im- 
portant discovery contained in this wotk; but there are 
kvvrrni facts, which, as facts arn alwnys voluable, must 
itill p>ive it a place in the library of a chemist. 

John Henry I'olt was born at Hnlberslodt, in tho year 
IC9S, and die<1 in 1777. On thodeath of Neumatin, in 17-17, 
bo siicetvded to the chair of practical eliRmistrv. He was 
a chemist of grMvt learning and mduiiry. Yho creater 
part of bis works werv c^llecied and translated into Freneh 
III I7SU. In Ilia dissert a ti')!i mi bismuth and zinc, he 
lias collected the statemcntii uf all foriiii^r writers, and 
described their properiie* with minute accuracy. 

In iho year I7ii!). Andrew Sitfi^mund Mirgraof was 
bi>rn at Berlin : be died in 1 792. lie made eonie valuable 
esperitnent* on phospboma. ond on tbe method ofetic-iiling 
it liurn urino 1 be tlral determined the prupertie^ el aluniinu. 
dRmonstrn ted the naturv of suda, »tid |tuite an easy prucKis 
fur prtiparint; pure iiilxii from its ebluride. lliv chniiijcjLi 
papen. down lo tbe jear 170/. weie puhhsbed in I'aris, 
1 ~6i. in two small volumes ; but they do not contain all bis 
iticmoire. 

In I S30 John Kunckel wa* bam En the duchy of ScblM- 
nig: he died in 1702. In 1678 he published a ti-eattse on 
nlinsphoruB which had been oriKiiiitlly di^ravered in IGG3 by 
Brandt, an alrbiMnlU uf Hamburu ; ull that Kunckel knew 
of its pruprrltea was that it was piociired from niina. &q„ 
and [ri>in this, after some years' application, he succeeded in 
ohtattiiiig It. Tbe remainder of bis works, excepting; a 
treatise on Kiass-making, aro not of great importmiee. 

Nicholas Lcmcry was bom at tteven in Iti43, and died in 
1 71 i. Hu was not the author of any very prominent dis- 
covery, but his ' Syslcin of Chemistry' coitiained nearly all 
that wa* known respecling tbo science, stid tbe language 
in which it wiu written was more simple than that of those 
who preceded him. He attempted to explain ilie cause of 
earthc(uake* by an experiment whidi showed tbe vivid nclion 
that occurs wlicn large quontiiic* of inm flliiiKs aud sulphur 
are mixed and ulUiwcd to act upon each other. 

Humberg nas bom in HiZ, in the island of Java, Uia 
nailers on chemical subjects were numerous; there an 
lioncvcr but few of them which are likely to ocita much 
aiioutiun in the present state of tbo science, nor did Ihcy 
K re ally coil tribute to calargcils boundaries. Tbe pyropboms 
known byliisnamcwoa prepared by mixing human ftecesadd 
alum, and heating; ihe mixture to redness till it became a 
carbon ncooii.> po^vdcr. It has been since found that carbo- 
aaiceous mutter in prefentblu forma may be used with the 
alum, aa honey. Hour, or gum. The nature of the combus- 
tion of this pyiopboruii was Aral explained by D^yy, 

Iteory Loui» Uuhamel waa bom at Piris lu I7l»0i«nd 
ilicci in If SI. He published many papers on chetnicel «iib- 
jecU. His chief conlribuliim to the science »o» that of 

Kinling out the diffctnice belweoii polostLnnd soda, which 
d Ifccn formerly confoundiad. 

I'eler JoiepK Macquet was born at Pari* in 1*18. and 
dsed in 17W. Ho first pointed out lh« oxulfner of arsenic 
Mkl and Ibc nat«re of seswral of Ui* salts which tl fiirms with 
Iwsesi he aricrwarda published aoir.' important ex porirarnis 
on Frussiao blue, ana such a* tended to the discovery of 
tbo naUua of its colnunng iogredieut. He coade aeceral 



* 



* 



Nu.407. 



fTHB PENNY CVCLOP^BDIA-] 



e^poTimcnte on plalinun, tWjgh vrithont mnf tctj bono- 
fltlul rtsulU In clii-tuUlo'- He «M tUa nullior of C\iO- 
niical DicUuniu-ji vbich has bc«ii liuosUtctl iuto miinjr 

Wb havo monttonod roost of th« cWraista who contri- 
buted valuslle mjililiona to tha acicneo Iwloro the in- 
troduction of pneumntic clicmiitrf. To tpoaV of them all 
would rcquiro kvolum«. We now tbetofore upproaeh, or 
rather comiucnoo & uioit ini[)OTtiLitl »rft in the hietorj of 
ohomtcal r«MVch and <I>iKX)v«ry. Ililhcrto, •>tf«pt wbnt 
liad beendvne by R«y.Mayoff, >n<l Boyle, llio eltacts wo- 
ducod by aerifomi boiliua, uiicl their r«l.ilton to the ph«- 
noiBcoaorcLvminti-y, hud n1mn«t oniircly vscnpc^l flbwrm- 
tion; or %t ».ny ruto Ihry bad boon but T«ry fliighlly and 
ini[H.Trvcll7 runiiderod, m thou n with reip««t U> ihc inoMBM 
of wpi({ht which oocun during Ibe oaloiiintion of metals, 
•hd «lii«b wiu rather nttribuled l» upTinHpU of l^rvily in 
tlto phloKi^ton lost by then, ibin the act^uuitian of nnghl 
rixim tho air. 

Dr. Unlet inu bom IS77, tnd died in 176). About 1724 
1m i«Dnminsnc*d the examinatinn of acrirarm botlics which 
had pmviouatf engmged iha aliorc -named philoKo^hor* ; ho 
attempted to ascertain Ihc ohainieal relations subsisiini; be- 
tween air and other bodioa, and to detvnnitio iho Hrrum- 
fctanM^ under which air i* abaaibcd or cxtricnled hy ntiturnl 
prorisMa. The retult* which he ubtiined wi-rc ruiumi nnd 
impOflatit ; liut, owiu]; (o a fOndam^tal «rn>r in lih »dea«, 
bo druw but few inleronc«a which contributed to elucidiile 
tlio iurieatc and hitherto impcrfuRtly ivxplorail patha oT 
tbe wi«nc«. The idea which ho eiilcrtaincd of ononleicun- 
taty principt* at oonttitulinK olailia matter niMliOod by 
Ihu i-fAuviii of fluid or solid bodi«a^ oreatly aided the 
fonaation of thote moro juBt views wbjoli lator niiit more 
reRnod experimcnta have iLineo contributed to unfold. He 
mtyeeted a vut numbur of bodies to the action of ht>at, slid 
obbuned ifaMous product)) from them ; thus ho faiiml thai 
Uwairw&ieb lu! obiaincd frmn wood wu fatal lo utilmalH; 
from nitre lie procured nearly 2C0 times, iu volume of air, 
nnd ffom coul ono third of its weight. Ho fontid that oil of 
vitriol, shcn pnurod on iron filings, produeod wry lililo air, 
but that the addiiina of water ooei^aned ibi evolution In 
large nuantily. Tn do ease, however, were the ga«e<itis pro- 
duct* thus procured oxaminod with the Kttontion whlcii mij^h t 
hato b(tun vxpeotod from thonontlty orihnresulu. He dIm) 
fuuiid that when pboipboruB wa« buml in air. the quantity 
of air WHS diminiilieo, and while fumes were produced; 
but bo neither Dxamltird the reaidual air. nor did ne inijulra 
into tho Daluro of tho whiU) fuines rvsutting I'rom the com- 
buMion of tho phuipbonio. 

The enperimuiil* eoiilaiued in hi< Statioal Essays, pub- 
ILihod in 17'i7, wore medo to proro the: tmn«pirnlion or 
Inv*. and iiUo the fore« with wliirh thoy iiubibo rtiuitturo. 
Thew expetituenis are not however immediately conneeti-d 
with our pre*ent subject. 

In 1718 Qeo^oy published tables of afllnitj : and al- 
thuuirh.^ihe aAnlty has Bine* been discovered to be mo- 
diHed by a variety of mrouroilanoaa, yet these tables have 
certainly been of ui*e. 

I>r. Bhick. Pro&itter of CliemUtry in IMinburf;!!. pub- 
lished, in 1736. bit nmearchea on calcareous. ma.|[nv«tan. 
and atkaUiu) substances. Be showed that there exitlod in 
these subatancea an aeriform body, poswssiug cbemioal snd 
phyxical propenies. perfectly dUlinct from tho air of t1ie 
eiraosphtiio; ha proved that marble and chalk mntainc^l 
this body eaiMblu of an acrifiwra e:tiatence. and that Its pre- 
sence cansiiltiled the difference beiweeu ihem and quick- 
lime-, be tbowedtlso. that it was capable of beinic expelled 
from carthr nud alkaUna snbatanocs by the action of an 
arid, and when the air thus set free was colloetcd ud cx- 
unined. he bond it to posaea* the propettie* of • wmk acid. 

Groat oppoaitien was offered to the new and important 
Goncliuiona wluah wm promulgated by Dr. Blade: ihui, 
■moDg Dtben, Moycr. a Oennan chemiat. attempted to 

Srovo that limeMone bMania couilto bymmbiniitK in' the 
re wltb a peculiar substance, nnd not, as Dr. Black had 
proved, by losing afcifonn matter. "Hie leas of weight 
wbicb the limcatone tuffincd was however alitoit a suffi* 
deut proof of the aocuroey of Dr. Black 'a views : and, in a 
fbw vears from the date of their promulgation, the npmtnns 
of Black were uixiversally admitted to be correct 

Tbe esistenee of an elastic fluid different fVora that of 
tbe atiQOSphen, greatly excited the auenlion of oxpcri- 
maaUiislia. and iJiey were fooa led to UK|uin3 whether oltiers 



tnigbt not also exist. The vatioui f[uee obtained hy HalM 
were now rec aided with dif^rent views ; and, before many 
more yean had elapsed, numerous and peculiar itcnforin 
bodiea were discovered by various procctses. Dr. Black's ex- 
poriments on what be termed latent heut are remuktbib for 
th«ir umplicity, and the precision of the infeninccs drawn 
from Ihem. 

Mr. Walt derived creat advantftf^ from theie in Itia 
celebrated impro»omcn1» on the noara-en((ine. 

About tbe year 17GS, Mr. Owcndiih (who was born in 
173liatv] died in 1810) discovered and dpticHbod the pro- 
perties of inHammahlo air, since callod hydrogen grnt ; oikI 
ho invonted on apparatus for collecting and exiraining 
elattio fluutu, which, atlhouf>h extremely simple, bai been 
oomplMdy act aside by ifao more convenient tnetboda yn- 
posed by Dr. Priestley, Ho ntovrtaincl the relative denatlies 
of fixed air, inflamnaablo nir, and common air. 

Having ttated tho general properties of bydre^a gai, 
he shows that different motalt, when dissolved in similar 
portions of the snmo acid, afford different niiatitilioB of thii 
gax; that iiine yiolded marc than iron, and iron moro than 
tin, foeti which arc perfectly conaiiitent with and explained 
by tbe doctrine of equivalents ; he asoortntDod the exact 
prapnrtiont of the constituent gates of tlio atmc«phore. His 
tnont Fclobratcd iliAe<nvenes vcero however those of tho cotn- 
posliioTi of water and nitrJo acid; and ha first determined 
the fleering point of merf ury. 

His character, as n philnMpb«r, lA thut tVetchod by Sir 
H. Davy ;— * Cnvondlsl) was ]mvtsesM.'d of a minute know- 
]6df(e of most of the departments of natural philcaopby; ho 
carried into his ebeniical researches a delicacy and prcduon 
which have never been exceeded: pottsstiRg depth and 
extent of riiothematiral knowledge, no ivatoDcd with the 
caution of a ^omeler upon the results of bis experiment* 
and it tnoy bo said of him. what perhaps can scsrcely be 
said of any other person, that whalevur bo oecoiiipliUMd 
wot perfect at Ihu innmrnt uf its produeiiDn. Hts proconet 
were all of aUniiibed nature; executed by the Itandofn 
master, they rvquired no correction ; tho accuracy and 
biMuty of his oarty lubours oven, hnve romnincd unitnpnired 
amidst the piouivKi of ilincuveri-, and tlieir ments have 
been illustrated by diseusMun, and exalted by time.' 

The important cliicovenes of Dr. Joseph Frieattey next 
claim atlentiiin. Ho wn« born in 1733. imd died in 1804. 
No person over cominmcnd ncanwrofdiscovery under cir- 
cumstances less likely tu Injure success than ui. PrieB,11ey. 
He was but impcrfoclly scquomtcd with chemical science, 
be Imd but llltle leisure, bis apparatus was very deflelont, 
be had frut^ueuily lo invent new modus of onurating. and 
with means whieli were eitremoly scanty. Ail these diffi- 
culties ho surmounted with indemtigablo industry and in* 
genulty. and tn him we owo tho most tmportanl dlsco\'eries 
which havroTcrbixn made. 

Pneumalio chemtbtry had, to a certain extent, been atu- 
dietl, as already shown, by Boyle. Mayow, Hal«. and p«pe- 
ciiiUy by Black and Civen dish, when 1^. PricsUey be^an 
his expetimetits. His first memoir was published in l?;S. 
and was on the method of impregnating water with carbonie 
acid gaa. This paper was the rnult of his an:iilenially 
living near a brow-house, in which he had made oxiien- 
ments oti the carbonie acid oralved during fermentation. 
Among the gaseous prodnols which Dr. Hales obtained was 
that now called nitnc oxide, hut he did not inqinre into its 

!impcnie<. It was again discovered, end roitiutcly examined 
ly r>r. Priestley, who applied it to the purpose** of eudio 
metry, a branch of the science which may almost be said 
tn have origioated vith bim. and in contequcnoo of tliis 
dijtnovrry. 

.\iotic gA.1 had undoDliledly been obtained, but waa not 
examined by Hauksbee when he passed atmospheric air 
over ignited metals; Dr. Itutherfbrd alio noticeil it about 

I 'li, and 10 bim tho prionly of tho ditco^-ery is generally 
OHsitmed. It appears howover tliat Dr. PrieMley had ob- 
tained it, and noticed ill properties at least as early, and 
MTfasM sooner, for he gives an arvount of it in lh« Phi- 
hitmnicai TraruacHo'ii Ibr tliat year. 

His greatetl dt«ci>vei; wai that of irhat be called de 
phloKittlcated air. now i^ted oxygen gas. This important 
Rccesiion to ebemicnl tcienee waa made on tbe Isl nf 

August. 177']. tie procured it by ttroDKly heating ted oxide 
of nicreury. f>tm<.-d by tbe action of beat and air upon tho 
metal, and collecting tho goa which was oTolvcd fnxn it 
^he GonsequcDcca of this diKiovery* would require a volume 



CHE 



35 



CHE 



•CotdaiariptioD; itbMnrred u the btais for bII tlut b 
koown respcctbg tfaa ntttare oT th« atuwapheni, w&ter, 
maia, uid *lkalM ; md Uie natun vf eombivwo bw iwcn 
gmUj UtaMntad by it. 

Sulphuraot uUt fluokllicic vAA, muriktla Mid, utd «ai- 
maoia iron fini made kDown in the mooaa sUto hj Dr. 

P'*-'— '-7 ; bo diworered Ditnnu oxiao ga*, w»d first ot- 
wbonio aside gu, the natura of wtucK hovcvcr ho 
Ho did not dlscoTcr liydioi^n kub. but his ex- 
la ^lon it arv interotinii ; lie painted out the ex- 
uwoeo ot (ttrimrcttcd hydroi^en fftts. Ihgtigh ho did not 
aalu) Dunj esperitnents upoa it 

Tbs actioa (if alwAricity on rariaus oonpound fcasu voa 
examined by bim, and be ihoirod tbal an acid is formed 
vbon ipuks are puflMtd ibTouxb a ooftftnad portion of at- 
' eric air ; ttiis fact atwmi b9 the basil of Cuven- 
diwoTvry of tbo oompoeitimi of nilrio acid. lu tb« 
way ibe iDCrcoaa of bulk which lie fuuDd to U\t plM« 
tha action of Ibe aame a;^ni on nnusontacal gu led 
irtfaoUet to detecmitie Ibc nature of it. His expontnunts 
|«ii lbs ■maliontion of atnoapberic air by tbo procci) of 
nngatalioa ara blgUy cumus, and havo b«cn repeated and 
, ooDfliraed bj Mbae(|u«nt invcatif^tinn*. HLi ^work entitled 
bparimaotB and Obafirvatioua aa dtOttrcnt kindd of Air' 
oonUina a Tart niraibet of capertments, fVom which vanoii« 
fafciwicM migbl be drawn, vnicb ho socmN in bU rapid 
canar of iiaoomj, lumadf to bnve overlooked : audi luc 
Ifaoaa juat nuntioDed; and the onnpoutlfin of atmi»p boric 
water might be added to ttie liit. 
addilKKW U) tbe meetis prcvinusly known for mpcK- 
ifVB fUBCOua bo^ohavD uffaidud ib« greatett fa- 
to tficie who hara followed bin : aocb are tbc iavon- 
isf Iba pnvunalie trough, and ibesabatitution of mercury 
for water in ihoic gases which ore eoluble in this latter 
fluid. To eonclude mitb tb« utMcrratianB of Sir U. Dary : 
* CtmaiiUy owes tii liim ftinuu of her moat importanl inslru- 
mvolB «l Msearcb. and many of her most u«cful cQinbina- 
liwis; and no Binghi parton wcr diKovorcdau many now 
•ad aurimu aubMaDOca.' 

Tbe wocba of Torliem Bercman (bom io I73S, died in 

ITS'!) ban been oolkcted and trandatcd into Engli*li. Tho 

Aral paptr vbicb bo publialicd was in 177-i, * On the Aerial 

Anid. BOW colled rarmnic acid ^». If the contont* of this 

be vonpared with the pnniuus uno of Ca^'undiaii on 

■na aabjecA, it will bv wen that ttiu Utter had antici- 

BetRiaaB on many of tbo tnuo imporuat facta. No 

bowerer is taken of Caratdish'a cspcnments in it 

aftarwatdt piibliabed papers on the ' Analyaea of 

1 Waters.' and thuui:h Iho me(bod» which be adopted 

. no aeaii) aeeurati.', Uwy wcro pccfvrnbla to any 

vlileb had been pm-wufity used. 

H« publisbed a paper on «^alie ncid, of wbiob howewr 

Ibii diianyiij ii laiil riilii ilin m ffilii ili It will be scarcely 

poaalhla to enuatenle oven the variuus iiapers of Bergman, 

«nd mucb Ina to f^in an analyib of tmir contents. His 

Kway oil Elcctrio Attnctioos' it howoter a work of im- 

ise, and requires a more detailed notice. Tho inton- 

f the author was to point out the natura of ohenkul 

y, and to aceount for the anomalicH which that Mm- 

■ikjeol appears to pnaent. He adotiti it lu a 

pie tbait dtemwia) combination is tho result of an alr- 

forae. Bcithulk-t attempted to show that tliis con- 

is orroneotis, and tbongh it laait be admitted that 

era various circumilancca irhnh modify tbo action of 

er, WD era not so nearly without a Kuide to just oon- 

aa the expcriraeats andcptniaoaof BcrtboUat would 

to admit 

1 wd)Ushad tabloa in flfbr-nn* ootumos, in wbich 

tneielBtive attniotioaorbodies,orwbat bo terms 

ito aSnity. An the order of deoompo^ion often raries, 

af aa It is made in tbo drr way or tbe noiat, each of 

tyntfoe eahuans was diriood into two ; tbo first cx- 

ig Ibe order of doooimpoaitioai in tbe moist, and tbo 

' in Am li7*way; be also stated Tarious eu«s of 

jeoc m i w si tl o n . These taUca are ooDUnicted upon 

s well-UHnra prindnW, that uiy aabataaos. «b«Uicr 

add, alkaU. or metallic oKido, boing pliucd at tlvc be»d vf a 

•elmnn. and others under il,*udi «uiwlaucv hu tli<: grvsloat 

aftai^ Air thai nvxt to it and fcr tbe rest, aeoording to the 

— laaae of their place. 

b baa been already obMrrcd that B(.-rgTDan*s proccsaa* 
fts analyunv mlsaH vaten were moTu correct loan aay 
Vtaah laid Vnb prt^oaaly adopted, and altbougb bia vl- 



perimests on tbo analrsis of preolous atDnoa ore £ur remomd 
ftom perreotion, yet they poaaoss the rudimenU of (he xa^ 
tboda which an now adopted. He drst propoeed tbe ana- 
lysing of ininoralf bycombiDinft them with tbe 6zad alkalil, 
by wUicb they were rendered p&rliaUy aoliibla in water, 
and totally »t> either in that lluid or in an acid. 

Ue found fulmioatiiiK koUI to contain ainraanlB, and lie 
mplaina tbo datonatioa to arieo from tho sudden deooupo - 
SI lion uf that gaaeoua body. 

"Hie diaooreries which noxt claim attention are tboae of 
Cbarlea William Scheclo, who was born nc Strmlsnnd in 
1 7-43, and died in 1 785. Like Pnouloy, Seheele began his 
experimcuts under very unravourable cireum^taocas with 
rowcot to apnaraius and the means «f procuring it 

Sclivelo, obscnine that air wun Tii|i)iaitc to coinbiiation. 
aubjeotod it to BiMlveis. Ho found that centin sub* 
ataaeeo, eapedally what was thon (ermod lirer of Hulpbur, 
and DOW sulj^urel uf potutiam, when exposed to a gLica 
bulk of air, diouaiabod it lo about finir-itftha of tbo ori|rtnal 
quaotily; he fimnd slao that tbe flame of hamiiiK sulphur 
and of hydn^n gas produced lbs same eflbct. Witbouc 
any acquaintanoe witb what Prieatloy had preriuuslv 
done, ho obtained, by various protxetwa, oxygen tcaa, whica 
he termed empyreal air; and he showed that this aic 
was absorbed by liror of sulphur; and that uiun adding 
fresh cDipyTeal air to that left unacted upon by it fttrnos- 
phcrio air was reproduced. 

Ha experimenta on the nature of air were followed by 
somu on boat and Ugbt, and be gave the name uf radiant 
heal to that portion of It which emanates fton hot bodie»i 
and, as he found, in right lines. He obserred tbe blacken- 
ing eflisct which is prodneed fay the sun's n^ on diloride 
of ailvot, and that too violet rays produce this effect meet 
sperdity. Ho mode experiments on Homber;;'! pyrapborus. 
and showed that ammonia alum it incapable of fortniog it. 
In his diuertution on moDKiincse be mode tbe dttcovery of 
chlorine gasi or, as lio called it, dephloeiBtieat«d laeriiio 
Bcid. His essays on fluor spar conlainGd several valuablo 
facts, but ho GommilU.-d tho error of suppcning tbal tho 
■dina which he obtained in his operations, from the retort, 
waa foriBed by tlie oombiiiatinn of water ntid fluoric acid. 
He pointed out tbe dilEerenoo between plumbago and sut- 
pburet »f roolii'bdcn. und he flnt deocribed tbo mulyhtlic 
and arsenic ocidt, and formed a compound of the latter with 
vxide of copper, or aricnitc uf ropper, which has biuce been 
oxteasively lued as u pigment, under the name of Srhrek's 
or iniiwral green. Ho made oxprrimenls on milk, anil 
lUfiar of milki and the acidof tho su^ruf milk, now i-alled 
lactic ociil, woa oatiGad by him. H* k^vo a method of ob- 
taining citric, lartarie. galliCt and wmo otiicr vcKol&blu 
aetda; and published essay* on tungsten, Kthcr. culuuiel, 
henzoio acid, and urinary cakuli. nil of which cvnliiiiti valu- 
able infcnnation. 

Ue narticukrly eiamined tbe «o1nuring nutter of Prus- 
sion blue, wbleh was nearly bis last contribution to cha- 
mkal icicnoc. Tbe subject was one of great difficulty, oon- 
sideling that it inrolrcs the ojceiicy •>{ aiote. wliicb bud not 
long been disoovercd. He treuls lli<! nuhji-ct huirovti with 
hie usnal sagacity, and having obtained what u im>w called 
pnuMO or hydrocyanic acid, be h«» stated Bi>ver»l of it> pro- 
perties. Besides tbo discoii-eries which bare been enumo- 
ratod, it is to Bcheole tbatwe era indebted for the fix>[ 
knowledge of baryles and of the cbaraoters of tnangoneoe. 

Anlotne Laurent Lavoisier was bum in Pari* in 1*43, 
and dietl a victim L> tlie resolution in 1794. Although 
tli« oriKinal dlscoveriea of Lavoisier bavo kss merit than 
tbotc of Prieatloy and Scbetle, yet his contribulion* to tho 
•dcnoo on numetous and iranorlont, vifccially as to what 
rmrds its theory. Ilia 'Elemeiis de Cliimio' were pub- 
liidied in 1 799. In lliis work he wuaiden boat as a subtile 
fluid or a material tubfitaiicv, which he calla caloric K« 
ofgucs that the diifcfcnt form* of natter depend in xeneral 
upon tile (fuantily uf caloric which ihcy contain. Il>« ana- 
Jyiuii of atmoapheiic'air, tliough oonduetod perhaps on mom 
phUosophical priaciphis, doca not offer ao gnat preeuion of 
results as those dedueiU* from tbo very simpl« experimeat 
of Pne^tIe^ ; but it must bo odmitled Ihitt <h*y hid the 
merit uf acttling the ^uea^on as to tliv nature of tho atmoa- 
phcre. 

Van Hclnwnt, and after him Macquer, had employed ihe 
tana gas to deooto all clastic fluid* which diffej- Irom at- 
monberie air. This word Lavoiuer also adopted ; ai>d as 
bo found that Iheportioaoflhoaliuospbere which vui-portiMj 

Fa 



• 




CHE 

iniaitti Iif9 nlw cnlcred into llio <-<>mpM!tivn of acide. bo 
called itosytcnn E"; U'o otliw wiatitut-iit of ih* tit ho 
callcid, from its final cntcl" upon animal lilw, (iiflli* gas; by 
tliift name it is yet ikHKimlwl W many clicmi»U, wbilo 
othtTH jtreAir that of itilroeen, dorived from lU formint; a 
pcLit of niii'ic uriJ. 

iMVouiirt and lib cwtdjuton! effccl*"! various ioipwivc- 
tntiiU iu chomicftl nomcmrlatun.", luoiit of wliich rcrooio 
in Ufe at prencnt, bul some »Uor«tion» uml additioni 
have been rctidciwl iiuuBsary by Iho higlilv-Miltivalcd sWte 
of the »ci«i«. Th« nature of tiio diamwrid liail exfiie<l llio 
attention of tlio Floninliitc Academy ns enrly o* 1690 ; Ihc 
RUbJQct was Tcsiimctl by I^vuiiier, win* proved, ihut when 
air was excluded il uiidvrwenl tio fhaiiK*; on Uio othw 
hand lie »lww«<l, that by buniing it in oxyiton Raa carboiiin 
add was formed, and henw be arji;ued, what i» indeed aaw 
genenlly admitud.thal the diamond, in its cht^micnl nature 
u tiinilat to twiuiuon charcoal. 

In advtfrlinK t4 tho (otutioii of mclnli in acid^. h» notices 
tbo nocvuily of their «;(idi;s'.-nieiit prC^'iouuly to it, and hrnce 
li« arguca the probkbihly IhAt th<: alkaUnc carthi are me- 
Ulhcokide4. (lie oxygen MTt'inR a« a hoiid of union be- 
tMwn thiiin and tho acid«: (his sa^acioiis rotn&rk ha* lioon 
leridcil bjf the diecoiorie* of Dnvy. In !iU additional ob- 
aert-ationa on th« comhinatinn* of oxys^n. he nienliant the 
cottditiotu noiWHar>' for il* union nilh clllTer^nt bodies ; ltic 
eotnponnd* orisinf; from the union of varinus eambuKtible 
bodiea are also Ireaud of. and thottv of (hu aad» and lome 
other eoai|Mund substance*. Sir II. Davy remnrks, tlial 
' lAVoialer niuM ho regarded ai one of ihe raasl s&ijscious 
«f Iha ehcmieal ptU.Ioai^herB of tho lut twntury; indeed. 
•ZMfit Ctvaodian, tbera i* no other inquirer who con be 
compared lo him for prcd*ian of lot;ie. extent of vico', and 
*a|{ii<;ily of induction. His r]i«covrr«3 wero few, but ho 
reasoned with eniraordinnr)' r»rrccliii<H* Ujion the laliuur* of 
Otben. Hu intriMlutMHl wcj^hl and mcmire. nnd strict ac- 
curacy of manipulation inla all chemical pmcMMS. Ills 
mind was unbiassed by prejudices; his conibinutiou* were 
of tho most philosophical nature; and in his intestiKalions 
upon |icinderable subkiuioes lie has entered the true path of 
experiment with csniious steps, following just analogies, 
and measuring hypoUimm by Iheir simple rvlaiion to facm.' 

It ia. hov«v«T, nialUir of hiiiury, and ought nut ta be sup- 
presaed, that LaToisier vat not content niervly to employ the 
fllacoreriMorotben,e\-en without arkoowledgment. bul that 
h« made t diMinot claim lo llie disouveT)' of oxygen, which 
Dr. Priestley tiu most satiafadarily refuted, by usettiug. 
what might ban been eonlradicted. but which was not, that 
luhad menlioiied ihii gai and the luoda of procuring it st 
the taUa of M. Lavoisirr hinn^elf. He malEas acarrrly any, 
ifaiiy. aclLnuaile(l([mont of the labour* of hh predecessors, 
and liis friends ha«^e claimed fur him Uie diwovery of uotic 
gas, prcviounlj dcirribvii by Priestley and Rutherford. 

Claude Louis Benhollol (horii In I74I4. iliud in 1823) was 
the author of mon: than cighly mctuoiri on chotuical sub- 
ject*. His earlier papers on tulphumus acid, ammonia, nnd 
tho (k'compnution of nilre. ven publinlicd while he wa* j el 
a believer lu the plilofiatlc theory, which be zeaUiusly de- 
fended, hul afterwards renounced. One of his most impor- 
taniconlnhniions lo chemistry was thai of dcmonttrsUng, 
In littJ, the nature and proputties of the olcinrnt* of ammo- 
nia. AlMUt the same time he made his exprcttnt^iits oa the 
dc|ihloKi--iticaled marine aoid of Schccic, which, from ox- 
perirucnta well caloulalcd to |:ive rite lt> the opinion, ho saip- 
poMMl lo ho a compound of muriotio acid and oxyxen, and il 
was called oxyevniced muiialio acid. These views, in con- 
sequence chiefly of the uxperimeuta of Daty, bara been 
sboirn t> ho crroncoud, and lhi« ^as is now culled irhlorine, 
»ni) IS admitted to ha^c hilherto resisted all atlempts at dc- 
oomnotition. Il wa* itnted by Scheolc, in tii» cxporinicnU 
an tola jraieous hjdy, that atn^tiic otlicr pro|ienics which it 
pouossed, was thai of dcmroying vci;ul!ihle »:lDunnK mat- 
ter. In cansMiUencc of Ihi* remark BvrthuUct applied it 
to Ibe putpote of bteadiiiii;, fri which it in ni^w most o^lcn- 
sively and almost uni^otsaliy usud. 

The experiments which BcrthoUot made on pmuiic acid 
end its eompounds advanced but did not complete our know- 
led)^ raspcciinK iImmo bodies. In examining the properties 
of lulphuretted hydrof[<^ii< l^e observed that it ponsessed acid 
propettiev; it was not however by the Froiich chcmibtssd- 
nitted to (he olais of nnds, because it was in<s>nsi*tant with 
Ao theory just ad«pti-d, thai oil acids mual contain oiyKDD. 
BanboUct oUo discovered fulminatini; silver, aod first ea- 



ployed Klcohol as a solvent fbr obtainiog polath and eoda 

in a pure stale. 

In ISOi Rcrthotlot published a work eniilled ' ClMrmtcal 
Scslies.' the objei^l uf which wii& li> e«ntroverl the upiniont 
of Beruman on olicniical atllniiy: bui nlthuugb he poiuM 
out some diRii-utrJea alteodani itoon iheni. Ihey wrv by «> 
im?iini refuted. In ihia work btrihullet uIm Tnatntaiiied 
the opinion that quantity may be mode v> orvreoaio ihe 
force of the chemical affinity exisiing betwuen liodiea. 
There were however several points of the argument wbidi 
hi! iii'glt'cloil. or with which ho wat iinnc({UDmted ; indeed, 
at ChL> [M-riiid ul wliii'b ho wrute, llie ductrini.' of dellnite ppo- 
portions had not been prciuultinteU. — a doctrine uhich wilt 
explain many of Ihc apparvni anoaiiH^K that occurred U> 
KrMhiilliTi. Inilceil. in adinniiiision *iih l'niii»l, in wtiixli 
Uio liitii'f hud di^cidi-'dU' the adtuiuuyr. Beiihullei a*serled 
Ihnl bodies wera capable of unilinj; with each other in all 
propurlioiit. But whatever may have been the erruncom 
views of Hurttiollol in some particular c-aMs, rliemistty i« 
Ijreaily indebted to him fur iniuiy valuable ili*ru\ertp< nnd 
rnmor details ; and Ihe aiipliciiiion of the blecirhinfl pun u; of 
chlorine is a nractical HCieniilic tinprovcmcni which hu*. for 
Its exittni anil uscfiilneiii. KcnrtvLy been eiiiiailutl, except m 
the cousttucOou of the ntcum-eiiifine. 

Louis Bernard Guylon de Marveiiu was horn at l>ijDB 
in 17.)'. and died in IHIG. Ahhough llie publtcalMU* o1 
this chrmial were very nuiueniu*. utid runiributed much lo 
thcoxiension uf the science, yet he W4i nut ttienuiinir of any 
very prominent discoi err. liis paiieis are scallered Ihruu^li 
ihu ' Dijiin M^moires.' ' Jounial de l'hysii)ue,' and 'Aanah'S 
dc Chiraie.' There are however some rircumslances con- 
neclcd with tho bulory uf chemistry, in winch hi> |iatliripia- 
lion muti not be ovcrlookeil. In 17b",'in conjuiKiton with 
Lavuisirr, Berlhollet. and Foiircroy. he pubbshed a work in 
one volume. R\o., rntillcd ' Mi^ihixle dL- Nuiocnclature Clu- 
mique,' in which the imiK>nani improvemenU pn>Jccled 
and subsequently adopted, are di-tailed. In 1601 he puh> 
liiihcd a tract, ' I)r« Mojens de d^sinfecter I'Air.' For 
thi* pur]KH« he used various acidt. and especially muriatic 
acid : bul heanerwardsDiloptnl chlorine, which i* now so ge- 
nerally uMcd fur the same purpose. The applicniiuii oftbesa 
disinfircianla was made in Ii(l2. although the hiktury 
was nni given lo Ihe public till the }e8r abovemenliai 
He was Ihe author of a conuderable porlioiL of the chem 
articles in the 'EncyclupCdie M^thodi<)ue;' and that on 
' Acid' has boon justly commended fur its accuracy, both as 
to experimental and historical details. 

Anluinu Franfoia de Fourcroy was bom at Paris in I73S. 
and died in 1609. This chemist was more eelebrated as one 
of the 6rat authors, if not the earliest, of s Irvalise mi che^ 
misirj' nnd as a lecturer, ihnn as a promul^tor of any vvry 
(treat diicovcry. Hit rbi^micil work went thrauch several 
edition*, and i* in Kcneml written will) periMruiiy and 
attention to ibe hialory of the srienrc : his ' PhiloMiphy of 
Chcmidry ' is also a work of considerabk merit. As a d^ 
coverer. he is to be nieniioned as havint; lint shown that ihif 
sails of ammonia and maKiVctta have a tendency to Turm 
double salt* i and he parliculaHy pointed out ihv ammo* 
niaro-maKnesian phosphale. lie ascertained ibat biliary 
calculi rvsetnhlu apennamti in tbnr nature, ami llialntn** 
cular lies!) is convertiblointoafattysuhstancu which he hat 
named odipociro. He puUislMd uveral papers in conjunc 
lion with Vauqucti;i. but what bdonga to each it is impos* 
aikle tu tell. It haj been supposed that the fact* were prin- 
cipally ascertained by Vauqufdin. and tlic ncatunt uf them 
writienhy Fourcroy: among other papers, they puhhshisd 
one Eiving a meUjixl of obtaininn Wrytcs from the nitrate 
by heat ; ibey discovered also ihe existence of phiHph«te of 
magnesia iu bones, and of phosphorus in ibe liruin oiid m 
ihc molta uf fishes. 

It has been mentioned tliat llu> analysis of precious Stones 
had, IliDURh imperfectly, been attempted by Bcri:inBn : this 
department of chemistry received vast accession! from the 
labour* of Martin Henry Klaproth, who was born at War- 
ni|{er«de in 1T43, and diwl in 1817. Thia chcnibt intio- 
ducod into the art of analysis more nuprovemenia than w* 
can even allow loota lo detail. The vaat progress whkh he 
made in ibe Hience will be fully esltmatod, when il is known 
that at the lime at which be eoniiDeticcd his labours the 
correct analysis of scarcely any minerals was known, and 
that ho analyud nearly two hundred wilh so much a«uracy 
that hi* resulta bare been cenvraily couBrmed. and the sim- 
plieity o[ bis nttbod of operalioii is greatly to be GomrocndoJ 



L beaa j 
Iff 



CHE 



37 



C H K 




n 1T&9 1i« i1uuoT«Kd a new metal in a mineral called 
pecliblende, to which lie (["Ve tlir tiAmetif uranium i and in 
tho untfl year in inalj lian lb« lircon bo found a new eaith, 
VhicJi be called lirconia, and which hu since been Khonn 
^ Benvliui t)l>e a mctallie oside. In I7M he ruund ihc 
ntDo snbaUnce in thu hyacinth; in Ihia year ho iilau found 
h tbe ni schorl the umo mclallic oxide which Grcfpir had 

r" rriooaly iBCt with and called mrnachinc i Klaproihnnmcd 
litaniuia, and thii appellation t* nuw Ecncrally eB);daycd. 
Aj>p«-T«ni]y ignorant of the fact that stxuntia had been pre- 
viously dctcrihcd as a peculiar earth, )t« in 1793 Hhoircd [h« 
diS«r«nce Uilwwn it and barylcv, ihej baTint; hccn con- 
AuniUd in Gncnan^ up to that ttmc. In 1798 ho gave 
•o acMunt of tclliinuni a» a now roclal, hut it had IrMn 
befon; noticed by Mtillcr. In 1844 he dvKiibcd a new sgb- 
■(Aac«, which li« called ochroila. Bcrtchu* and HininKcr 
isKjcred it a metallic osid«, and railed tbe metal cerium, 
ide* Ihwc more important contributions to scicnco, ha 
manj' dticvveric!) «f minor importance, whivli may be 
in his* Anolff's.' or nliicli two volumes have brcn 
ilicd and IransUted into English. Ucfidce minciaU, 
• ill he fomid analyse* ot *om<^ minemt walcni. an ac- 
aC Iho tlfeeU pmdaf«d hy intense hval upon vuiout 
's, aed |h« ilelaiU of the motbodo of anstv-i), which 
we extremely valuaUe and instrucliTC, both at to the na- 
ture and mctliod of cmjiluyinit variiusclioinical rv-a|-<>nl*. 

H. Vaui]uelm wu« one of the mMt dittinguitUM analynts 

oT the ptvaent' century. He was born in Normandy, in 

■ha! year wf know not : but h« died in U39. His anuivces 

%cr*not ponflned to any particular class of hoilies, and ho 

lttuhtish«l mere and perhaps included a ffreatnr variety in 

(Btt operaliona than any other ohomi&t ; his researches m- 

Irinded the three kinploms of nature, but hia ffrsatest disco- 

wartaa wet* in tbe mineral. In ttui emerald and beryl ho 

iMad aueir earth, to nhich. on accauni of the s«reetnci> of 

the salts whMi It formed with acids, he gave the name of-: 

^ueina; but his discovery of chromium, in the stata of 

ebraraie acid, in the red lead of Siberia, aaa an mra in che- 

Bieal bistorr. OTi|;iiially met vrilh in a scarce and Talu> 

■Ue mincral.it has Binc« been found in various parte of 

It earth eombined with imn, and in inimun»« qunntity ; it 

lar^ly empkiycd for sarioui uich; in the siaiv of oside 

fjivinc a green to porcelain; in that of aetd, combined 

th oxide uf lead, il forms both a One yellow and orange 

la, which is Uicd in painting and calir'n printing. It 

be in Tfiin to attempt an nnulytu uf Vauquulin's va- 

pen; thejr are chieOyiO be found In ihe ' Annalesd« 

„ uxl will amplv repay pprui.-il. Ho irniiaUn author 

ark entitled. 'Manuel de rKisayeup,' nhu-h bo wai 

arly competent to write, not merely on account of hit 

till, but also as being nsssy-mastcr of the mint. 

Smiibtun Tannant wa> bom In Yorksbire in ITGI. 

in 1814. In 1791 he made an experiment, wbicb 

J tbanvnotis simement of Lavoisier as to tho com* 

of eanonic acid. H<teflocled this by paSMnji; pbos- 

thrmiEh red-hot carbonaie uf lime, and ha found 

phosphorus was acidiAed at the expense of the 

of tha carbonic acid, and that while phosphoric acid 

' cbarcoal was dereloped. In 1 73fi he heated tbe 

wkk nitrate of potash in a gold tube, ond he found 

dJMDsad. hj combinmK with the oxyncn of llic 

' , wai cORTflTtod inlocajbonic acid, and this com- 

ibe aoluh ef the deoompused nitrate to form cur- 

o( pocasn. Ha obaerved in 1799 that certain lime- 

ne«, on account of the carlmnatc of magnesia which they 

m, are hurtful to vcicetution ; he examined the sub* 

Vnown by tbe name of emery in I80Z, and showed 

lit ia a rsricty of corandura; ami in 1S04 he discovered 

new roctali, vii., oamiuro and iridium, in tbe grains of 

Te plat in um. 

John Ooitlieh Gahn (bom in I74S in South Ilolsios- 

died in I H 1 6) was tho pupil of Bvrirman. He was par- 

\ sUled in tho use of the hlow-pipe ; and lie osccr- 

ihat kMM is a compound of plKMphoric add and 

llepnivrd the metallic nature of monganVM, and 

Ihe properties of the mctnl. 

Rev. William Grcfcor wa> bom in 1763. and diid in 

In tlto rear 1791 be discovered a Mculiar substance 

lek sand, found in tho parish of Hcnaccan in Corn- 

Tliis substanee waa afterwards deteelcd hy Klaprotb. 

lb* hiiB proTvd to be a metallic oxide, to iho metal con- 

'tin wbicli be earc tho name of titanium. In 1805 

: ifeiGiilicl a hydreU of alunioa fouad ia Com- 



fwM. wai 



vail; he analyicd tbe uranite. ond also the arseniate of 
Icail. 

Dr. William Hvde Wollaston waa born aboutlJfi?. and 
died in 1B2S. Ilis knowledge was not confined to che- 
mistry : he mndc acouMlr* niiil nmro particularly optica also 
liio study. His fir»t chEHiical paper on urinary calculi con- 
tained much new iiiftirmalion on this subject; ho shored 
(hat the mulberry calculus is oxalate of lime mixed with aiii> 
mal matter; he pointed out a new calculus nhich be named 
cytiLie uxi'dc. the nature of the triple phosphate, and of (he 
chidk stones fumicd on tho juinls of gouty portonit. Ho dis- 
covered two now tnctoli in the gmins of tiolivo platinum, vit, 
pulladium and rhodiuoi ; he siiiiiwed that oxalic arid anil 
]>oiai>b cumbine in three different proportions furmiiii; Iho 
oxalate, binoxalalc, and quadroxalnto of that alkali. Ho 
pointed out the tiatuir of some small cop pet coloured crystals 
found in tlic tUu of an iron furnace, pruviriu by a scriet of 
cxpeiimenls, in a pciper which is a porfecl mudcl of concisc- 
ncu and accuracy, that they wcra metallic '.Uatiiiim. Ho 
perfected ibu method of rondorini; plalinuRi avnilublc forllio 
purposes ef cheoiistry and tbe chumical art», and his * Scale 
of Chemical £i)uivalenl>' more rffcclually elucidated and 
extended the dvctrine of dcHnite proportions than all that 
hod been proviwunly done boib hy theory and protlice. 
lie Qr»t showed that the cvolutitsn of voltaic electricity is de- 
pendent upon chemical action, a fact whirli has bL'cn since 
nniply and ably itlunlraled by Faraday. His 'Reflective 
Ocnitrmetet' baa given 1o crystallography all tlic minute 
accuracy which it previously stood in need of; foe it showed 
that three substances, vis., tho eaibonate of irol). limtr, ai>d 
ma^jnesii, whtcb w«r« previously supposed to cryitoliUe in 
rhomboid« measuring the aame anglea, had all dtflcrcnt 
snt,'^!!. Hii paper on Iho finite oxisnt of llio ntmoepbcrc 
It replete with curious and acuta observation*; and he in- 
dented some optical instruments, which we need not hero 
particularly describe. 

Uomphry- Davy wai bom at Pentance. in Comwnll, ni 
1778, and dioil in I82fl. To the rcsoarnlift* and diteovcric* 
of this justly celebrated chemist it will be impossible to Ha 
jualico in the space to which we are confined. Hit first con- 
tribulioni to ctiemical science were published in iryu, in 
a work edited hy Dr. Bcdiloea, entilleil 'Cantributiuns to 
Physical and Medical Knowledge.' Tho flril paper ia " An 
Ksf ay on Heal, Light, and the Combinations of Light,* and 
Iho SGOond 'On tliK Gonprulinn of Fhos-osygcn (oxtgi.n 
gas), and on the Cniue.i uf the Colours of Or)janic Beiiii^n ;' 
these, nllhougli stamped with the mark of goiiiun. are more 
reniarkniito for Iho sppfulativc tlian I'vpiTiinentul nature of 
llieir eiiiititnls. Ia iitOV ha jiublished a work, enliiled ' K«> 
seaiehes. Chemical and l'biln«iphical ; ebielly eonreming 
Nitrous Oxide, or I>!phlDgitti(^atcd NiUous Air. and it* 
Kespiration.' In this, which is a work of high merit, lie 
details the efTscts produced by tho respiration of nitrous 
oxide Iwth on himM'irand others. Tbe very high reputation 
which he har] acquired hy this work was greatly iticrcated hy 
his paper in the " Piidosophical Trontacliona ' for 1807. en- 
titled. *On some Chemical Agencies of Blectricity.' In tliin 
Caper he ahowcd that the arid and alkali wliicli had befotu 
etn obturved to lie developed by galvanic agency iccte de- 
rived from the dccuinpoiiiion of some prcviuuafy existing 
tall, and weie nut fuiined b; the oloctrio action, lie arrived 
tt the conclussin, from the nunicroui oxperiments described 
in tbiaBaper, that all bmlio poaMssiiig chemical alTinity for 
cac^ otiief are in dilTercDt electrical states, and that the de- 
gree of the affinity is proportional to their intensity. By tho 
agency of voltaic electricity ho decomposed the alkalis, |»{- 
asn and aoda, and obtained from thcin meUltic baaca, to 
which h* ga\« the tiantea of potassium and aodium ; bo suc- 
cecdeil alto in aeparating metallic bases from lime, baryles, 
sirontia, andlithia ; he was not however equally successfXil in 
docompoaing those earths which have no alkaline properties, 
as alumina, glucina, yllria, and tiroonia. though tbcse liaro 
since yielded to other modca of decomposition. In ISOT be 
also discovered boros, Ibe Imm of boraow acid. 

In 1 S 1 1 Davy read a paper to Ihe Royal Society, in which 
he showed (hat what was called tixymunatic oci.l by Ber- 
tbollel. instead of bcin^. as he supposed. > otvnnpeund ef 
oxygen and muriatic aciil, wa», in fact, an undroompwed 
substance, and therobro must l>e regarded at an elemnni, 
andhu ga^o lo it the name of cbl.ifioo from iu peen eolonr. 
These view*, though at first utrongly opposed by Berihollei 
and Dr. Murray, are cow universally adopted. In the fol- 
luv'Liig years be cootribuled rarious important papers to tho 



Roj^ Boctetf, uid a.inonR tbem on the foUowine sub- 
jecta: — on a compound of cEtorm« wid»x)'piv: on chloride 
of auwle; on ioditio; iHe combustion of tn« dinaionil; on 
thu nJl» called li¥[wri>xi'muTittlio ; on flpfrnlarap, and the 
means of preTcnlin;; owjulenU in miu«i ; and his ini^ention 
of ihe sttlciy lump. In Ruci»«ding y«iir« he publiabvi vi- 
riotw papers on clcclncilj, ckctro-mapiftUm, and on a me- 
thod of proviinliOH Uio wrfwion of ctypcr tliontbinft ; thi* 
plan, (hou^h bwcd on pojfocllv iacntilic princijilM. failed in 
its object from ihe vwy uncspoeled e^aw of its boins rcn- 
ilrnid foui. Hb lut paper WM in 18ID, on the •IwUioitjr 
of thtt torpedo. 

Id IBl-J Davy published tho fint puTt of the ■Elemenla 
of CbemioulPlii]dKipby,'iLWO)U which will never com plotod. 
II cuibodiod the rcHulu of bis dis^o^-eries, and an account 
of ccrlaiii viour* of llio auilwr up to Iho limo in which it 
appeared. Thl^ wc«k boar* owMional mark* of hiwte, yot 
it eot)laiD& ovideucc of lu emanating fruni a genius of the 
bighaal order. 

IB coDcludtng this brief sketch, it is hanltj nocenary to 
retnark ttrnt liio discovofioii alluded l* in il pUwd llieir 
autliur at Ibo head ot Iho Mriem^o wliieh ha illustrated, iicrt 
merely in England but in Europe ; and his fame will rext 
on the duiubliK tKiM of vxperimeotal discovery and unrivalled 
taUnt for general ixii ion. 

In giriDg* a bittor)- of chcmislr}-, it is impossible not tn 
noti<M) the doctrine of dt'Sniln pr^ortinns, or tlw nlomic 
theory ; under which hrad we linv« enlerV'1 pruU} fully fulu 
the hiUory of lU discovery, and mentioned the contributors 
to its deTclapment. wbethn deceaiad or living. In that 
article* the discoveries snd labouTS of Wvnsel. Vt. Hi|^iiiii, 
Mr. Hitigins, Richirr, Piouit. Daltii». WolIiu.luii,I{crxv1iui, 
Gay-Luoaai;, Dr. Pruul. xiu\ Parada}', iire detailed lio anifily 
IB tw require no further noiiee bete. 

Then are tiill wme other subjeeta vlilcb il is nocesnuy 
to mention, though ne cannot allude to all lite diieo- 
veries which their respeeiive authors have made. In 1803, 
SoTtuerDor, a Gennau aputliecary, discovered in opium the 
first of a new clan of iKidies, or Ihe vegetable alkalis ; but 
this discovery excited little notice, till the auibor published 
a second, paper in I8IG: this alkali is morphia. Since 
thi* time numerous olheni have been found ; thity ar<> ull 
of thcmven octii^e lubilaneoa. and frequently ituiMimius. 
Thus the different kind* of cincli«na have jielded t«u 
alkalis, quina and cinchixiia, to vbich thair virtues uce 
oaring: tlieve were discovered by Petletier and Caritnlou, 
in 1830. It has been found that many of the most actiiti 
ref(etable subslancei. such as hellebore, ipecacuanha. coU 
ohicum, and many others, contain in alkali. Tlial those 
alkalis should not havu bc!cn Mx>ner didcaiHtrod it irnddy 
accounted Cot by their uxi^tinx combined with aciils, so a» 
not l9 exhibit any alkiUne properlim. 

In 1BI2. icdinc. a peculiar elvmentary auhstaace, was 
dixxrvorcd by M. Couriuis, of Paris. The nature of this 
body was made the tuloect of numerous cxpcrimenU liotli 
W Uwvy and Gay-Lussac lis dmcuicry sieved tlic piirjioae 
of illufiirallnic and coufiruiing the new vieirs of Davy as lo 
thi! simple nature of chlorine. 

In miH Boractius discovered a peculiar inllDmniBhle 
elementary body, to vbich he guvc uc namoof scloniutn. 
In 16-24 he obtained the metallic hues of silica and zir- 
Dontu ; and in 1 929 be found a new metal, to which be gave 
ibc name of tliorium. In IslsStrwDcyer discovered cad* 
minm, a new melal ; and In the same year lilhium was dle- 
coTcrcd b^ Arfvedaon: Bussy »hlained i&aEucsiuni from 
its oxide in 1639, eukI in 1&30 Scfotrom obcoviried the 
metal vanadium. 

lu I8'J3 Mr. Faraday alMwed tliat various gasci. which 
had prtriously rcsittm oondensation, mi^hi be raadercd 
fluid i^ wo particularly mootioD this important acauisition t» 
cliemical scjencu. b(Kausouiijust<6>hte attempts kavo been 
made to liaosfec tbe honour of ft to Sir II. Davy. Biglil 
coiDpouod gioes w*ra reudered Bold, but cUloriQe is the 
only oUmDnlarT ooe wbieb yidded to the same inrabBenU 
If our snaoe allowed, we should bo happy to Give a man 
valeiideu view of the important disoovenes of Mr. Pandar 
in electn»«hemicBl and etactro-BUgnettcaJ soieooe, as veU 
aa to notice hia other importuit contnbatiMis to cheni«»l 
pihiloMphj. 

In lft3C Balard made known the new elcmenlary body 
hromine. which is remarkable as being the only eleraeniiuy 
fiuid except mercury. 

We cannot better mnclucle ibia alight skelch of the pro- 



(trees of ehemUtr; than hy adopting tho words of Sir H, 
Davy on a similar occasion :—' To dwell more mioatdy 
upon Iho pirlicular merits of the ehemieal philoMphora of 
tho present at;o will bo a gmtiAil labour for sunie fuinra 
historian of chomlUry; but for a oontenporary writer it 
would be indelicate lo assume the right of arbitrator, evca 
where iiraite only can be bertowed.' 

CHEMNITZ, a town in Saxony, the capital ('f_ lh« 
Eragcbirg circle, is situated at the foot of the itrzeebijrg^ 
in a plain which citends about ten miles in crerv oineticni. 
It i» in 50° SO' N. lat , cud I ;** 53' E. long., and about 97* 
(eel above the lexcl of the Baltin. Chemnits is one of Ihe 
mo»t induHlrioiit towns in Germany. In no place indeed 
have all the English improveraenU been tniroduecd with 
such care snd skill as m Chemnitz. The number of 
periions employed in wcaviuf; exceeds 2000, There ere 
twflvA msnurartories for printing cotton (joods. and some iB 
which the yam is dyed red like Turkish jam. The voellti 
mnnufo^iuic^ whiuli were formerly very considerable, hare 
muflh docrcftHtd in the lost fifty years; but in the town n 
wi>1l at in its iioighhourhood there are many stocking ma- 
iinfncturos. ChoraniU earrini on a considerable trade, 
bfinii »ituBted where tho road Iwtwwti Prag in Bohemia 
and Leipzig and that which unites Havoria with Dresden 
cross ono iiciother, Tbv> t<iwn contains about IG.OOffinha- 
Intantf, and is well biitlti the Ktreets nru ti[iat.-i4Ku and 
mostly siraip;tit, and many of its houses look more like 
pnlnces than dwellirf^-housos. It it remarkable for tbf 

frcat i-leanlinpss cf iis Ktreel*, and is lighted with lamps. 
ho public cdtiicci aro in a good style, but nono of thtm 
parti«ilarly diiiinguisbed. 
CHE'NNIUM, a genus of Coluoptemas insects. [Fsx- 

LAPHItH ] 

CHENOPODI .\'CK.«, a nahiral crdor of exogens. «m. 
sislingof numeruua spccicK, u>vd either forcuhnary purpows 
or fur the mnnufsclu re of soda. Tliey are apetalmit pfanu, 
with minutr green lierbaeoous flowois. a small number ot 
stamens, which are opposite the segments of the cutyx, and 
a one-collod membraaoiit fruit, couuiaing one single erect 
toed or a very siit&U nutabor- The leaves are soft and 




<wirta^ 

4, Kail* «( Hm p*tM*. staartai A*fi4aMlii klwBt Ktawrt irpAftt 
«fnie;W .)««■« Owawnr. na»B»Mk(rth(H|4nll*i4ntrsi o-IMl 
Iab«d4nlla lU Hcnlcat eal)^;/ «. *<wl wtanM bva Uh cbI] x ; A. Ih«S 
MMalMMlMerftM: <.**nWil4«.; l,tBk^ AI Ibw >(WM,tMm!r" 
iiMiiiilaiii ill iiiliiiii ilniiM] '* 



K«*^M 



tftllicr neculcnt, vitfaoat biit tnet of i(!pu1es. Moat of 
thMD an fouad in tbe cold mna Icmperete pwtn of the world, 
Thtf dUTer flrom Pi>lyf[on«uo and UriiraGetD in llio want of 
UqMhs, U)d from AiuantniATcs in iboir flomTt not living 
Vikntti uid Gareti>pcd in mcDibranoua bncts. Spinach, 
W«1, orach, and Dlh«r aptnaMous pfawU, belong to tbti order. 
In which no d«tuteriau) ipcciea kaa been diacarared. 

CaBNOP(yDlUM, tbo Rcnu* %tUt which th« laat- 
HuntMtwd ordn has been naincd, oonfiati of wocd; pluita. 
mnnuin on donichills hikI in wosle phcet, and kDown bjr 
tbo ttnnKo nnincs of Pal-faun (CA, album), Oood KinR 
Uvnry (Cfietii^jmlinm B<m*u Henriau), &c. The)' ara 
Tallj> iiui|nd plnnlo, vhcte l«avv« and younKibooUmay 
lUO M •()i&Bch. but whkh Iiave no piLrticular ment. 
iijjoBTi* M howuvCT found tlie wIeVrated Quinoa of 
[{Chuicp^ium Quitwa). Tbis plant, whoM sc«ds an 
n be or ai narh iinportanc« t* tbc FeTuvUni na the 
taaite, potato, and wheat, ii an annual wredy tpecies, wilh 
«p|iearanc« similar to that of |rfir<i«n ot«oh, to the me 
tQtcb it groTi. Iti flo««r* appt'or in pIomi diut«n about 
ocndt of Ili« bnaobM, nnd arc iiucrpwlod by a profuaioD 
IiltM Ma«k or white eeeila (arconliiift to tbo rariety) 
" th* »» of naini of millet lu l«ave« ar* emptottd 
b, and the Kcds in aoup or brotb at ri<^c. and in 
fula of SoMth Amnictt they are in u mueh ut« u 
In India. Thny are laid l» yield a pleiuant brer when 
!nnent<»d. It « chiefly njym the high«tl land of Southern 
re, vhero neither barley nor no will ripen, aa, for in- 
no«, at tbo koit^ht of nearly 13,VO0 feet on tbo table-land 
ChiijuitAa, that quinoa fomts tbe f-mkt arliclo of agri- 
llxire; it lh«a (intna nebU. tho limitit of which tbe eye 
n hardly reach, of a monotanoa^ and iinplruant a^pvct, 
areolr mixed with a ^in^le othcrr apcci«i, anA tctj' unlikn 
M riea and waving grrcnncn of onr standinK «rn. Il is 
^•0 >xUttDely eommon about the gn-nt Inko of Titicaea. 
wadi m ripened in England, and may nnw ho pur- 
k) ai $»rot the seed-Bhops; but tbc plant can hardly 
lORuUerBd worth tbaatlAnipt atculiiming it where any 
me ebe Itill ^row. {Oantetur'a Magaxiru), vol. x., 569 j 
hJ M eyun. Dtt PJiansen Gfof^aphie, 361.) 
CBEPSTUW. a port nnd markot-lown. on the Wvc 
Ifi mill-* from whero it fnlla inio tbo ietlu»ry of ino 
Tcm). in ths hundivd of Caldicol, Monnouthilttrr, I ill 
iJe* nearly dtM W. from London. Tbe panih of Chcp- 
« eont&iin 1030 a^res ; it it in the dioccie of LlandafT. 
IB Mpulukw bi imi wns 3S91 ; the nvcrafi^ p^.M an- 
al fneoBU! of tlic Incumbent of the p«uri«h wiu returned in 
'9 nl 3Hl. Tlie pariih then contained 31 tlaily and 
Mluwle; one of which, containing 18 children, la 
with 7t. per annum arising tram land, and ihe in- 
klt l«*i. 

Tbg odvaoiaf^us sittution ofCbepftow near tb« mouth 
\Ty« it tiipposed to bsvc rendered it a ileaimble 
hath in Roman and Saxon ttmi-H. It hm formerly 
bftilled. Tbe tovn ia built on a bdl gradually 
^ from Ibo rirer, and haa a eheerrul and lively ap> 
Fnna dllTtfrvnt points near the town the ^iowfl 
foiglf beautiful— the aeeneiT net b«inr impasMd 
br any tbintt similar in Britain. TFic rumi of 
r Cteilo oecapy an cxtensiw area ; Ihe waits on 
are almost pefpondiculnr wjih the cIifTwhieh owr- 
Ihe Wje; tha ervction of tbe ediGce it attributed la 
mani la the eleventh centnry. bnt the arrbiteetnre 
orta of a lat«r date. In this caMie ilnnry MartoD. 
Uw jodgVR of Cbarl** I., na eondne'l far upwards of 
jpMia alter the Restomtion. btit his impriwinin«nt 
•ppeu to have bnn rigoniis. though it only endod 
dxatb. Hb family was permitted to live with him. 
Wra is Dirigable fiir larire Tnieta only to Cbepsinw 
wnich la amaulviB ttructuro of iron, enacted in tat 6; 
ftwn «i;!hteeo to tbirtj tons burthen can ao as 
•njbrd. The spring tides at Chejntow Trcquenlly 
e M tMt. 

are no manufaclortes in tbe town or Rel^txmr* 
tt Owpstow, but the town has a coniidetable export 
id Import trada. It is lighted with k"*. tbe ezmniss of 
■ defhiyed by a donation fVom ■ private Indirldual ; 
well paved, and kept clean. The i^aas receipt of 
a' duty at Chepstow, in I8J4, was 9IR/. 
CHER, a ritwoT n^ne*. from wbirJi Ihe depanment 
eta It inwrtaa i«cetv«t ita name. Tlio loum! of it« 
_ , J branelt Is in the eastern extremity of tbo deport- 
il !if CnuM, • Utile la the south of tha toim of Auiuoe. 



Two other hranehcfl, which riae in Ihe same neparfmonl, 
farm a junolion wtlli iu as it entera in tta nonhwanl oourao 
the difMurtiDent of Aliior. It oontinnot in tho same direc- 
tion ihroueh tho western oxtruiuity of this dopartnicni. 
passes by Monilu^n, and ontcra tbe aontli-«ast boundary 
of lUe de)icu-linem uf Cbcr. Near Saint Amand it Ukm ■ 
N.N.W. couise to CbAleauntiur, and to Vicraon. wber* it 
unites with tho Aurou. TuminK due wc^t, it rcceiTes tha 
Artm, poises ihu town of Scllos.n little below which it is 
Joioed by the Saukln: und tbo Fouson, and cunlinuint: its 
vosUim cowfso )«»i St, Ai^nan, Muntricbard, and BIAxd, it 
rall» into the Loire, a »borC distance below tbe rit/ of Tours. 
Tlii* river is Bubjecl to itrciit inundatioDi. It has 29 hicks to 
fncj!itat« navigation; but from iU source to St. Aienan, a 
Am anco of I & If iiews, il is Mrviccablc only Ibr iho tloatiiii; 
of timber. Tho rcmaininf; portion of 19 1«»)(uvh, torn Sl 
At|>:nan to the Loire, is navigablo for boats, which conrcy 
wood, com, chnrmal, and fodder for caltlo. Tbe whulu uf 
its course is miarly QW miles. It supplies tcmml kinds of 
edible flih. The e«nal du Duo de Bt.Tri ninii along Ihe 
Cher IVom Chambon. on one of iti upper braiichee, nearly 
U fbr aa Ainny, A Amsllor rinir of the aama Dane rises in 
theduehvofBar, and falls into tboHeute. fSncyc. Methnd. 
Gfog. Phyt., ton. tii. ; Cassinis Map of France ; Exjully.) 
CIIEK, a department nearly iu (ho cootre of Fnuioo. 
cnmprehends that part of tho untiunl prvvinccof Bcrri called 
Haul Berrl, and a portion of Boutboiin>i9. Its northern 
boundary is formed by the dopnrtmont of Loirot ; on Um south 
it haslhfidi>p3Timent of Allier: on tlio wc«l that of Loir L-t 
Chcr.andoflndre. nnd on ih^i-nst llwi depurlmentof Nidrre 
and the river I.oiro. Ili&incUidcri lictwnvn 4i>^'JS'and 4r^>10' 
N. Int., an<i l° Si/ and 3' il R. lonR. The flffuro fomed by 
its boundary line is very irreenlar. Measured boith and 
souib Its givatesi length i« S6 Krilish milt's, and its irrcotcst 
width, oa§t and wetl, 5(i miles. Tho whole area ccntains 
l.4}0,134 maws (Dtetion. Vnitvrt*!. by Prudbomnie>, or 
3265 squaMi miles. Ilourget, ile capital city, has a po- 
pulalianof IS.ODO, and is due south of Pimi, frnm which 
It is distant I2& miles in a alnight line. The pogiu- 
latton of this department, in 1S3G. was 349,IMW (Balbi, 
MrigiQii^.), Ihatis. bRiwcen IU9 and 110 to a square mile. 
Tha •urfkee of the countrv' is generally level, nnd the vlioU) 
depnilmenl is extremely well woodod. Thero aro six fi>n»W . 
that of Allogny. of Aubigny. ofBomneq, of Haute Itrano, 
of %'ierion. ami of Yvoy. Tlioy cover 150.000 hectares', or 
371. CJU Kn(>lLih aoron, and forniih excollfnt timbof for 
house and fihip-buildina. Besides Ibe Cher, tbera are se- 
veiiil ollKtr eunvidunihln stroanis, namely, tho Auinn. Aron, 
and SA:uldro, all uf which bulony U the basin of tho Cher. 
In thsBoutbero and soath-wesiem parts the soil is onlv of o 
medium quality, uul rushy ponds sra numerous; m tbo 
northern and Dorih- western portions are marshes, Burruundud 
Kith tracts either entirely barren nnd soitdy. or covered witb 
fkinte and thistles. 

In tbe eentral ports, as well as on tho hanks of tbe Aumn 
and Cher, the land u ntmarkBlily ricb, and cspeeiallf on 
the eastern side^ sIddr the Iwidnr of ibc ]^r«, wbore it 
piitrKses the highest productive quahlics. About two-tliiids 
of (to whole surfhoa of this department aro more or Isaa 
tteikte and aaeless. artd tbe rest exhilhla the irreotesi feni» 
liiT. PastniagB fbr sheep and homed cattle u abundsnt, 
and onniequenily great numbers ore reored. Th« wool pro* 
duccd in thii district is considered tho heal in f^aiwe : 
the mutton alio is said to be very ffood. Hones ore g«na- 
tally dimnnotifie in siic. Qstnt, pouhry, and flib are 
abundant. All Ike Tarion* soirta of giain yiald plcstifbl 
crops. Still, there ia no pertentible improvement iti agri- 
culture; Dot Indeed in any othei: of tbo industrious arU. 
It ia remarked by Milto Brun (frfej^. fsn'ivrf., torn. id. p. 
493,1832) tliat tlie iiiriesiljlc peiS CT granoc with which Iho 
inhabitants adben to tbe clnmsy routine of their snces- 
tors prvreolB any denriopncnt of the great natural re- 
sonrcca of this dcpaitmcnl, and aooounta for tbe fact, that, 
while ibey have at hand a large sopply of the finest wool, 
only a very fiw naautactorieaa inferior wooltendotbs exist 
among them, Uia* whik Ibeir erow abaiulanoe of hemp 
andnu.tbcy manofhctafwaoliiuDlUiriG ; thatiwilfa a vary 
largp borne produclioo of wax, the mi^ujig of wax candlea 
sppean never to have been aliempled, &c. One fact alleged 
u a cause of tbc want of improv«mant in agriculture, 
is, Ibst tho land ia generally the property at gmt pro- 
prioton, vbu let the farms on short liutt, and oonsequenily 
« Ak«lw«ia««MltBrs]NIMUa«Nk 



doatroy «yery inc«i)t)<r« to exertion. Fmits of various 
kinds nro pralutcd in profuBiun, u veil sa iho finctl 
vtculcnt TvggUUcs. The Tinn ir> cultivated witb cuiddcr- 
•bl« Eucccit, and ptoducri th-i; vhile wiiiu vbkti ia tvld in 
Pari* u^d«r tti« nunio of ChablU. Thvro are aiw smnli 
MAnuractiirct ol* nip«r, {fotnM, port^lnin, iJclf-miria, nut'Oit, 
Slicl saltpcltc, lite mincrnl prodiiclwnf cf ihu ilvpiuttiicnl 
■tft itnporUnt. &il>«r mrno9 once cxiatod ; bul Iney hnvo 
eeucd to bo worked. Oc)tr* ii Mid to bo Oiblkincd of a qua- 
lity pTeferable to tKai of EngUnd. There oro quoirnc* of 
granilo xni marble Mention i* ftlto mndo of roani-Ancs^, 
]>aiter's cloy, nnd f^rpsura; 1>ut by far ibo tnoit valunilo ob- 
jeelorniinmganATnLions inlhis depurtraentin iron, which i> 
Cniinil ill gmt tibundanee and or««ry supi^nor quahty. It 
dov« mil lie It a i^at d<plh, but is pmcurvd a few f«<.'t 
boloTvtlic surface, whm-o it *pMar» in a pronulatrd form. »• 
thur roundish and of a r«(lcli>)!irotaur. Numerou* and ex- 
lenuvo iron-work.1 are entablnhcd for the manufacture of 
iron and tieol iraplemenu, nnil«, &c. Ths vigour with 
which ibis xpecicM of jnduslr}' in pnxocuted present* an 
oxnitpiiun to the geni^rat vupiaenets which we have men- 
tioned. Til* iron irade forms indeed, with tho sale of wtwl, 
cattle, end timber, the chief sou rre of wtuilih lu the inhnhit- 
aiits. The great deftcitiney of means of conTeyance Iiuk 
bern pnitinlli supplied by tho opening of Iho cansL of Bern. 
[Crkd, RiiiT.] 

Tbii d^partiiiitnt is dividvd into three orronOiMcmonti, 
which are tubdividud into 29 cantans and SOT conirounes. 
Tliu MMt of ihe prefecture i% at Buu.ri;c«. The other can- 
siderable plam are Ssnrerre. whicli btaiids on tho highest 
liill in the deparimi'nr. and is cii)Fii|;Dd in the winu tnule; 
jiopiilalign about aOOO. Si. Amana. on u brani^h of iho river 
Cher, in a plvosant vallet;: population about 3(liiU; and 
Vieraon. on lh« Auron. At Yvoy te Pr6 ihrrc is a ^Ibm 
innnufoctory. Henni^heroQiit wai buili by liuily inhojiuur 
of Hon. IV. : it has a luge tannery. Tins depaitment sendfl 
fourinembenioibeChnTnlwrof I>)putics: it »c»inpriM^'l in 
Ihe I Stli military iliviniun ; ami is within the jumdicnvn of 
Ute Cour Itoyale of Boursea. 

The deparlmem of Indi-e and the department nf Cher 
form the metruiMlitan diin-eso of Boutses. (Aaryc. A/«- 
thenliqw!, Giog. t'hjt.. torn. in. ; Jkfaltr Brun : iJict. Geoif. 
VniorTKllt. IS-J.'.: Bami, At>rig4 dt Giog. 1633.) 

CHIiRBOURG, n (iirtified city and sea-port of France. 
on the notibcin coiut of the dvpaiiiucni of Manche, and 
one of the pnnripal ulaiioni of the French navy. It H 
situated nt ilic southern c^ilKiiiitir of the bay and roodstoad 
of La Muncliv. in lat. JB' 3li' N.. and long. 1* <[)' W., onpo- 
»ftetheMeofWi«hl, t9o miles WN.W, from rnri*. CW 
bourg is of ^reui anticpirly. By Frojuard it is >^ul lo have 
been fuundr-d bv Caiar. vliuii ho invaded Briluiii. but by 
Others itisdenieil ihntCiPMr ever visited this portion of Gaul. 
In HIei ihc city wus bt-aiitgcd by the En^'lish, to whom, 
after ihiee months" rcsistuiicf. it iorrenrli^red; but in NSO 
it was re-uken by Charles VII, mlio finally expelled tho 
Englith ftora the cuiuti of Notmanrly. It» ensile, in 1080. 
wa» demolished by I^iii» XIV. For a. detailed hiitonrnl 
account, sec tho work of ExpilLy. It ronlains scvcinl ca- 
pacious arsennU for niJiriae and military stares ; fatil that 
which is RiuMt rcmarksbk at Cherbourg is the great ^Vf^' 
or bicakwiiier. and iho exravaied dock for the navy. The 
l&tter, which was niudebr Napnliraii. n-asnpem-d in 1 81 3, and 
is ocooped out of the curt h and solid i-ock.n little to the west 
of the city. It is lOoa feet in leti|fth, 77(1 in width, au in 
depth, ant) occupies about 18 acres. Al low water if has a 
depth of ,31 feet, miul is capnbU of receiving 60 bhips of the 
line: thcrois aim a eoramodious cominerrial duck, diitinet 
from that for tho navy. The oo«1of both was aliuul l.OOO.QOO/, 
as it is slated in several recent English works, but it must 
ueaa fraocit, which would bo about 200,000/. The break- 
wator ii to tho north of the pcA vA extends from cost to west 
4tf92 yards, so as lo leave a pana^ at each end. It was 
comnienced under Louia XVI., and although runiinued at 
great expense by Napoleon, it is 6liU not completed. The 
work was be;pin by the nubucraion of enoimous coo^i^al 
frames of oak, having at the bate a diameter of HD feet, 
and <itf feet At the summit Theue, and the inicrmedinle 
npsrccs, wore afterwards filled by dropping; in large unhewn 
U»cks of granite and sandstone, of wliich the whulv ntau is 
much oTcrrated by some aulhurilieK. (MahoBrun.) The 
rude or rood, thus rorincd ou the auuiheru aide of this rora- 
parl, t« sufltcicnily spacious for the anchorage of l(|i) vessels. 
A full Uesciiptuui is giveo in Artbu Young's * Voyage «a 




France,' lorn, i,, p. 234. «t soi). Cherbourg eontoina a po- 
pulution of about 1 5,D<)U : it has a school for nsvigatioii, i 
college, a Tuynl acadoinr, a board of trade, a ihcatro, publio 
batbi, and a promenade. 

l'h« hoii*e» are of stone, and roofod with slate, of which 
there ate several <fuarries in the noighbourliood. The 
church was founded in 9<^0. The streets are narrow, gloom*, 
iimgiiUf, and very enrloanly. tbouffh water is abundoittly 
supplied from aeveral pubhc fountaiiiN. There is some trade 
in corn, cattle, chc«*e, bult«r, and bacon, tho produce of 
line ncighboiiting dislnt-ls, and a small rannufaclory of 
onrse cloths and druj;gcls. The environs furuiih an ampte 
tuppty of eiculcnt vegi^lablos and flax. In the adjoining 
forest of Tour la Ville there is a very exicnaivo manufactory 
of gloBS, which cmpluyt aloul 200 workmen. Tho tea- 
pcrslure of Cherbourg is very mild with respect to tis lati- 
tude ; the thermometer being constantly llvo degrees bightr 
than at Paris. (Malto Brun.) Tho viens uf KapolMn 
nmpocting Cherbourg, ns given in the Journal of Las Coset, 
are vury interesting. (Die, Univerttl d« Geog.. I82S; 
Expilly; Jincyc. Milhodi'iuf ; Rcicliard's Road Bmit </ 
l-'rancf.) 

CHKRIMOVGR, the fruit of a Peruvian dovny-loavd 
).pecieii of Anoim. the A. Cberimolia : it is dewribed ■■ tbo 
fruit most ealeemed by tho people uf the western port 
SoDlh America, and is vory liko the Cutlard Appiv of 
Wast Indii-s. (A noma.] It ij a tree about twelve Tucthi^ 
the leui'ci nre vval, pointed atbothcnds; the How en Mili- 
tary, very fragrant, of a greenish-whtte colour, and the fruit 
snincwhal hcBtt-ihapod, with a senly appearunce on llie 
outside: when ripe it ii greyish- brawn, or black. The 
detb is white and sweet, mi.\cd with several seeds of Ihe 
colour of eolTee. Tiie Cronies think tins fruit the hv-X. of 
the rouiitry ; Buniti Hunibuldt i.peiiksorit in terms of high 
praue. and his iiccoiint is completely conDrmed by Ihe 
testimony of many officers who have been in the Siruth 
Amariran seriire : hut Feuilkc says, ann European pear 
or vluni ii worth all (he cherimoyers of Peru. Thelatier 
auihtir has flyured it in hii Journal desOtnertatiom.^e.. 
3. 1 Ii. 

CHEROKEKS, tho tmmoof one of the native tribes, in- 
liabitiiiu the soulliern staiei uf ibe North Amencan Union. 
A century ago ttiey formed a numeious and powerful nation, 
which was in possetsinn of the southern portion of Ihe Ap- 
pstlitchiaii Mountains and the cuuutrici on both sides of the 
rani.'e, lo that iheir huiilinK-gruuQd extended over a pari 
of the Slates of Tenneuce, North and South Carohno, and 
Alabama, and oter nrarly half the State of Georges. 
After a Britiih cnluny had been settled in Qcoricia (in 
17.11). the native tiiltes began to looo ground. The Chtt- 
rokees however maintained their footing for a long time, 
even after theae countries had obtained their ,iiidcpen> 
ili'ns'e. Since I79D, llicy have suUl different porlions of 
their territories to ibc govcmmcnt of tho Unilcd Stales. la 
IS09 Ihcy con»istml (if Vi.li-t individuals. In INIG ihsy 
ceded (he ruunlry atill )iouesiod by ibcm within the Slate 
of South Carol ina. and some districts in Georgia and Ala- 
bama, receiving in considenlMn of this cesaion, besides 
picsciil* and annuities, n tract of country uf e(|iial extent 
west of the Mississippi, to whicli sumo fainitiea eroi- 
grated. At tho crnsus of IftJO ibe Chcrokecs rcmaiintd 
only in Georgia, where they amounted to about iUUO indivi- 
duals; and in Alabama, where they were nbuut half that 
number. In 1834 the State of GorgiLi rL-aulved lo expel 
them from that cxienii^v tract of Georgia which lies to l^e 
west of iho river ChuUhoQchcc ; and the better to effect this, 
they ordered tho Moravian Brethren, who had settled 
among ihcin fur the purpose of inatruciing thnm in the 
Chriatian ivhgion, to leave the country. No sooner bad 
the inicniion of the government nf Gvorgia liceomc evident, 
than the Indiana applied lo Congrcs.i for pn>tu:tion, and 
Congress ikdatcd itiat tho durrco of the legislature of 
Georgia was illegal. But t[:e Suto of Georgia decroied 
that ConB;rcia hwl exceeded ita po^ners, and tliey cnfoieed 
their own law by sending ouldiers into the territory of the 
Ctierokoca in 16U and expoUing the Indiana. AlabuEiia 
at present is the only ploco oast of the Mississippi where 
Chcrvkccs are lound : tbcy occupy in this State the country 
about the upper branches of llm rin-r Cuon, and may con- 
sist of hctwocd 2000 tad 3000 souls. [Alabaua.] The 
remainder of ihia ODCC powerful tribe is wondering about 
otii of the Miuiseippi. ou ttio bauka of tho Arkatuas and 
AVluto Atvef. 



» 



T1i« UMtAkM4 ftre coniulvred Ibe ntwl civiliio^ of tha 
Aiii«r<an Itijians. Their ha^ mule ooatulerable projctwia 
in «j;n«u1litre anil Oorac«tic inaiitt&ctum, uxl in Ac nitiiiu: 
of (a||l«, Th«y rhicDv cultivate eoUoa and Indian com. 
Thar bav* n wrilleit Uni;utt);a; the itlpluibot, nbich wms 
tn^vQted by a nitirvClKroke*. conaista of 8d Dhanclen. 
Tbctr lanKtiasc U derived from tbw mem wurce u that of 
iha Ctrtkii, Cnickuawi, Cboclawi, PasiasouUf, anil sgnia 
otb«r trilMi ; and as all lb«M tritM* livnl in the nvijcfibour- 
bo«d of Fldnda, lhc4« Lngnons ba^u i>b<>iiii.-K] llti^tianie 
or ibc Ploridian Unj^uagcs. ipT^oUia a FirU Joidmey to 
IA# /\,tar &.» ; IHrby.J 

CHERKIS, aa inwxicaltng tliuii> prepared (nm tb» 
Mmmon !ii>'iip. 
CHERRY. [C»n.«os.] 

CHKKHY, a valuable fruit, of which rtmi niimbors uf 
rntictiM aro knoon in our i;»nl«nH ; |h«y arc all ttic pro- 
iluee ©f C«nuiu avium, <k C- i'M/tf(ir»> [CeHA»v»l. w i>r 
plants obtained hy the intermlxluru af (hum' fro oriifiiuil 
tpociM. Itid«p«n>)enltj- of their laluc n« an article of 
luxnrjr, and aa yidditij; by diililliiliun turh |ii]ucun a« 
Manachino (m called becaux! the Dalmatian MaratcM 
^herryis eraploveH ini» manufaetur*} and KintclMnwuwr, 
chMflM Roninboio osscntialty to the siippon of tbo poorer 
claiies in tome eounlriM, not only in puddiuxa and tartit, 
but aa a priadpal mj^-dient in a kind of aoup, and at « 
dh«d provitian drwinm. ThcirtimbernioMovoruraluable 
far Um noro cotniBan kinds of cabinet-naker a work, and 
ai in laTonrable *oili !h«r grow (a»t, th*y oft«ii afford to th« 
planter a quick and j^oodretam for the outlay of his money. 
It i> howvar only upon hf{hl aharp well-dniued aoi) that th« 
cherry Ihrirvt ; wh«a ptanlwl in »tiff and wet aoila it ;;tviwi 
ilovty, ptmn very madi, and lilU ititn a state of incurabl« 
bad henltli. Iia varietien are mnhiphed by budding; or 
pnftiiig: thvfbnnwisboti pprfarmml upon the common wild 
ebenj. the stone* of which aje collcct-ed by ilt« niuuryiMn 
far Hint purinw. Like all oilier fruit trem that ban been 
o1:^Mta of culliwatinn, the ehctry hao ^iv«n n» to a mul- 
titude uf varieties from umong which it ii dilTicult for any 
but profasMd gardener* to know ho^r tamake a scIiMlion, 
Weabonld uy that for nil ueoful purposes the followinit ate 
aUflleienL Th« oarliust ar« lln? Blnck Tartarian, and the 
Kariy Purpte Guifnc ; the Early May, whitih npms ol<ise 
abom Ike Biine time, i« not worth culliiration ; thcM ar« 
lueeeeded by tho May Uiike. Die BiKarrMu, the Elton, 
and the Black F*i;lo ; th<i l.alt Dtiks is the latest of tho 
■w<M climiee. For puddmR* ih^rc is ihft Kentish; for pro- 
•erring in brandy, tho Morello; far dr)inir, tlio Belle do 
Choity. Ibe Flcniith, and tlio KKnilsh. Tho«e are amply 
aiitllcient for a KmiU ^rden, nnd arc nil fr^od boartrs : the 
Horalla only actually rcniiiri'i a wall. If mora viiriely 
ia vttbed for. lliO Black Heart nnil the Dawnion may be 
addsd: and IlieMi aro nil out of the two hundred and 
nifiMMn varictioK inenlianed in tho HuriicuKurDl So- 
ciety's valuabla Fruit Catidogua which are at all worth 
ruttlvaibis. 

CHERsON Cpronotincwl Kherwn), a town in Sontbem 
Riuaia. 4a'* 40' N. lat^ and 32° A9' E. long., wai founded 
in 177H, en the right banker the Limfm. or siiunry of 
the Dnieper, which ii hcnjno.irl; ftur iciiles wide, when its 
niimernni vhtnls an; mtomit witli water. It waa deugned 
to \» the priTwipal stalion Tur ibe Kus&iaD navy in the Block 
Sea, but II hai not antwerod this pnrtHMe. It it only durin); 
the apriiiR-tladd thai vaaaelit of eontiderablu tixe can puii 
fVota ibe town to the ftirtretaof Kinbum, at the uouiliof 
the Lim&n, ami tti«-n only by means of camela. Still it 
eoaialnaikicki fur vnwjUof war, and merchant thips. It 
eeatuiues m be tha piincipal (lcp(')[ for all the ittijrn* wbicli 
am rwqninnl for tlie equipment of Ihu Heel on ilie Black 
Sua. pnnci|HLlly on acvounl of the esM mth which they 
may Iw eoaveyed to tbU port from the intvriur of Ruatin 
down tlur Dnieper. The town, whith in regulntly uiid wtill 
built, cnnsiits of four pirls - the fcrlrcu. the admiralty, llio 
Hrc^k ■uburb, and iho aiiburb of ihu maiiiic *oldiera. Its 
MtniDL-rca ia not con&irlemblp, and la carried un by the 
Crievks wbo inhabit the Greek suburb. Tlno t»uDtr)- about 
the town ia very barren. In one mf the villages, called 
Oanpfaigny, ia a monument erected in honour of John 
Bewupl. who died herein ITM. Population I4.(lit»0. 

CUERSONE'SUS (t>pTilc<|T,.t). a Grrck Monl aigni- 
r>niK ' petiiiinttU.' Thii term vra* api>lie>L more particularly 
to Ibc'iinnll pntinuiU between the Helleaiiotit oiid the 
Onlfof Hela>, then called the 'Xluaciiia Cbcraoucausi and 



to the pcninrala now called the Crimea, whk:h was nlled 
bv the Greek* tite Tautica Chvraoiicsus. 
CHERTSEY. tS"*iuv.] 

CilERUSCl.Q peopleofanticnt Germany, who bordered 
on the C»tLi and Ibc Chouci, living inland ur south of tlia 
lultor, nod near the baiikx of the Visnrgis or Weser. Tho 
(JbeniM-'i beinx excited by Arminiua, joined tbc Catti and 
others in the attack and defeat of Varus and tiU lci;iniu. 
'i'hcy were anerwarda defeated by Germanicus. After 
GerinanicuN left German)' and the Romann hod drawn tlieir 
levion) bark t<:> the banka of tbo Khtne. the Cbeiiisc! i^niuv 
relied with tlic Sucvi nnd d^erwardt with tho Catti. Under 
Claudius the Chemsci seiit mcsaviii^vcs to Rome, lo atk. u\ 
a kini;, fvr one Ilalieua, of tlio race of Ariuinius, wbo was 
bom at Rome, of Gerntan parents. liaUcui, huwover. on 
hiii arrival in G<;Trouny, was looked upon by many of his 
oounir^inen *a an aSien, and a deEeneratv dnccudant of 
Arrniniua. He wat expelled froni bis kiti|;duui, but aHof- 
wardi re«oT«Ted it with the aisitlancu of thu LniiKobardi. 
(Tucilu*. Ann'ft. xi. 16, 17.) In the time of T.-icitos the 
Cherut<ii bad declined from their formor impottanco, h» iug 
b«en overpowered by the Catti and ntfaor neixbhounng 
tribes, and weee eonsideTeduhaving degenerated. (G*Mfn<iii. 
3e.> 

OMERV'IL, a culinary vegetable, the Scandix ccccfulium 
of botanists; it is an annuai, and a native uf tho wuth of 
Europe; its leaves have a slight aromatic togtcand are usmI 
in soupe and talads : it ia little eultiTaU>d. 

CHESAPEAKE BAV i^ the deepest indenlalivn on ibe 
eastern ahoru of North Amcrieo, between Florida Reef 
and the Bay of Fundy. The entranee, which is about 12 
mile« wide,' lie* between Capo Henry and Cape Cborlei, both 
in the State of Vir)finia, nnd i* cut by ths parallel of 37" 
N.tat. From the entrance the bay runs N.. with a shjfht 
bend to tlie W. to .19' 33'N. ht. orabout i;0 ailcn. Ju 
breadth ^ariei eonsidcrably. From its entrance 10 the inoutli 
of the river Fotomac, or for about 'Omile*. its average width 
is 2S miles; but farther N. up lo the nverSuM]iiehinnah it 
does not exceed 10 miles. This woiild give a surface of 
about 'i;£U Mjuare miles. But i» this rak-ulatian the smaller 
bays and channols arc not included which are formed by 
tho (^mlionchures of tho .laine^s River. York, Ranpn ban nock, 
I'otomM, anil others, vhicb inny cover a surmee of about 
75(1 square miles, so that tho amu of tho whole bay proliebly 
does not foil short of 3.100 sqii.ire mile*. 

A t^-st number of considerable livors fall into this bay. 
wbieh bring duwii all tUa waters from lbs easiirrn de- 
divity of the Appalachian mountain*, and fri>in tlicir iiu- 
niorous rangos Iwtwceti 3^ and IJ N. hi. Tliii oircum- 
tinnce might inducu na to njuiider the bay ns unly a va^t 
csluarj , esnocinlly ns its iIiore» are musity low or very littlo 
olevuttMl. But on thuolliet hand we (inJ that its deplb ht 
so CLinsiderable, that it may bo navigaUd by large naiek In 
all parts, which d'les not answer tlio uliaractci of an gastnuy. 
Its shorei sU», even wheru there oro no large rivers, aio 
much indoiited. and form nutneroua harbours for vessels of 
difTerent ujtet. The bay nnd tha rivers which flow into tt 
are navigated by numenius stcuni-boats which keep up a 
ready comniunimtiou iKlvreen all tbo countries 1} iiifi on the 
bay. 

The great river* which flow into the west side of the 
Chesapsako bay. taken from N. to S., are the Sus>iiiehan- 
nah, roIORiac. and James river, all of which riwi within tbo 
Appalachian range, where ihcy How in longitudmnt valleys. 
Be»idea tlieia there are numerous smaller rivere, such as 
the I'alapsco, Patunent. Riipiiahannock and Turk river, all 
of which cletceiid fnim the cost slope of tbo Blue Ridge, 
and havQ no pari of their coufMi within the Appalnchian 
range. Ships of war can awciid tho Putomac to Wn»hing- 
lon, which is ISO miles from thu mouth of that river, luro- 
sured ulimg its course, and ncur 200 fitiEn tho entrance of 
the Chesapeake, 

CnESBI.DKN, ^VILLIAM. a dialinKui»ho>l stirceoit 
and anatdinisl of the last century, was born in I^icc^lor- 
khire, in I GHH. His gcncml education oppoars to have been 
limited. Al h^aitt in puint of lime. At flfleeni he commenced 
hi» modieul nliidic^ in Lundon. under tho best instructors; 
and began biintclf to give lectures in an o torn y in |7|], 
which he continued for twenty yearn with a reputation not 
fir iiifcri'ii Ij tlinL of his luosler, CowMr. nocumini; sii-in 
fivvourubl> known, be was elected a fellow of the K<iy»l So- 
ciety in irii at the age of twenty- three, and tep«id this 
early distinction by a variety of mtcrettmg papers ia the 



N». 408. 



[THfi PliNNY CyCLOP-SDU-l 



^g\..^\\.-vk 



Traniactioni.' Ttie matt ramsiknble of 
Bunicalei] in ITiii. iit an futoouiit iif tli« ■eimu- 
lioni of a youili of fourteen, blinil rroiii uif4ni'f, oa rccu- 
vering hu mght by tlin rormalion of aamrtiflcial pupil. The 
DKmoir hu been niucli quoted by metaptiyaicil writcn ilic 
opnntron. noir comraon. was ihuti Mrfactljr now ; uiitl liii* 
aaikfl (»niidenil>ly aud juttly tu Cli«Mflden'! f^iae. 

In 1 713 fa* (lulmshcd a work on anatoniy which wai lonft 
Ui« text-book o( that aciencc in Bngtiiid, and waa Ite- 
quemly ranubliaheil baili bcforo anil after biadeulb. The 
atovantb «aition was pniitcrl in IT7S. 

On ths rMireraentnf lii» tutor. Mr. Fntia. Clicscldan sue- 
CMd«>l him Ufuri^an to Sl.ThomQ*'!. and woaBncraardi 
appoioled coRiultJnK lur^cnn to Si. OcurKc'i niid llie Weil- 
minster hoapitali. iln turmil tlie*e oii|>orlUuilies lo at>od 
arcount in nialurinK liii> own skill and advancinK lh« science 
of aiin^erjr. which is largely indohu-d to him. IK- wm pro- 
bably never lurpused in dcxtvnly and succeaa as aii 
opemlor : hia (Muiiieas never dcierlud him ; and be is told 
to have \mi:a a^ iniu^h di)tin^iii»hed fur the tendsmeM as 
for the iu'^if mcnt that dirtricd hin hand. We arti told that 
out of Jbriy-lnn patinnta whom be cut fut ihe sliine iii four 
yean, he lust hut one; the tiresent average beiitK at Ivaat 
eix in thai ntitnber An cyc-witnou of many of Ins opera- 
tion', the author ufni» ^logc in tho Hcm'iin of Ilic Prvnch 
Acadciiiy of Surgery, of wbioh he waa the &m fureiRn a«- 
■nriaie, aasured ua that ho onoe extracted the f>taae in 
flfly-four aeoouds. Too much woigbt, however, may he 
attached to these surpri^inE: inatanws of nucceui; svon 
if truly rccurdeil, they inunt have been in (mrt the remit of 
gtniA fortune, or of a very judicious aslection of caaea for 
oficralion. 

It i« in lithotomy that Chesclden hu moil repute ait nn 
innoralor aa w«U aa an operator, it) XTtS he pulili.Nhod a 
Tolume on this subject, recom in ending an improved muLhod 
of performing what is called the Aigh opcradon ; but after 
more experience: and invostiKaliou, lie laid it acide fgr the 
taUtat method, of which, sa al pteieut prucliMrd. he may 
aloootit bs conbidert'd the inventor. Uis fplcadid work 
on the boDca wu published by subscription in 1<3.1, with a 
dvdicnticn to Queen Caruhne, to whom he hold the appoint- 
inent of buri^on. It coiim»Is of a aeriea of platei of tho 
natural site, with bhurt dewripllona ; and is unequalled in 
oxccutioo, and, cx<^cpt in a few particulars, unsurpassed in 
uceurai y. It was nol sucvcsaful a> a speculation, and was 
attacked with bitterness, as had been hijt lrenli»e on the 
hieh opeifttian, by a htfaotomi»l of the name uf DuUKlaa, 
who soctus to have considered Cbcscldcn an intruder. 

In 1737, after a hrillinnt prol'csMon«l career, and, it is 
said, partly iu disgust ut the up^rily to wbieh hi» buccox 
had ospo«od him, Chea«lilen retired ftom prsclica at the 
air*! of fe^ty-nine, and undertook the honoisry duties i^ 
Aiiruenn to CheUea Hospital, which he retained for the rest 
of hi* life. His Itit contribution to seienco, made vubac 
queiitly lo hia relirement, coni>i>tcd of n tituwt of plnto^ 
With onicintl remark} appended lo Gatakcr's traaslation of 
Ia> l>ran> Surt;ory. 

In 1 Jil ho suHorod an attack of apoplexy from which be 
entirely reto'nrti; hut « return of iho complaint enu««d 
hit tudden death at Bath, oa th« 10th of April. 1752, 
in hift iui.ty-firurth yiHu*. He was married, and left one 
dauftbicr, the wife of Dr. CoUe, M.P. for Tuniworth, who 
dieij without inua. 

His reputation as ■ aurgeon wju Kolid, and will h« lasting. 
At a man, much llint is good i« r««urded of him, und nothing 
unravourable, unUwt it bo his fondnMt for pugihgtic cx- 
llibitions, which might have their interest for him a* an 
anatomiil. Ha be fwided Thomas Chubb, probably out of 
simple bonevolene*, u he is tut said to hat-e shared in 
bii optniKu. He auomled with Fopo atvd other wits of 
his time; but as hit clasfiiesl merit wax errtainly not c^n- 
aiderable. their intimacy may ho oscfibcd to hii nrofcs- 
siunal nmineni-o a^d strong naturai talonta, rather than to 
the taste tat literaturAsnd art, upon whkh besc«ms to have 
prided himself with no great r*aAon. 
CHESHAM. [BccsiNcnAusniiu.l 
CIIKSIIIRE, acounty nsluine on lite west side ofEng- 
land. The oatne ie formed from tlieantieni city of Chester, 
and ts an abbreviation of ChMt«rthir*>. form«rly written, in 
Saxon, Centre scyre. The boundary line is very irregular. 
On the N.W. a tract of a poninkulor form ii includod bo- 
twevQ the SBituarie* of the Mersey and the Dta ; and on 
the N.E, a long Dunw xtwA, cottlainiog pwl of Featlwrlwl 



I added 
■tihire, J 
'urvtff) I 
ivul^^l 

3 



Hon Kid Bohne Hoaa, which helong la the central hi^ 
tandaaf BB|to[id. is includod between theThsme and iha 
Elheiow.whickbyLhGirjuticLian funntheMcrM-y. The county 
ii said by some writers to Iw 'like the wing of nn cagl* 
Mrotclied furlb at lentrt-h,* (Kinit'a Vide Ri>yain/Che*hirt.) 
TIte nhote county received the name of Vale Royal of 
UnttUnd, from the ma^iiiBccDt abboy so cnttcd. which wai 
founded by Edwaiil I. on tiio Weaver. Clicshire lies be- 
tween 13° and 13° 34' N.lal.,uiid I°4;'and3^ It^ W.lony. 
Il4 northern boundary is cbi«)ly formvd by Lancashire:, and 
partially by Yorkshire and the Irish Sea. Tho Mer«ey 
rnrms the hi>umlury bntweun Cheihirv and Lancashire. 
On tiiD oa>t, the county has Ueihy»hire and Staffordabin : 
on tho south, Shropshire and a small portion of Flintahire ; 
and on the west. Danbi^htluro. Fhnlshirc.and the Irish So. 
The grvateet Icn^li uf Ulc count) from N.E. to S.W., in a 
airaitrht line, is about iS luiles ; iba ^rvaUBt width fioa 
N. U) S. about ii luilcai the wbolo circuit is nearly 3M 
miles. On the N.W. extremity, a line of sea-^Soaat ex- 
tends for about 8 tnika from B.N.B. to W.S.W., beaidea 
about 80 unlea on the watuary of the Mersey, aiul about l4 on 
the Kteat ssluary of iha Uee, Tho area of the county b 
Sfifi,640 WiM, or 1040 uiuare milvs; to winch may b« aiUlcd 
1 0,000 acres as tha saiuls of the Diio- lOroieruds Chttitire, 
rol. i, p. xXiT.) AuGording to Mr. Hiilkml (A/cricul. £urvfy) 
tliert! are 67S.00O acres, of whioh 62l).6ti4 an> in culliv 
includinKParkaandplDOsurc grounds; 29,0011 in waata 
commons, and woods i Itl.OOO in peat bofti and mosMi 
lO.OOtf in sea-lands on the nstuariesof tliu Dee and M 
Thu total population of tlie uounty, in 1627. was 2*0 ,^ 
in 1S3I, 334.410. iRounJarf/ Htporl.) Chaster, tha anintf 
town, is 183 miles N.W. from London. 

Sur/iire, HydrograpAs, uml CaiTmmmeaHaiu, — The sur- 
factj of Clietliire is in Kcnenl a ueariy unifotm le^al. bui 
there aro a few inet^uahties. Tb«r« are several eleiaied 
tiauU sircirhing in a general north dirMction. One is W- 
Itieeii the Goyt and Ihe BulLin ; and « second betwevn the 
Bollin and lliu Weaker. A tnict of high land cstands 
also from N. to H. uemt Ueiamere Forest, terminaiinc to 
llio N. near Fioduham in a high proiDUDlory whicli 
worlovks tho Mersey, and to the S. in the rook on which 
Bee^ton (^aatlu alaiid^i the height of this ruck i^ 3t6 fiet 
i)ho%-o the sea. Alderley Edne.a few luilee N.W. uf Maci'lr*- 
£e)d, IS on isufated hill which riMS abiuptly out of a ktel 
country, and presents one of the richest and tuost cxleusive 
prospects in the county; hut Cbcuhirv, from its genetli 
flatness, in not iufteneralrentiirLablv foriMciurcMtuobraatjr. 
In the cBstecn part of the hundred of Macdevfteld aia 
several catcnaivc tracts of black moor, or bogs of peal- 
mois ; and in Ibe vicinity uf Macclotlicld are the high fand* 
already referred tu b«twe«(i tbe Bullin uiiul llie Ouyl, whicb 
spread eastward into Derbyshire, and form on lUu Chcshvs 
nde a kind of lumintain-wall. Tliese high laniln apficac alia 
near Congleloo, and sin-tdi southward lo Talk, in ^laffbri- 
shiro. In tonamr limes there wer« numerous f»rGsts is 
Chcihiro; one it mentioned in thr Poiuvsduy Survey oif 
Altieroaa aa being too mile* in length and three in bicadlb. 
Ac preMQt there are only a Ifaw large trooda. Some at Uuo- 
harn Hassey cootain many noble old oaks. Around DeU- 
mere ForcsC m tlie hundred of Eddisbury, there sie savenl 
oxtettsive planlationa. cbiuSy uf Soolcb firs u>d larchas. 
This foreat, so callad, is a large uterUe traol of u hitish sand, 
partially ««verad with heath and peat-most. It occupaes 
lU,aoil acre*! of which a contidcrabic \>*ri iiDs bMu en- 
cloved and brought into cultivation. Thr most exta^H 
sive plantation in lite county i« that of PraiKu Jodd^^l 
K^, vbieh covors 1000 acres, The timber supplied byJ^P 
great profusion of hedge-row tree* makes ample ■lueitds 
for Ibe loM of the antient foretis. It is principally oak. and 
fumish«s abunilance of tanner* hark. A large quantity of 
flfie timbor i* aUo produood on Ib«> numerous eatatr^ of the 
nobility and Eenify ; fttpeeially on lho>« of Hart Urosveuor. 
of the Karl of Sumfotd and Warrington, end of the Har- 
riiiis of Cholmondeley. In masy parts Und left to itself 
beeomes spootatMously ooverad with oak and alder, 

Cheihire abounds not ooly with rivers and brooks, bat 
with brood sbaeta of water called mere*, which gen^raU* 
nontain fish. Tba wtadpsi ai« Oak iMre, Pkk mere, Buo- 
worth moTw, RostberB tner*, Mora uera, Tallon mere. 
Chapel mere, Uoaa mere. Broad m«r«^ Bah more, aad 
Comber mere, which is thr«e-quarttrs of a ntle in lenvtb- 

The elucf navigable rivors are the Dee. Mersey, and w«ft- 
Ter,, Xbc MVigatloa pf lh««* tiT«r» it aop«nDl«ttded, aad 



CHE 



43 



CHE 



hM hau vrMlljr l(i«ratgd, hj rompiniCB tmotporatea by 

Mb df pMrlunicnL Ttu mmiim of tlui Dm il in Morioncth- 

tbtn. vhsrv, ia aoujUD«1ian wllb imotli«r rspid i>tfAmm 

imemHatt fi^™ tl» h^ighls Iwtarwa Dolnolly uud Dmat- 

■ovMt, it rwiB* llM lalt*T«)iid. nr Pimlile mere, oih«rviee 

oalM Bala lake, iti« liir|t«l in fVala*. PaMinff Bnla arxl 

Ctorvan. it nina K. ihrouxli DenbtRb*bir«, tiy l.langollon, 

nearly lo Overton, in Flini^hin?. whera it lurni iiarihvai-d 

to Ban^. Continuing in the imnio iliKolien, il becomes 

iW boundaiy or Cbetitiirti luiurl* rn<m Wurlbcnbury lo AI1I- 

fart. Il lh«n inlerwcU Ihe northern port or th« hundred 

or Bnxton uChntor, whicli it tiaU eiieirrl»t. From Ch^slar 

it flaws in a ilrautlit uniftRiaL cut Into the Urosd jBHluury of 

tlw I>M. A surface af about aAliU acm ha* ba«n rucUitnixl 

ftom tho 8,E. »xlrtimit}' of Ihia aNCaarj. From Bani;nr 

bridite thv Dob i* nnvi^bla far har|^i. At CUes<«T bnd^ 

it i« 100 vanUwiilo. and T«u«UorcontM«nible lannnso r^n 

pata b^ the new ohannel to Chntiir. Tbi> vhota luiiRili of 

. llMfoulM of ttaa Dm u aboul Si miUi. It !iu|i|»liH aalmmi. 

ilrtHit. and Mher ktnila af pommon flth. Tins nv^r called, m 

l^-ilin. Dcvu. in Briiteli. Fiflr ilwir, «n« ftiniontl) li^M in 

< srrnt r^nera lion, and ila vaiers wera G«iu;dmd meuni (at 

\niiiliouM abluiiqn. At tiiah it ii celebrated by Dtaitun, 

Bnjwne. Speniwr. and Milion. (Dr. Warton s itoie on 

Milton a Cgridai, Todd's ed.. vol. v.) 

Tha Mcraoy in its nhol* cottrw dhldea Chi!«)itfn and 
I,inca«liire. It i» rormcil. and 9f»t kcmvm its niicie. by ihe 
r»n(luenc« (near Suii-kpont of tlioThamo nml Utiyt: llie 
BitMnw (which Juin* the Goyt a lilile above fitiH-ki>nri> and 
. the Than* nte in Ihe «enlra) blfUtandA, N. mid N.E. of 
irt; the Ou>t me* i>onr Buxton nn ll)i> Pa>>t side of 
it>Ua»di bctwMn MorclrxficUl iind iluxbm. L^tinj; 
porl iba Merwy rnns a t^ent^ral w«l tmirt* to Nor- 
Ihendan aiiil A^bton. After paiunu by CarriiiftoB, il 
ivtvItci on ttM riiibt bank il)« Irarll from Mancbei1«r, 
■lid aa ibo left, a little below Warburton, tli« Bollin. 
ft KiDiJiiuM with a very windlnR coune throuKb a low, 
tint rounln put Warrinfftor, and eipandt at ill junetJon 
mill the Weaver intu a wido itntiitiry whirh forms the 
Llvni^Hil ehniinel ; and thntiKti much o1iMrui;ted bjr hnnka 
tt aandi ia rcnflervil safe bv ibe e:(i-«Ucnt syileni of pilotage. 
Tht Heney ii navi^blo mini iia raiifluenn: with the Irweil. 
. Al Wtrrfnitlon it i* 40 yards in width; oppo«it« Lirorpool 
Ibe wtiltti il a mile arid n ((iiarlrr. wiln a couiidi-rable 
derlh at low Wdter, The tiTcute*! width of the a»liiary 
a]HKis Lirrrpool la luetwccn Eoslltatn and Frod^ham. vhere 
il i* above three milfs wide. Its whole course from Stock- 

Klo the tnilkl of llie lettuary 1* aliout A.I miWa. A 
a taanh at the confluence of ihu Weaver, exteridini; to 
tleUby and Prodiham. ia »ubjrci to deration^ inandiiiou». 
TI1V river and flMtuarji contain conEer9,plBire,flounder!i. and 
khnmpi : «iili aiintiul iboali of iroetts. Cdlled tparlinKii, re* 
onrkaklo fbr liec and flavour. Borne remarks arc made in 
OrmtenA'* Chnhirt (rol, ii.) on the aniient communication 
irf* tbe S.B. extremitica of the eatuorii-i of the Metwj and 
the I>v : by which the pnacnt peninsula of Wirnill was 
made an island. 

The Weaver traverses tbe central parts of Chesliire fhnn 
fi. tu N. It riws in tlie north of Rhn^ihlre, near the vil- 
lai:c of SiYcU, and after reiTeirins sonira] eonaiderahle 
hooka and riiuIeiB.runa by Nantwicb. Minsliull, and Wins- 
^^■k lo Notthwicfa, where it forms a ronfliience on ibn ri(:ht 
pHn with tbe Dnmi, whirh risn in the same ivamp ns llie 
Rutt. and, a little lisrthei north, with the Pvqaci. It then 
Tiivla W.N,W. and falb into tho Mersey below Frodslinm. 
From WInsford to Frod^liara it liattiecn rendi>red naili^ble 
by ten Ivrkai tlie total f^jl ticmi; 50 feet. About 1!ti rei- 
fecli. frma £0 ta 100 tons, «uiive> nx^-solt down (ho river, 
and return with ooal. The whole cour»c of the Weaver i* 
■bo 1: i ' ' ■ Ain>iuj; lliu \rh\ im|)urtant rirera U tbe 
Daii juiiied by tbe Whi.t:l>rk above Northwich. 

Tbe ••i^Mr.-T. <,i tlieBulhnis iuMacclviReld forett,iK«r tlialof 
tbe Dane. It imsbm Maodesflold and Wilmslow, tscroaMd 
by Dm Biidi^ewaterCanal, and e»tern the Menev near War- 
b'urtun. after aeoiine of about ZZ mile*. Tho I'cmcr rii« 
B. of M»cel**firfd. near Gaw»irorth. and fl'.in W.N.W. to 
H* Junelbn with the Weaver near Northwieh, 

8ever«l canals intersect tlto county. The Bridflewater 
Caiial enters Chetliire bv cfo»sins Ih^ Mersey m-ar Ashbm. 
Its Uiitt'l. w.tiiin the count; of ^o*hJrn ik abotit 21 tnile». 
JBaiDUEW^THH.Di'Ka or] Tlio Grnnd Trunk, or Trent 
and Mor^l i'aoal. whicti Waa ootoreenced in 1766. ran* 
■oictti-«ul niKii Pmtuti BnoK, by Noitbwicb; Middlvwieb, 



[ 



anil 8ai]4baeli. and leai-ei Cheshire at Cliureb Liiwlon, on 
lh« borders of Staffordthirc. Bolween Hreitun 011 the Hill 
and Dutton. nol far from its comm«n(*ment at Preston 
Bruok, it pa'^xci thn>u^h a tunnel 1341 yards in lenuth; 
ai Baraton, throu|;h another of 57^ yards'; at SallorsSdd, 
DirouffH one of 'M9 yards; and finally, at I]ermilu|>e, 
through annlbor of I.SO yards. The whole of its tine in 
Cheshire ij aliout ^D milet. 

The Chester and Nanlirich Canal, which eonoeeta tbcso 
two trnms, was roniplelsd in I77B. At Cheiier it furms a 
junction with the Dee, and with the Due and MerserCanalt 
which runn aetoas the nenlnsiil& of Wirroll to tbe Mersey, 
at Ellsiimere I'oM, Four miles north of Nantwiob, tl 
branch fhini the Chester and Nantwich Canal runs 
■a Middlewich, and is eallnd the Middl«wi.<h branch. 
Krom Ihe point where the Ch«ter nn<i N.intwich Canal and 
the Middteuieh brunch unite, tlii> (■anal whieh lhcne« mna 

a'aithtoNantwich. nndpsstAudleminloShropshire, iseall«4 
thu Birmmgham and LivevMul Junction Canal. The El- 
lesmere Canal broncbew aS tnm a point beiirccn Nantwich 
and Ihe point where the ChMler and Nantwich Canal ia 
Jifliied by the Middlewich branoh, mid runs (o the n«i|{b- 
bouriioorl of Wliileliureh. From Church Ijiwton tha Mao- 
elesfleld canal runs true Conpleton, Mareleifield, and aoOB 
uorthntrds to the Peek Forest Canal, which il joins a fBw 
niili'it luirlli of Oi«Iey. 

Tbe Pi'uk Forest Canal enters Choahire at Ashton-undor- 
Lyiip, where it erowes the Thame, uiid caHin)! near Uiiley, 
quits ifau ominty at Wbaley Uil(lg& It cfvase* ihi' Guyt 
below the Junction of tbe Ooyt and Blberow. by un xi\ait- 
duct 1 30 feel in height, which has tbre* arcbos, vocb fid 
r«et Kpon and 78 feel hifrh. 

fieveml iroiMrtant roada iraverfe this county, Tbe road 
from London to Msncbesler by Derby enten tbe eouniy 
near Bosley. and p««scs ihrotisiii Haeelesfield and Kiixk- 
port. Another bnneb of the same line enters at Whalajr 
Bridge, and leavea tbe counlrai SiocliporL The road Ihmt 
London to Manchester by Liehfleld runs ilirougb Ibis 
county by Church Lnwttm. Coni;letoD, Wilmil»w. and 
ChcB<llc. Tlie road from Ijondon 10 I^verpLt^l also entera 
at Lawton. and runs lo Warrington by Iwn brnnches, on* 
throueb Knutsbrd. tlio other ibrougb Miildlewich and 
Nonhitich. The Birmine^hainandLivcrpoal Railway, aipcs 
jerlcd. enters tlie county near Bcllcy on tbe south, and run* 
u little tu tliewi!4t of Mlddlewich and Noithwich to ihs 
Moisev. which it crosses ncJir WrirrirtRton. 

Gtologiftil cArtrofWr.— Tl« Reneral character of Iho 
Clienhiru soils i* a clayey or sandy loom; traeUuf peat- 
moss eovef a larxe oitent of the euslern portiijii of tba 
hiinilrcd of Mnceletfteld. Some moaase of smaller extent 
arL' at Warminchara and Coppeohnll. Tho latter, whiob ia 
almost rleaied of peal, contained nuiaerous tninka aiul 
hm.n<^he> of trees, cnielly of cakibecch, and Or, appanntljr 
broken ulTitt diftimit bet);hts, and partially ctbibitang the 
marks of Are. An amtcQt road of gravel peswd luou^ 
tho nmss of Coppenhall. 

The rani;c or hit:h land to tbe east of HaflcUaSeld i« • 
sandatone luck. wtiich cuntalns Wl» of coal : this sand- 
atuno ranee ih bounded on thu «Mi by the bmosloiw of Der- 
byahire. Tbe biRh land, which include DoUroora forost, is 
a'.-ia ■and&ionv. 

The m-wl important roincml produetiona of Chaibm ve 
fpsail or rock->»Jl, and coal. The rock salt is obUiaad SMC 
the lianktof (he UVttvcr and its Inbuisry ttreaas. Il wss 
first duccnerod near Northwieh. in 1670, in seateliing br 
coi»l ; It h.»« tiiioc Wen found very abundantly in tho town- 
.hrp* of Wilton. Winebam, Winiiinjllon, and Mnrston. near 
Nortbnich. Theto arc salt-works also atNaotwieb. Mtddle. 
wich, nnd Wintford. It « of two kinds, the ono wUu and 
tnnapntt^it. the other of a reddish -brown. Tbe femerbaa 
been found hv analysis to be an almoat pun inuHatO of 
Boda ; tho latter eanums a smsll portion of amide of iroo. 
from wbieh its colour ia derived. 

The prindpal salt-works ore in the neighbourhood of 
Norlhwirh, where alone ihere are mUiea, in addition to 
brine •|irinf:s. The rock-salt is found ftom 3S 10 4fi yarda 
beneath (he uirfcce of tite earth. Tbo Orsi straturo ij 
rr«n 1 5 to W yards in tlibkness. extremely solid and hard, 
and rescmblLBR brown augor-eandy. Many (•»* at a time 
are loosened by blaslinsi with pjnpowdef. Tl* second 
nralum is of bard stone. ftoin 35 to 35 yards in thickness. 
The lalt lie* beneath this stmtum. in a bed alxive forty yorla 
thick, generanyperiettly white and ohM as eryaUl. *«»« 



j1 



ternftl surfaco abovo tbMo alr&la ii of wltitinh clsy biuI 

f[j^pium. About Cti.fftio tons »f salt are anmiully taken 
tarn tlio pits in tho ni'i|;tiboijrhood or ^otthwich. Beiides 
tliU (luantity of t'as&il salt, not lc*> thnn 4S.'l)0ti tans nr« 
onnuallynianufactuMdaltheiame plarc (h>inbrinoi«prings, 
wbicli ar« fram 3D lo 10 jraTds in d«pth. 

Coal of a gocxl fjiiality i« TounA abundantly in the nortli- 
tvsit part of llie county, MpeL-idly in the townships of 
Worth and Pay nton, where ih«o are very exlon*ivo col- 
lierios. whi«h supply tha rannufacloric* of Slockpon. At 
Den wall, in the hundred of U'irrall.lliure u aUu coal. Cop- 
per and Icid are found at Alderley Tdffa and the Pufk- 
forlan UilU ; the fonn«t ptaco Mippltui aci]iigtdi.'riiblo iiunn- 
tily uf eiibalt. Th«r« are several qiiciri-iiit iif vxeetlcnt 
l>«eslone in this county, of ivhieb those at RuncoiTi, Mnnloy. 
mid Great Bebinclnn. ore th« mo^t importnnt., limcbivDU 
ttfuuiiil only at Nrwbulil AElbur^. Muwcup Hill, or Mule- 
cop, which if partly in Stiffotdshire. ha.i longlwen fainoiti 
tbr it« mill-slonea. Marl is fouiHliualiUMtevcri' part of llic 
LuuMly. ami it (lenerally uiied for inaiiurv. Ur. Woodwnnl 
iCat. lirit. Foisili) sp«aks of a Slitous stalVy subatanee, 
a kind of asbestos, as round in iftrst nbundnnco in beds of 
inarl about HiRh Leuh. At Uuc l.awtun la a itulpliur- 
sprinK, which is serviceable in tcoiburic alfeciiotis: and a.i 
Shaw Heath, near Stockport, a chul} Itvale of caniiilerable 
Btn>nKih. 

Agriculturt, — Tic soil and diiuato of Cheshire are pecti- 
liariy well adopted far tlic growth of grass. The soil ii 
iiioatly compoicrl of liiains of virions tte^rt-n of tuimriiy, and 
the climule u raoLilcr tlian the more eJiiera parts of Eng- 
Und, SituaCoJ in an extensive ploiii beli^ccn the Derbyiihirc 
atii) Wclih mounlaiiiK. Chcnhiiv is tcldom cxjKised to Iohr 
diuugtils. The low meadown alont; ihebunksof the rivrrs urc 
very subject to he Hooded, which is one reason fur keeping 
them ill grass. Tiro-thirds at l«a*t «f (he county ijossciaesa 
soil abovt: inediocnty, of whiuh iho KreiTer pai t i» in perma- 
nent pasture, and produces the euielleiil c^hoi'aokiiunii u:i 
CliG»hi[e chccas. Tho arable loud is ijciicratly that which 
19 ihoueht loo sandy for pa>ture, w of which liic ^rass has 
dete liurutcd by aei;Ivct. Hence the arable part <j/ a farm 
in Chethiro is seldom cuUivatcii with that allenliun which 
ia paid to similar Uuid in itiuso couiitita whctc ^qoH ^ruA 
laud in acaroe. There nro very few furmn nliieh ronsiit 
otiicUy of araUtt land. TUer« i» every whvre a prudi lent ion 
fur the dairy. It may be safely averted that, with lliu ex- 
c«>plwa of Keutlcmen who hold taruia iu their own han<U, 
of whom Ibijce are many of coiibidfir»blc wcullh iu the 
eounty, there are few farmers who dciiata from th« old 
routine, or aeom inclined to adoiit improved sysloiuf of cul- 
tivation. At the same lime, there are perhopa few coun- 
l>e* in Hngland «o ausoej'tibW of material improvument as 
Chesbif«. It poaouK* grast advantages ; on easy couLmii- 
nieation by cankU and xiwrt vnlii the laosl ]iupuIoti» manii- 
fuciurinji dintricla, and cantequently a coHain iinfirki.-t fir it> 
aKrii-ulliiral products. AcicoriiinR lo the report lo the Hoard 
or Agrii-uliure. tlio county it divided nt fo.Uowa: 

Arable and meadow Und, including parks Ana. 

and plvasun; );roinidN .... 620,000 
Waste lands, couimunii, woods lacoiiaidffr- 

ahlu pari of which has been inclosed siace) SS.OOO 

Peal boes and mosses .... le.OUO 

8va lands in the tuluoiies of the Dee aod 

Mersey . . ... 10,000 

6 76,000 

Tliere are many larite proprietors r«iildenl iu Cheshiiv. hut 
tlie dau of yeomen is much dimiuisbod, and is tvpUced by 
small proprietors. chJetly rvlircd tradesmen and artine«n, 
or small farment liltic raised atwve the common Ishourcr. 

Dairy farms rcqtitru considemblo buildinjr*. and some 
have been erected by wealthy proprietor! tn the best and 
most siibslaiiLial manner. The hahiiaiions for llic family are 
quite sufficient fur their eomforl : inanyuf ihecovr-houaesare 
cunitruoted on the Dutch plan. The head* of the cows nro 
turned laward.-> earU utlier, nhW a passage in the miildle for 
a small earU by which the fodder in bmught directly before 
the eows. It is thus given to them with ure«tn elcanlinrss 
and eoonemy than in any utbur way. Wheni many cows 
are kept, this will b« found by far the most convenient 
arraugeiDOQt of a cow-houje. There is a desoriptiaa of one 
of thme ooW'houtaa in tho 'Agricultural Report of Cheshire* 
(f . 6i)i ececM fttOUerloa, aau KuutsSatl, irhich oomUoes , 



simplicityvilhgreatconvonieni^e. Large fnims are not oota- 
tnun ill Cheshire. The average iiio nmy bo considered u 
from SOtolSD aorcB. that quantity being suDirioui for the full 
employment of it tamilv, and for aduiryof tuelve to iwviiit 
cows. Thu rent uf land is hiifhor.than that of the same quit*- 
lity in other porU of England, which is owing lo the smallie 
outlay with which a dair} farm i\ miniageJ. The imple- 
menU of husbandry are m (ii-ni'ml such a% have been in uae 
for aget; a heavy ill-constnitted plough, diano by four or 
flvehone«ina line, with wIiilH titey plough Ihnwft ' 
of an nrro of tho heavy l(i:tniii in a day. Marrows 
roIlerJi,lhe Intler oeeiuiunallj armed with spikus, are 
break th'e heavy lumps which tho |>loug1) turns up, 
tho sun has bakedlhem. Improved iustruniMit* are in 
iiiiiunuHl the iiriillenien fanners ; but their exatopW ii ts(- 
doiu followed by the o^mman renters of land. Tbe effixt 
of the dairy husbandry may be obwrvud nil through the 
county. Land is pUiugheil in order (u have winter Ibddar 
for caMie, and to improve paaiuro^ overrun with « 
Where the land is fit for lui'nipa. which is not often the 
tlioy are raised for the cows. Cabbages have been 
vuled "wilh soniu success in iieveral ruriu*, but there ia no 
improvement in the mode of cultivating com crops. It it 
not uncommon to see two or thixc crops of oats taken in 
xucTcskJon from nc'wly broken tip land, und itie last laid 
down with Kraxs smuU. In ibis exhauatM state it nruduces 
no good grass for many years, but plenty of uccda. The 
introdtiction of a good syslem of cimverlible husbandry 
would double the pri-nent produce of Ciiesliire. Bui wc vrill 
not venture to affirm that the dauy produce would he im- 
proved at tho Mime time, "When tund is brought to a high 
stale of cullivalinn, and tho arlidciul (crttaics (ctvo a great 
bulk of fodder, tho quality of the clteeac it vtlea dcie- 
rioraled ; or to spcoW more corixretly. the procoaa must bo 
varied. Il is mudi easier to make cheese that «kU keep 
from poor pastures ilinii from rich. 

Thoie is a simple iinirumoDl in use iu Cheshire which 
deserve* noiicc. It is a tmall strung scythe, called a hed- 
tlini; mrytho, used to cut up niithca iu iwaturcs. It ttas a 
short handle, and the hhute, which is about twenty inches 
long, is bent like a iwriiun of a hoop. Uy a desterotn dm 
of this instrument in spring, a man cuts up a lutl of nuhi 
with u great portion of the rooK and ii» a huUuw is left 
watur enters into the cut part uf the reinuning roots and _ 
lliom. Tho hollows should then be filled up with earth, and 
Ktass M-eds sown over them. Tho tuahcs and roots cut «ff 
arc put in u heap to rot, which is readily effected by the 
addition of quick lime, aud Ihus no excellent coiupoal is 
furiucd. 

The culliracion of potatoes has iocn much «nt«un)g«d in 
dies II ire, by thodemaud in Liverpool and the macufucturing 
dislnets. In that part of the cotinlv which lien along tin 
tDiluary of th« Mcrat-y, j^rcal ■]Uunlitic!> ol very good potatoes 
are raised. ThiMUindy aiid [urlv tAil«. whieharc unlJt ftrr per- 
maneat pasture, are pcculiarlv Qtted for the growth of jiuta- 
toes. The neighbourliood of t'ralsham has been long noted 
for tho grcot quantity of potnloei it produecs. Thu produce 
on good land is upwards of 10 tons per acre, hut they rv<iu ire 
at least 35 tons of manure. Tho best potatoes grow oa land 
broken up from grass, which had been laid dovru in a riefa 
static; in this caKO no manure is renuir«d. When pOiaLoe* 
are very plentiful, and the price low. they arc giTen lo 
cattle, cillicr boiled or raw, and in this way they are u'otth 
mure than any other root, and produce much excellent 
manure. Early sort* are misod for the Liverpool market 
by a shgfat ^a^^ing. They arc laid in a dry chamber and 
pritlectoil from thu frost ; they tihoot early, and In that state, 
one shoot unly liein^ left, they are put' into tlic gruuud in 
February, and occasionally protected by mats or straw. A 
slope of the beds tuwtirds the touth-uest is reckoned the 
most farouiable exposure. The) come in a month earlier 
than those planted at the usual tmie. and the land is cleared 
by the htiginning or middle of June : a second crop is llien 
put in. to be dug up in November.. A warm sandy suil 
suits the early potatoes besi. Near Warrington unrly po- 
■ aloe* are set in wide rows, and cabbages are planted between 
them : when the polalnes are taken up. the cabbsges have 
the mould drawn round their stems, and attain a good site 
in spring. This is b cultivation which deserves to be mom 
generally introduced on good strong loains. 

Grass land is considered so much more valuable than 
arable, that hmwI kuos contain a clause. 'that not more than 
aoe-fouith of d» haa shaU be ploughed.' Many bxtat 



bTS 1 



C H IJ 



4$ 



CHE 




' Ikart ViOfi or iw krablo land iilttM!b«(l t« (hcai. A »t>i) 
wlih-fa It ral)i«r rIiII' it conii'Jcrd lliv i>cil far 8ra»», ctjic- 
if th«r« Iw a tubitralum of nmil, which is the cow in 
partk i>f the county. The mnrt, when bpnrod over 
lOmM, iDktcrulIv itnpravo* llw berbit|{4. A vory Heh 
tn is not coniidvrtd to good for piuturc* where chccK i* 
u «1« )•(» frrtilo, as it is apt to make tlie c)i«c>K' 
In Nanliri<?h, and the «ri<iicrn part of Northwich 
, Ibo ftubutatum it clutlij tnnrl, uid tlie toti a xlilf 

The ntlunl aratMs founil in the (•ood patturoa are 
tbii'Ilv or Ihotc Kind* vbw\\ ha<r« hetn inod approved of 
lor «««iiDt>, when arable land ii laid do*ii to |rrn»: vij., 
Ptepniciutii. PnairituLia, Fnhica pntenflU, or. on taivly 
loans. Anthoxantiiiim odoniltiin. In Iho Konort it *<• 
Ststfd thai Rhinanthu* Criita salli. comtnonty ciLlli^d ydlntr 
ratllBD, ie vi'ry common in Iho i^avHirtd. and ja aaid lo he 
Radii}! entcn hy t)io cattle. It is in m<Ml plows ooniidciyd 
B tiijn of poor land, and lt-H*oiii lli« value of Lbe har. Thu 
""ho^hire farmen often defer mowinf; the tcnm for hay in a 
aummn'. in thvhopv of hann;; s greater crop by aLinir)^ 
liowen ; bill lliiii it a miitako. tincic it is tnaicli more 
ible la cut the grass, hovevvT liKht Iho crop mny bo. 
a* Ibo prindpal gramea are in Mower, when thu xtalk 
tbD noit iiulriti^-u juices. 
lUgli much of lite luil in ClWKhire i« wll fiui(«l for 
orrbard) arfl nol common: tht- marly *iiti«lni' 
tsrn W not v«U adapted foi the loots of trees; deep, allu- 
i,aBd lootu itoili, are the b<<»t. Tbo hed^-roMs aro iii 
Bsral well flU«d with ircH. whieb give* tlin r.uniiiry. nhmi 
•nrn from an deration, the appearjcice of a nuitinunl 
ftmt. TlM Ibml of E^laniero. as it is callrd. aLihoLi&;h. 
like Runy oilier anlieni forMUi. a ntvui pan nf it is a iiu>n> 
«Bil« wilbout any woodi. (ormcrly roiilaiiied )tl,000 ictet. 
It ia nmt nuch reduced by c»rio»urci. but 3 great portion 
m still vaate^ 

I>rainiiig haa been intioducod eslcnaively, and with llie 
tiMt cAccl, in oidvr lo cnrry off tl)<> tiipeilliiou* iu[rh<« 
Vuicr. wliich ia coiitmon in iiiuny parts of ibc comiiy. The 
■bouUor drain is comman in kliirsvils. Parinii; nnd liiimint; 
Dot much practiaed, and this mode of prrpartii}; land fur 
■rap* t« in ([cnvral nrprobatcd by Inndlordi as destructive of 
' eaotl; hut nhen old vornimt pmiiim arc overrun with 
and vceds. iticre ia 110 inipToitinent more 

aliunduice of inati Tauiid in Cheshire it one of the 
means of inipcuvinK ih« poor *uil«: MiJ imlid yards. 
tiimbnl toads, of marl are put on on acre- in the sutnninr 
ianths.and }i}l\ nii ihe tnrfiMe all tW winter. In iiprinK 
iplauKhcd in, and makes the maiiuru puinn oftrrnards 
roucli farllMir. Marling is a permnnent impruvcTni'nt. 
me, aod also »and, ore put upon Airons hnnii^ lands lu 
•ndioraw the texture; Ihe first iW« .id, when piii on in any 
■roportionti the Utter inu»>t he |>ut lu coiiiiiiiunihlenuan- 
UUm, uul not ploughed in deep. It is a gittn iiiipruv» nt 
lid w«t pasUirc*, cspcrially anor llicy have been drained. 
In tiw Deighbournood at thu salt miiics. refuMi sail has 
a Uied fiir manura, and villi suoocu; but whether il 
jls Titiua to the sail, or to ihc earthy iiigTsiUunls 
rith it. ia still doubtful. 

nunbei of rivulrU ill Chesliire misht naturally 
ifgnt lb« applying of Ihcm to the pnrpoae orirHfcaiion ; 

lliii bw Wtn dooe in a few mstances oiily. 

Ib aoao olacca, where a riwlet could lie turn«il, to in to 

tfanagb a htm-yaid, and afterwanla iniKute meadows 

itualed lawer (k>vn, tulvaDloi^ has been taken onbia, as 

easy mode of conveying th« manure owrlhe grots; jn 

ia Ibey faaTv imitated lb« common practice in niuil fanns 

SwiUerland. 

lite greal nuuthcr of dairy-rarnis in Cbesbire, one 
natur^y expvtt lo see considerable Bttentioii paid to 
ad oT Cttwa i but. Idl lalelv. Ibis wa;i not iIk* mm: ; 
ere cows of all breeds, andrrobsed in ctery p^ieible 
Tba great BUperioiiiy of I'lie improved siwrt-horu 
baa himvoi made Ihcm tuoie generally sou^hl aOcr. 
«f tlw dsirias h«*e very 6ne bi.id», or pack*, B" (hey 
railed then, of sboct-homed ouw«,>and toiou of Ayr- 
lure cowa ; but this it by no moans vol general ; purity of 
laed ia not much tbooght of. When a cow is a fOuA 
lilkar. bcr cow-calies are weaned ; and ihe«« heifi^r) 
Ihieb are raised on the fano are thought to produce 
nnt Ibri^iog ecwt. A cow it considered in her prtme 

M SI ftn yttn old, ud emiiauM m ttU ih« u t«fl ot 



twelve, after nh)<-1i she fiillt off, and shauU be fatted fur lit* 
bul<-her. ' A KOo<l milWr hai n capacions and tlmi uJdci, 
wiihout niurli llt^b on il. tenln standing »ll apart, and not 
too large; a dnep bftllv, with very prominent mil It veins; 
u liftht lore* quarter, \iwe loins, Ihin thigh, white horn, llmi 
head, clean about the chnpa iind throat, and a lull fiiely 
eye,' (AffrieulltJrut It^art.) A <•«« that i;ivc» much inilfc 
is never flit, ami her hip-t)Di\M pioject : her ribs appear din- 
tmi'ily under the »kin. Il is csimialed ihit there »re abnut 
lOO.o'uUeowjinthecotJiity, oai'hofwliie.liBii.*OBononavL'nf;e 
'i[eivt orcU(^e*c in theycar; thatit.nltogMhor, S5(l,00lli^wt., 
or 1 2i0 tons. IJttch eowgivci on an iiiernp;e about eiylit quart* 
ol'nidk per day ; some I'cH'gii'onitii'li more, nnd oseii aiinufb 
ns 'H <junrl« per day ; but tliiit is c<itniordi nary, nnd only Ibr 
a shurt time. IVur quarts nf milk itiulie 'one pi,>l>ii'i] of 
chcesu; it lakei from I'i to 15 quarts to mnke :i pouml of 
butlvr. A CDW is in full milk for six months after i-iLhin;^ 
then three routilha in half milk, nrul llire« monlhi drv. A 
plentiful siipjili of guod freih food.mcli at clover or lures, cut 
and camt^d to the ilal). will oftendoubto the average i>fnidk; 
hut this is Rffldom prM'li^ed in dairy counliei. The cowtt 
aTe;ti'ii<!i'al1y hmtsnt in November, or kept in yards, >thirh 
i* beilur. During Iho winter they are Ut mil fur n few 
hours each ilny into a padduck. or »mall nicailuw. iifDr the 
Iinmirst«ai| : tlioy find nolhini; to cat iberr. but it ^i\<i» them 
an Hpp'iiie for their dry food when lliey coma in a^^ain. 
Stall li;edin(t cows has been attempted, and with succpis ; 
hut this orcusions loo tniiHi tmuble for the daiiy-fariiier, 
iillhnngh the ptndui'o uinv be much mrrpnt^'d, and the 
maiiiue will aoiplv repay liio ex|i«nse uf ihe daily cutlin-; 
and cnrryiriK oi tlie fodder. Cow-caUc* which drop in Fu- 
liruary and Man-h are usually reared: they are left llireu 
fieeks to tucli tlic cot*', after this Ihey hsie worm whey 
Uivcn them lu drink, or oaimcal-gruL'l mixed with wlipy. 
FlikK-Nvd. steeped in wiiicr until a jelly it formed, is uImi 
tti^eii them by some. For the llrst winter they have hay, 
in ihe next only straw. Tiie kcilVrBluko tint bull at two 
years old. 

The ranking nf Chrshire cheese U desrribed minutely in 
ihe AKricultunil Repom for the county, to wbicli wo refer, 
^swcll as to iho Ailicic [CwaiisF..] 

Butler is mitdr Trutn the cream or ftvm ihe whole milk 
fllbwcil lo enngiiUtu snd bircoine sour. Good butter may 
he obtained in eilher wuiy : hut that made from fivsh cream 
il always the best. An inferior Itultcr is made from the 
cream which rises on the ivlicy. [Bi'TTrn.] 

of u weii'i 



A constderablci pjirt of ihn prnDt < 



'niunngedd.iiTy 



arises from the feedirj; nnd selling of pigs: bui fewer iiijjii 
arc kepi in Cheshire than the dairies would nnrrani. The 
fnttiniiof calves for the buudior ifl probablr not so profll- 
able, from the want of demand for real in llie country, as it 
would be nearer the inclropntis. 

I'he wage» of a'^rinultunil litlKJureni are xomi on the whole, 
and tbey are in general luborioUfi and pnividetil. The ncigh- 
bourhi>id of manufaelurcs leads to raise Ihe wages. 

The sheep husbandry, which is so pr<;>f1lahlo to iha farmer 
in other coiiuties. is scarcely kitmin in Clieslitrc. Sheep 
do nut K° ^1 witk cuws. as iliey pick out the Ancit bcrb- 
ago berure il is long cnouxb fur Ibo cdw to gtazo. Soma 
few arc kept lo eoasuoie the grasses wbtcb lht> cvnt rolbsc ; 
Lhey are seldom kept over the year, and are sold bs suon na 
aiiv profit i> reabsed. 

On the whole Cheshire is inferior lo many other cvuntics 
in ouTiculturo. but it contains more means ef inipruvcd hus- 
bandry than most. It wanisouly the oppliealion of capita), 
and ihe supchntendeiice of men of true proctical sciente. to 
became one of ihe Rnest agriculluial counties in England. 

h'airt, — Altringhma, April S9, August S, Novemhur 2'^; 
Rudworth, Februarv 13, April i. October i: iJonglctoD, 
May 12, Julj &, November 'fi; Chester, February SS. 
April a:, July 5, October 'i, Novemher •i\\ Frodsham. 
May IS, August 21, December 13; Knuttford. Whii-Tucs- 
lUy. July 10. November 8 : Ma>>ele*Bcld, May r>, Junu 11, 
July It. October 4, Nemmber II ; Malpas. Apnl S.Julj -ii, 
I><ieeinbor K ; Middlcwtch, llolv Thursday, Auuusl 6 ; 
Nsntwieh, February 4, March 15, September I, Uccera- 
lier II: Notlhwich, Apnl 10, August S, Dnrember G; 
Over. May 16. September 2S; Handbnch, Easier TtMsday, 
Tuesday aflor September 10; Storkporl. March 4— ?S, 
May I, October 2.1; TatpoHcy, May I, list 3Ionday in 
Au^iat, December 1 1 ; Winsbrd. May 8. Novomber H. 

JJiciriant. Tawnt, .j-c— When lbe Domesday surrey 
was taken, this ouuutjr, exclusively oTlIieltinda bgiweoa tlio 



J 



CHE 



46 



C H R 



Rlbl^ iad AwMensf. sow a put of Lttneuliire. thoneb 
then «m«iii(«rod a put of Chscbire, wm diniled inio twelie 
hundred*. Except « frw toviuliilit. the ivo anli«nt liiin* 
dradi ol Aliacics and Kxerlaa hate ai*o been inhiMi (ruiu 
ChKbirv, and adiUd to lti« countu'4 of Fliiil biiiI Denbigh. 
Tha pTOHmt divisioD of Um tiumlivtli ii luppoMd to have 
bMntnadein Ihvraifnor Bdwanl III: andLviotit civcs 
ilie proportion or reUtiTe lise of old and now hunureds under 
ih« following table ; — 



Wirratl. 

Braxton, 

Eddisburr, 

NortliwiBli, 

Natitvieh. 

Mardcificld 

Burkliw. 



OlilHui>iir*J>. 
Wilnvcitun. 
Dudi-ilan and Cistra. 
Rixiilon and RiwLau. 
M ililMtrk. 
Wurmtitidwtron. 
llanitfHian. 
Qocbelau and TiiiiGnduiia. 



•i'n 




ll is t» be obtcn-cd lliat »ever«l of iho towntbifH wlud) 
were inUudo»tan are novJnEddisburf.and other vahatiani 
liarc taken ulacei but the general Brmngeineol of the 
huiiOiuds of Ci)tr!.hue ij eiliibiled by the labTo. 

L>scin» «toa« lb« number of ni»rkct-iown» to be twelve, 
oJtcludiriKCbmlcr:— "lainol)', Allnnfiliam.CunRloMn.Frodi- 
hain. Knulefurd, Muecleifiebi. M»l[ia«. Middkvicb, N»nt- 
wicli. Norlliwicb, Sundliat^h, Stoc^kport, ond TarporUy. 
Of the lea* important of lhe*« placet we subjoin some 
■ficoout \ tliose wbioh ar« Wrffi enai>(;h to reoeivo difitinct 
noticMam dotmbcd «lMwbcn<. [Altiiinokax, Conomi- 
ion. MACCLnnsLu. Na.ntwicm, and Stockport.] 

Tarporley, in tlM hundmd of Eddbbur?* and deanorf of 
Ckcater. ie a smnll marketiown, near Bcesl^n Castle, on 
Um Kraat rond from London to Cliuiiici'. from wlncb it ik 
di»tant ten ii>i1«a «a»t-uiutb'0ut. It wai anli«nily 
Tonind by a major, but at prmenl by a constable. 
I&4S a battle was fought at tins pliira Wlw«'Pn Sir Win. 
Breret«Q i (oTcesand tha Kuyatuts from Clit'sler, who, uti 
Ibli occasion, vor« v n-torioui, Tarporley is pleasanllf 
Hilualed. cleanly, and neatly buUt. anil ia ehiully known as 
tli« ac«ae of an annual fiix-buiit in Novamber. wbicli h 
niuaurously attended by tha county ^untiy. tUc neif;hbuuriii|{ 
heaths boinj; very fuvourablc for ibis amusement Tlie 
cbur^h i* an antient structure] of lbs rwl undttono, whipb 
abuundji in this rounty : ii» ulterior contaiiu sei-arsl monu- 
tnenis, nilli iii8m|ilitiiia interesting lo tito antiquary, uiul 
some arrnortnl bearinf^ in iritidowt of eoiourad glau. The 
living is a iw^tor}', of whicb liin nrl anniial incomft is 
£44/. Tbe inbabitanis ai-e ubielly (.-miiluyed in iha maDii- 
faeturo of cttickiiiKS and tfutlier brct^clies. The niarkvt 
is an Tbiinulny, Thete it an almi-huiiH) and Wesleyan 
timpt'l. Po|iuliilion. lOUO. 

Snriilbiifb. n iTitirkrt-iqwn in Iba hundriKl of Nantwich 
lUidilcHMt.'ry uI'Middlewii'h, VAs formerly cclebraleil for m 
Ilk-. Jt occupieia plaasant «mmenc« n«ar ihe nvei: Wliee- 
IwU. and coniDiHiubt aevvniL cxiuiiiLive and pj<iluras(|iie 
viQwaoftlie Vale Royal, (hu Sltifibrdittute and Derbynliin) 
tiiUisand the distant ntountiins of Wales. The uorsteil 
Inule and mamifaRtiiie of •Ihn^*. tctiicb futinerly prevailed, 
have iNwn Kiirnortled by tbe ailk iiunufaclur«. by wbicb lh« 
ti^vrii li.ii nMin to Kreater importonce. It bat aome brin» 
i-pMiiKi' in t lie vicinity. In tltemarket-pLacoare twoaniient 
cr<jss«3. wilb scolpturad imnura of Iba rnirillxian. The 
Uvtittf U a \ii'arai!e, of wbicb the net annual income i» 
213/. Maikct on lliunday. Population. G>16. 

Frodabnni is 191 niilva iiurlli-wvU fruni London; the 
population t»]r46. Tins tuwnsbi|i m pleaianlly tituatad 
on a rising ground at tbo fuot of tbe hills «b>i-h border on 
DelamcTc PnresI, near the jnnclion of tbc Weaver and the 
Meriey. Salt worki awl cultun manufartum arc the chief 
einpbytDcnis of ibe inhabitants. The town is formed cbielly 
by l«'<> streets nbich iiilcrsocl each other, and ihcro is a 
t;raTiti)i;-d(>ck and yard far buibline and rcpairin;; >-nsc1a. 
Til*: living is a ficar«Ke, in tbe archdeaconry and diu-e^o 
of Ubeawti tbe patron is Qiriat Church. O:irord: il is uf 
tlie annual tbIuu of 590/. The church is a fine anttont 
structure. Beacon Hill has some piua>ant wn]kx nod due 
view* On a site now oi-iiiipiod by a hamUorae inodcni 
mansion, stood fomrrly at the vest end of the town a cattln 
whidh Edward 1. gate to David Llewelyn. th« Last tovercign 
priiK« of Wales, which was aftvruanls held by thn carU iif 
Rivera, and was conituined bj firo in Idii. Tbo putisli of 
FrxUbaai is alMut thirty loiles in ciicunifercnee, ant) it 
Duolaias eight townships. It abounds iti springs and pro- 



duMslnTKe f|U»ntitiM of mtatoes, wbiob ate usad chiefly 
by tbe manulbcturcrs of Lnncasbirv. The Wealeyan Mo- 
ibudi^ts h&w n tocctinif' house in Frodshan. Ttieie is a 
free-school, tbe aalary « wbkb is \OfiL, and tbe te«ehet 
has besides n. gqoi house in Orerton. There is also a 
charity tot ibo relief of the orpbaaa and widovs of Uw 
cterKj- 

KnutsfonL situated on Iho Kwat road from l^ndon U 
Livcrpnoj, is 1 73 inilos north-west by north from London 
the population is 3040, Tbe market-day is Saturday. The 
name is said to be darired froin Cauuta, the Dane, «h'> 
passed witli his army mvr tli« small brancb of tbe Bollin, 
which run* past the town. Tbc town is in the hundred o( 
iiuckioir, and is dividvd into Uigbci: and Lower Knulsford 
by a branch of tb-j tii\-t llolhn, which rises about half a 
mile to the itoulh, and passinR ibo liirnjnka road (all* 
intO.Tttlon men:. In I.ower or Nellicr Knubiford than 
arc a spacious county prison, a liandMmu town-ball, aad 
the maikot-pUco. KnuUford was formerly part of tbe 
porish of H«i«lh«fnc. but was made a distinct parish it 
\7A\. The bring is o ric-arsi;e. in ibo archdeaeanrv and 
diocese ufChester, of tbo annual value of 225/. Tlic churah 
is built of brick and stone, with a square tower. The 
DisMtiilers have throe mcettng-bousM and two ehaHtjr 
scluHiU. Thread, worsted, and Wtber are (be phncip^ 
tnanufactures. lisces are hfld fveiy July near the town. 

MalpBs.ailunted on an elevation near the ritor Dee. in 
tbe buiMlrcU of liioxton, is US mile* nnrtb- wast from I-on- 
dun : Ihc i>opulatiDn of the pnhsb i&Cft, of tba toirn 1094. 
Ilio pamti contains two rectories, one with tbe eurftcr of 
SI. Coa'l. and tbo other with the eurscy of Wbitwell. The 
church wa« r>rmorly the obapel of n religious bouie Ibr 
tnonkt of the Cluniao order : it in built of unbevn stone, 
and consivis of a nave and rbancei, without either nisle or 
steeple: it isbiRhltrornnnontcd.and some of ili^derunitiona 
liavo bwa suppo^i to be of Saxon oripn. Court* leet arv 
hdiL here for tbe reoovcry of debts under 404. Bl^mIt* 
several mcetinR-bouses, tberoara here twuebapvls of eiat^ 
an endi>wed Knminsr «ebool bt 14 boys and }'i tfuli, lUld 
oUo many ebariinbic tii«Iitutians. Mslp&s is the birib 
pUc« of Mattliew Henry, tho eommrnlutor on (lie Bibla. 

Hiddlewich, siiunted near Ibo conllueDce of lh« riveia 
Dane and Crnko, is I6T miles iiortb-wesi ef Londoit: iha 
population of the pnrith 14 4765. of tbe town 13-2.^. Uartul- 
day i« Tuesday. This t>iwn derives its name froin tis fv 
Bition between thowjrhei or tbo lali town*. Great qnan- 
libas of nit are manufactured from tbe fin]i-sprinf;s bciv ; 
cotton fabrics are also made. Tlie Grand J'runk Canal 
runs tbrou);h tbe (own on its eouiao Ic tbe Mer>«y. Tbe 
livjuf; is adisttnel vi^'arni^. in (be arebdeeoonry and diocese 
of Chatter, of the nut animal value of IBS/. The church ii 
larf^. ni^ on tbe south side of it are a college and an ora- 
lory; the litter fuundnl by ihe Ij.-igh family uf Ljim. 
■ho lormer by Thomas Savat>e, iTchbishu)) of York. Tbe 
Uisst^tiiers have three m<-etHiK-h<)U«>«; and there m a lief 
sdK)ol. Tbe pmy >est)utis are Mi ai Midil)i;Mtnh for 
the hundred of Eddisburv. Tbe Kei-. Tbvnphilus Lsad- 
say. n Unitarian divine of some note, tra^ bcni here. 

Nonbuicb, in the pnrurhial cha]iciry ol Wilton, is 17 
miles eAst'nnrth-eOi^l uf Chester, and 171 noitb-west of 
London: the pop ulalkm, 1490. Camden stales that it wis 
eatW by the Bril'ms llelUiih. or Ilijillah Du, that is. the 
Black Sfllt Town, ll is in tbe litii' of ibe nortboni Wailinjf 
Street. The town was lurtifled nnd aarrisoDod by ihe par- 
liamoiiL party m 164.1. and was taken by the royahsts ud 
retaken by tlieir enemies. The pniicipel nsanufitcture is 
salt. The Weawr ruus llirouKh the town. Vtusels of 
small burden are built here in tbe ship-yards. Tbi' maiket. 
day is Friday. Ctiuds-Wi and baron arc liebl. thoutib 
tbe fienefa) quarlar-M-vsions were rvmoved to KnuUfunt 
in ]7it4. TIk Indepeiidenis and Weileyan Methodisu 
have meet inn -house 3 in Nortbwich. and there has beoa 
a charily school for Vt poor children, with a small endow- 
ment, since I 733. T1)e living is a curacy, in the arrh- 
dcaconry and diocese of Chester. The church, vhirb is 
spscious, has a senicircular cboir. and the iwf of ih* 
nave is decorated with numerous figures of wicker baskatsi 
tucli at arc used in salt-makins- 

Oter.BsoiBll town, obout fourmiles west ofMiddlewichi 
is governed by a mayor : but the commissioners appointed 
lo mnkc the recent inquiry into Municipal Corporations say 
that ll iW^ nil iipiiear under what irorrsnt or authoHlT tlie 
boroujch of Over is governed by a major, who 14 ■>!» t 



CHE 



47 



C H R 



iiutiM of Iho poac«wtUiin tli« limits of l)>t borou^U oud 
Drdibip. Tti<i Dopulation in I&31 irtuSQOl. 

irtlftiiulical ivHi L«galJuri»dicii<nt. — Thw county, in 

Mili«nt linMfl, wt« luhjrctto the «o«lc»iulic«l iuhtiliction 

i>f iIm tK«bu|»of UftT<'it,who fawl tbnrMkI at Cimlcr. In 

Ifw timu «f William lb* Caiw|uon)r, ttiid dtiriiiK llirec siic- 

c*<^ivii centuhv*. thii iIidcgw was atylcd iho Umhopric 

oTCbMUr. (For furlh«t hUtoiicftl •cooudI*, boo Ly^oni 

*nd Ormerod.) Of ihvut 84 pui*bo» 4B «n r««toru». :t3 

TiMngoa^ uii] 18 donati^'o*, or perpelual curanei ; maay nm 

of KtV4t intent. Tk« p&hsli of P(«»lliury i»inpii*eii Si 

luvnthipi sitd 14 cltopolriok. Tb« counly is in thediocoH 

4>f Chcatvr, anil pfovinnH ofYork ; il fofins »o nrrlideoeonr;. 

,Mli4 SOn&priM* tho Mvon <Iii«n«ri«* u( Ch#»ttti, Frodahaia. 

;>faM l wlbM. N»twfGl>, MalpM. MiddUwich, dikI Wiirall. 

Cl)*«tiir« u in ll>e Soulli Wnlvi ciniiil. 

C]i««liiro, beKoro tlw KvfArm Act, t«nt (gur mi:nib«r( to 

]MTlianicnt : it u now lumietl into a not^i and t. ioutli di- 

fiui.tn, each ftf wbioh sends tmi mciD)»pr« (o paHiamenl. 

Tlio ti'irth dintion wnUins tlio hiiixlivilii ^f Mocclitsllcld 

(Ud )lucUaw,and tb« uutli dirUian coiiUuiti lli« remsinin); 

^■itiJredB. 

' Ttw banugbi af Cbeiturc, Mko1mImI>I, and Slockpurl, 
',ta«h r*4nm two iBMnbMa to parliament. Tha plai.-** of 
.lib«tu>n tor tlie north and south diviiiont rv«)>v>:ti%-dj on 
dmtsfi>rd and Cbcirer. 

Maint/iiriure*.-~Tlke eoHan Dnd «ilk man u future is ex- 
^otirtiy earried nn in and around StMkport, Ma.c<le«Ael<l. 
^■tple, CoH^loton, vid Sandbaeb, At Kniit>f<>ivl (hero is 
■ Lirip nknuf^tory of IhtMd. At Nantwirh. and th<; 



■» just n*iB0d. ore msnufoelorioa of bats for cxporlai tnri. 
and or shMs si Sandbteh. Some woolUn clolU an st»a 
mad* In iha saras district. Tanning it verr »xtcnMVir<v 
CJrrHMl on ihruugbout tlto Mjntf. Tii»r« i« alw a laruv 
■nanuTiutuKtof iflorac, nbbons, and button*. Tb* (onpor, 
^Md. and truii, oTtbs ALdsriflf Kdge nnd Peckftirton Hill». 
we nuiniifa«tun!d fn tlw oounC^, and poiieIiIdIc a smnll 
<ll«in in tba export tndo. But «he4«c is the pitinci|in| 

tdturC. wbieh ii not otilj well known and hi){hl|r «»■ 
nod iu every iitrt of Kn^tand when tbo eoncumption 
it unnvnie, but iiIm In moti pnrM of Europe. Tlio wtt^ilo 
■naiul produeeuT tbt> irtido in Ciiosliiro is about ll.AOO 
hsa. oT vhieh *$99 tons are »xportcd, (Hollan-ls Agriml. 
m»rprf.\ The primo rlweM) is mad* rhidlT in llii- di«tncls 
•bara iha calt abounds; ihni is, alonff thi> hsnk* of t)i« 
Wtmrvt. VaXaVMA ore raiiwd in very Inru* <]uantilifr<, os- 
ially in tiio western portion of tht* oountv, including 
peninsula of Wimll. In the puuh of FrodsUam alone 
\aOMt busliels an annually produeed. Beside* a 
iout bamo coiisutnptiofl. th^v are (•xparicd in great 
luantily Iw llic Mersev to Livorpool ainl Mimfhrstcr. 
Cnil Hitloq/ otul Antiquitie: — At (he time of llio 
•nan invasion Uns county formed part of tbe torritory 
""{■lad by tba Comavii or tJarnnbit, a naoM! which Win- 
' eorgeotufes tbe inhabitant* of this dislnet derivsd 
Iha paauliar Ibrni of (ho prolnsulu twtwMn iha wstn- 
of tha Oas and tbe Marsey. In tlio Arst dirtclon of 
tain by tba Rotaans it was ioolnilml in Britannia 8upe- 
: aoflltt dieir suboequaitt subdivision, it bepanw pirt of 
iVis CsMariensis. The town & pn^^e&sed by Ibe Coninvii 
Iteva or Chester, Condole or Kimlerton. Banchorium, 
mnhor, or BanKoa, Ktoeotitm or Wall, nnd Urimnium or 
raxalar; (he uat of whioh st-em* to bare been Ihotr 
letropolis. Ibuiipw. Etooetum. and Urioonium are not 
thin tha limits H Chaabira. Onnrrod mentions a r««en( 
of brus tablets, rernrdiOK a grant of dm rnrodom 
tba eiiy of Rumo m entain troops Mrvinu in Bnlnin in 
rel^ of Tr^an, a.d. 9S— 117. srmie ofishom at least 
'.J batv be«o slationied nonr Bickly, vhcre the tablets ware 
MM. Vma raaeriplion!; vhich hare hc^m found, tba 
MmlMh legkMi appear* to haio i-ontinunl at (.tieater «i 
■te aa tba third century, but to linve withdrawn long before 
ha f ftal abandonment of the island in the Hftfa. 

On tba depattuie of the Homsns. tlir Britons continued 

y hoM Cheshira until aboul the year 607, vhen it was 

Vaaled fhtm BroebtBiel. king of Tow^s. by tbe auecesafut 

ma of EthelfVid, the Sa\on king of B«mipia. Yrvrt to 

la hattla. the Saxon Uoo|>» are nsnl in have nuwiurtu'l tbe 

Kmkji of Bnngiif. *i;aiiiKt wbuui tit Augustine had de- 

■OuiinM divine Tvnuvanca llir their errors, \w\ wtwi sided 

V '■ « aith tbrir pn)*r». Bntersl of the British 

I >eTi>r. hiring Dolieclnl an army ami marched la 

' u-ntKi, jUknoUaAyn* deAaied tn tujii, and this district 




vu nut iiKSiii »ubjucl«U to the Anglo-SsAon power until 
about the yaor 63S. nrlien it voa laketi by Kiny; Ri^bcrl, and 
inn'k a paitof ibc kinudom of Metcia. Aci^or'linK to P«tor 
Laufttaft. Atlivlwi^lf held his pailiaiuenl at Cht.-itvc aficr 
(iio deitth of Eclierl, and tlivre ruccivnl llip homime of bis 
Inbirfiiry kiii|;s Trum Bvrwitk uulu Kunl.' Aboiiltho data 
of ^94. an army of Usncn aiham'iag fruiu NonbinuburUnd 
look pi»4cs*ioii gf Clio*lvr, and suiimI the furin&s*; tha 
Ssxons under Alfivd, ha<«i:ver, baYJnki arrived in tbe vici- 
nity, hydvRd'oyiiiit the cattle and ciirn, and intcrccpiinK tlie 
proTifiontof llio i)auu9, (.Irove IIk'bi Io such e\tirmitii!» of 
famiiii;, ibat llioy quilled tbo city and rctieaitid (i> North 
Walee. Upon the ilivi>i<jn of Knirland int'^ ibiec diaUii-.u 
by AlfniO, C-hesliirt tint includtMl in tlie Mercian jurisdic lion, 
Clicflitio Ddiuirvd thu iiritileKeK of a founty pHlutino in tha 
rei|;n »f William llic Conqucrcir, who crsnted it tu bis 
nopiiew, Huiib d'Avranclio*, ODmnioiily called Uuglt 
I.upua. to bold it no freely by lliu &woiil u he liJiOMlf 
held the kinudom of England by (be orown. Lupus 
erected oighi Ibaraas as soon u he Toll liitnself ettabluhud 
in his new dicnily, who tt«ru buuiid lo attend «n him at bia 
court and to fumisli him with bones in war. In rvlurn li» 
these tcrvices, they wi-ro invvstwl vilb the ri||h( of holiJina 
eouita on all picas, (uit«, and plaints, and wi(h the pow«r irf 
lifw and death, The last instancvof (he exertion of tint lu( 
privilege- or<>urrcd in \Wf7, when the bori>i< of Kuidvrton's 
I'durt Inod and exenuted Ilucb Stringer for niur<ler. IJultl 
the final subjugation aI' i!i« U'eUh, ine city of Chaster was 
Ihe uuial pfoM of rendeivout for the English amy, and 
the rntinty was aatpeaad to all tba eril* of a border warfare. 
In 133?. an tha death of John Scot, the screnth onrl of 
Cliedlur of the Norman line, without male iuue, Henry III. 
K've Ihe dnushiers of Iho lalo earl other lands in lieu of 
tbe onrldoin, Ixnng unwillmit, nt he *^aid, to 'parcel out' »o 
^real nn ii)h(.'ritane« ' among lUilaffn :' the county he he- 
siowivl nn hia son Edward, nbo did not assume tltc title, but 
conroncd it on his son EdwanI of Coernnrvon, tinea which 
time the ahlael sons of Ibo kingn of Kn^lnnd have nlways 
bi>ld the tiltaof carta of Chet tar. The mhabiiantk of Cheshire 
look a part in the mbellion of ilio Pori'ies. and the greater 
part of the kni^bla and esquires of the whole eounty. to the 
number af SOU, with mnnyi^f their retainers, fell in ihp battle 
of Shrewabnry.on Iho 'J^ndof July, 1403, fr^->m whirh iluletu 
the reign of Charles I.. Cheshire was not the icene of -iny 
imporiant mililnry trannaelions. From the time of Henry 111. 
tu the rx>ignof Hnnry VIII., Iha pslatinato woi^ govvrnnd m 
indupendvntly as ii liiid been l>y the Norman earls. Henr)' 
Vltl. howewr made it subordinate to the eroMin of Rneland ; 
'yet.' M)« Gough. in bis 'Additions ta Camden, 'all pleas 
of latidi and taoemanla and all oontraets wilbin the county 
are to bo heard and determined within ill and all deter* 
minaiiiju out of it is tSoemcd void, tt roram pon judite, 
excvjit in cases of error, fiaaigii plea, and furei^ vumUior: 
and Ibr no crima but treason can an Inhabilsnt of tltu 
county be tried oiM of it.* The county being solely under a 
dittinct jurisdioiion. ami to n certain exient like a wparata 
kiTii;ilon>. never sent raprrwntutivas to tliu English )Hriia- 
meut, oithfie for city or uiirv. until Uio reiftn of Edo-ard VI.. 
when, in ihe year I6J9. on the petition of the inbabilDiiis, 
two raotnben won suuiiaiininl frum each. On (lie out- 
breaking of (lie civil war, as this county was nearly 
er]ually dividad betwaoD tbe king and (he people, the prin- 
cipal porsoDs atiempled to prcserre ll> internal peace 
by a treaty of paciRcatioD, wUcb was entered into at 
Bunbury under tbe lanetioQ at the ammiHionan of array, 
hut was rendered nugatory by an ordinance of parliatnenl 
whid) requirci] the inhabiiants (o ssii>t the coromou cause. 
Tba parlismvnt sent Sir William Brereton wuh a troop of 
honak who took poucudon of Nantwtcb, which he foiiiQi'd 
and made his hcad>quartar« : wliila Sir Nicbolu» Bjrvn. on 
the other sale, being sptwinledcalond-iieoeral of SUrophiro 
and Cheshire, and governor of Chester by ibe kine- made it 
the head-qaarteraofthD royalists. Lord Byron, itic neplicw 
of tbe governor, after suoccssfully n-ducioi; several of the 
parliamentarian garritons with his Irish re|timenta< defeated 
Ituo whole parlianienlary forces under Sir William Brerelon 
at Middlewich, in the month of t>ercnibcr. 1643. Nanl' 
wirli. being now the only garrtMNi in Cbrsbire in tliv pga- 
wssion of Ihe pariiament. au Lckiezcd durnut the f,nalmr 
part of Jaiioaiy. IM4, until it «»» rrbccd by the uuiled 
rorrvs of Sir Tliamaa FBirfu:i and Kir WilUam Br^rcion. 
wbo dcfcaled Lonl Bvron and compelled biui to retreat nilh 
Ibc rvmaios of bis fUcea to Cbettar on Iha a^th. tnac* 



CHE 



48 



CHE 



Rapert look Storknott vithnut icthtnnco oil llic 2 Jlli of 
May: but lliu rwynlnl' Here di-ft-alod nftcr n severe hotllo 
al Cnttle-hculh, near Mnlpss, on ihc 7ith of AiiKUst. Next 
jifsir, on llie a^vonoc «f tlio kinic W Cheater witli n ittiRP 
r()rc«. Ihe pRrliniPFnt iilianiluncd nil tlieir gnrritona, except 
Taniii on'l Nnmwidi, and, on tlic 2"tli of SuptcmlMMr. the 
balilo of Rowton aiiJ Iloolchralh wai I'oubIiI iieur Cluster, 
'in which tlin royalUw wt-tc deRiiileil : an event which led 
to ilie siirrcnilcf of the sarrison ofCliojIcr. in February, 
JG4G, and the subjugnlion of Ihc whole county to the pnr- 
tinment. 

In AuirufI, 1<>Ad. Sir ncoria- Booth, liavini; it Kcnit eom- 
niinion from Chiiile-* II.. ap[Kiinling him commnnder-in- 
chi*fiifall Ilia forces iLiClictliiris,Liinca»liinj.Bnd North Wale*. 
and being aecein panic il bjr teienl nobleman nnd gentle- 
men, appeared, in Clic^hiru ut the head qT an orniy i>f up- 
wards of 3000 men. Tiicy mii^iered on Roivton Heath, mid 
Iiuhli&hedn dGclaration (hat they look iip amni lo deliver 
the naliaii from aUvery ond ohuin n frite pnrliiimciit. Tlic 
armv nf llie paHiaitieni, uudvi- OenemI Limberr, met them 
at Winning ton BiidRe. near North wirh. on ihc IGihof Au- 

futt, and tvtn defeittdl thi^ni. Booth hiinM>U',aft4>r m.iltinK 
i« «»eape from Ihe &M in di^gviwe, was taUeii at Newport 
Pagnelt an'liwntlolhcTower; and Chester, which hndbcer 
held by Colonel Cfoston, suncndfreil imrocdiBtely on the 
opprooch ofthe victorious atmy, Tho »on oT Sir Oeorf>o 
Bnoth, L«Ti1 l>*1araere, rn the eve of the revolutian.no 
Mon or heard of tho landinji of the prinoe of Ornnj!* than 
h^nitod amnsidcrable f!irec in Ch^ihirp and LanenKhin*. 
declared in his fnvonr, and mnrrlierl to join him ; the lyirtU 
Molineux ond Aston, with equal prom])tneH, seized Cheater 
forthv king; but iheic wailike preparation* wen fortu- 
nately rendered u?ele!s by ihe abihenlion. 

The Knman ronds in the e>tnnly ore found in dctnch«'d 
part*; ono row!, c.-illcd the Wotl ins-street, was probably 
■noTQ aniieni than the Rnman tiin>>s. This road enlcrt 
Cheshire from tlia nortli by Ihc fcird over the MiTxey at 
Stratford; the marUs of the elwali-d crest. poeiiHar to the 
millliiry nnda of ihe Romnni, arc still risible. A liltlci 
snuth-we^t of Kiifklow Hill the mnilKKceTn lu hiivu divided, 
thu Roman eotitinuinijt iwwnrds Kiodertmi. and iho Brili*h 

Eiir«ilin)! ill old direetion liv Norlbvic-h over DHamore 
breft. and by Clwstt'r to tlio coast of Caemarvomhire. 
Tlio Roman niad fioin Maiielieaicr to Kinderton crosiwii 
the ford of the Mer<«y, and pioeeeds (o the villains of 
Crara.streol. It is w«n in the enctosnros about OldB^ld 
Hall, and in n field hejond it in kIiU raited xcveral yartlK. 
In eroMiiitt tho ailjoiiiini' miKi it ik known by the nume of 
Upcuil. wli«nec il njim^y Dunhnm I'.irk ton field called 
the Ilaiboiir-fleld, in the parish of Kinderlan. whirli is llio 
ivppMod atalion nf Cnnitaie. l*art of iho Via Uvvmia 
croued the count) fn>in the S.E. to Cheiitar. BoKidv* iIiiikp, 
Anliriiiarinn ror.j^'Ctiiro hns piiinted out sei-eial other Roman 
niiidii, hut the ev-.dLnev is not »> Kaliiifuctdi}' in tlinir funiur 
ai in tlie ca<ies of the roads «e have iraeetL That there 
wan a Roman viiaiinn at Clicsler i% unitTtsally admrit«d 
-— tliv Kites of i)iu oihcn are tiiici'vlain. 

BeMileslhc ua^llc at Chester, whith was budt by William 
llie Conqueror, and is now converted into (ho county-h:ill. 

i'ail, and hnrracks. there an Kvcnil others. Retston Castle, 
ludl in ma. by Tl:iTulIe BlundiM-ille. Earl of Chejler. is 
upon the slope and >uinniituf a saiidMone ruck, uhicit funnn 
nn otio side an olmiMt perpcndimkr precipice of i;real 
buiuht, The outer ccnrl is irreKiilur in furin. inrlotini; nn 
area nf about Aro acrcn. The walls ara proilisiously thick, 
nnd have vvrral ronnd tower*. A deep ditch, sunk in the 
aniiil rook, surrounda the keep: which wa* entered hy a 
drawbndgo, opt>.-iaite two circular watch lowers, still renanin- 
ing. The approach within Ihc ffrcnt irUcway between these 
luweta ishf lUEKed ileineiit in the natural rook. Camden 
tpeaka of a draw-well, bored to ihobaioof the rork. a depth 
of 90 yard", and eommunicalinE! ""^^^ > lirook in the vale 
bcton'. Tht* eutl« has been in ruin* >ii>ce the civil war 
of Charles I., when it wa« dimianlled. Tli« vlhen arc 
Hahon Castle, of which very few (races now rtmuiiii Aid- 
ford Castle, of which the founddtioDH are still traced ; 
Shorktoch CnsU«. of which only some eirlh-works and n 
high mount an now to ba seen; and Sholwick, whidi ap- 
pears froDD lh« sketeh «( it in tbo British MuMum to have 
had a pentagonal wall, with Mveral circulnrtowen inclosinsi 
ft lolty »r]iiareone. There are numerous Antien( mansion- 
aoutcn. tjmilh. in his Treatise on Ciniilnic, mil* this 
counlj 'the mother ud ibc nunoof tlie i;cniihtv of Hng- 



laiiil.' Another «-riler UltH. MS3., No. 19501 Ep*>iks of 
il lu ■ the seud-plot of gentry.' 

LiUlo Mgret'^n Hall, in the parish ofAithuiv, it ihciDotl 
reinorkahlc unliciiC ntansion in (lie county. The malerinU 
of the liuuae are timber and plualer. The sinKidar oena* 
raniital stylo of tlii^ very antiont edi&e*. and the curious 
glaiing of its Urge bay windows, ara wcU exhibited in the 
plat(« of I-ysona's Maifa Brit. ; Ormerod's Chtthirt, \oL 
iii, ; and BHtton's .-Inrfti/w. Jnfi,}.' 

Brnmhall Hall, thn nnticnl it.it of iho Davenport*, aboni 
two mile* S.VV. of Stockport, resemble* thalof Lmlc More- 
ton. <3rmerod's wrirk contain* a beautiful view of tbti 
mnnaien. vol. iiL. p. 4UII. 

Satghton Grange, noar Chi^Mer, wits one of (h« natet- 
Utcd residences of the Abbot ofSt. Werburg. <OmBrad, 
vol. ii., p. 240.) 

l>odilLng(on Hull, the tn(Lent seat of the Llelves fntody, 
is near the road from Nantwich to London. The modern, 
lar;;e, and sumptuous fabric was oTOoicd in 1760 by Sanaiwl 
Wynt, It siands in a spaeiou$ viork, ond overlooks a ftM 
sheet of wat«r. I'oolo H:dl, in (he parish oi Enstham, wu 
built in the midrlle of the sixteenth ccntur)'. and is oii« of 
the most venerable speeiraent of domestic arehitcelurv in 
this county. The style of the ar>.-hi[ee(ure is similar tu ibU 
of all tho andcnl Cheshire mansions, riaing into pointed 
pahlei. with numerous larf;e bay windows, and naving 
llio appniach lhrotj|>h a line of tilahlca and cow-boutM. 
Rrorctun Hall, which is in the style of Eiihcr Place in 
Surrey, was built liy SirWiiliwin Hrfrpt'^n, and ihr f.-.und»- 
lion stone is noid (o liave bc«n laid l^y Queen Elixalmlh 
herscilf. The silo is on a rif inf; (tround ntar the river Crake. 
Among tho rich deeorntions of tbo interior is n curious 
painiinii of Queen Elixubulli in full eodume, with uluins 
of jewels hancinff down to her wni«. and with hair ei- 
trvmoly red. Another object of f^rciit interest is the pointed 
vinduw, whieh hat vinru heon removed from this mniision 
to Ashton Hall in WarwickKhire. Ormerod (vol. iii,. p. 55) 
hiK sitvn n iargi' coloured draiviu); of this window, whieh 
conlaiTK tiiTie rul]-l«iiM;tb O^iirci; the Saxon rarlsof Mercia. 
I^ofwioc and Leofrin, und tho »evon Norman earls of 
Chiller. They ore ill reiireKiMKed iviili huir ond beanlK of 
a dvep yellow. Duttoii llall slnnds on the ridge nf a steep 
declivity overlookmij the Wemor, I( i« surrounded bjf a 
broad and deep mouL Tlii;uri.-ii( hall is joreol by 3l).and lb« 
whole ediGce is a very lunipiunus ipeeimen of iho dotaetlie 
aTchlKK-lureof lhi>six(centliocniury. Crewe Hall, thcaeotof 
I>ord Crewe, is an equnlly Unu specimen of tho tevenieenih 
century, having boon eompletoil in 1636. It it a (lUadraii- 
pillar buildins ofn?d brick, with hulUemonti and hrge |iro- 
jpi^lini^ bay tnndows. An enirrating is tfiven in Ormerod. 
vol. iii., p. IG)>. nnd in I.yums't Magna Bril. The smlp' 
lured oak ornainL-iiUoriliouiteriurarceiiriuii%.8swdl at (b« 
painted-glass window nf>the chapel. There ar« many po^ 
traits by l^ly and olherx of tint time. Brilion. in his ' Ar> 
chileclural Antiqiudes.' has a fine drawing "f ^ xtairoase 
in this mansion, r^-marknhlc fur its form nnd dr«'oi-»- ioaa. 
The wat of Li)id Cuin!.ierui(.-re u^h an ninicnt Ci^iercian 
abbey: it is beautifully situated on (lie margin of Ihe lare« 
mere so nllcd. The urisinal cdiiVa has been almosi wholly 
rriicwfd in ihcpninUd fiolhic >l) )c. Ormerod. v.d. iii . p.aiO. 

DurdiaiLi Maksc}. iliv i«atuf the Sari of Stamford and 
IVarrinQlon, was rehuill in 17,30. Il in a very xpocions 
quadrangular huiMing of brick, surrounded with a line |iatk 
of liifty old oakn, nnd is interesting for a curious mllcry of 
IHuuiingH hy Hoilii-in, ].el>. V'and>ke. and other «M mas- 
ters. Choi 11)0 iidclcy CaMlo. llie sl'iiI of ihe Marqnim of 
Cliolm<^indelv7, is in tiic t'liin^ihip of CholmondchM, in 
Uruxtun hundred. The prc!>eiit ma);nil1irrnt toodcni ctliflrc 
was built in I8l>.4, on Tho sid- of ihu aniieiit ca»lli'. The 
style nf the arclii lecture ii the pointed Outliic: and, in ai>- 
pruachins the oiuiiieiico on which il stands, it has the ap- 
pearance of an anlient Morrauii forlivui. The apartments 
ore odoincd niUi tome rare and beautiful pniniiiLir9' Ealun 
Hall, the neat of Ear] Gros^cnor. pomcsm;* great architec- 
tural grandeur, and reM-mhlei Cliuhnondeloy Castle, in the 
points^ G\>lhic stylo. The surrounding park and |dek\ure 
grouiidx arc laid out with grant piciurcsquD effect. AniienI 
cro*ics occur at tho biiuiidary of hj mo I'ark. at Sandtiacbi 
at Uulton. and at Lymoi. The cnmua ut Saudhach are 
referred by Lvaons to a period not long subtequrnl to ilte 
iniroiluciiiin of Chri«tintii(y am&rt; our Suxon oncviloiv. 
The t>i»^rd of Huirh I.u|iii». lliv first Nuriiian Eai) of 
Cbnt«r, IS pfn«ivi,si ja ii^ JJntub Uiuvudi. 



Cril W 



Shiitfiet.—PopttUihm. C^talu^a u both an agricul- 
tural Mxl laanurtctuniu county; in Um Brat rc«pc«t il 
nnbJ hiKber iu (61 1 liiun in ISSl. b«iii|r >t tlw foriun 
d*tc the 31>t oil the li»t «f •a^icuIluiAl counties, an<l ot liie 
ktur tl«i«, tha 34ll). or 7?,<i40 tnaiv*. tTcntjr yrm or 
kg* uid upirudK, inhibiUnu of Cb«*Uuv (iii I83l>. 23.327 
<rrf« enffBf^vil in af^mltural puituiU, ami IS.^IOS in nana- 
factutf-v, or in niakin|{ maitufnctunnt: iiiiu-hinvry. Mic- 
(-■leBfluld Ilandred U lli« pn&cipal iBmnurarturillK iliMrkt 



of the county ; in ltl31 moni ibio 6090 men vvn tnoploytd 
in maun fact uriuti cotton uA ulioo ; nearly 1000 in ttw 
luaauraL-tur* of silk, an<l ftbout ii09 in iuaiiiir*ctunuK 
outttfn and lilk promitcuautlf. In £il(lu<lfuty uni Noriti- 
wicli Hundre<l>, about 300 wcra empU>)v4 in making 

Mit. 

The follcwin]; tuminu^ of lb« pojiulaltoo l«kon ul tb« 
lutl cvniufdS}]) ahooa the number of inbibiUatt arnt 
iheir occuptttivns in «acli liundnKl oT tha ociuuty. 



iioirsF,:>i. 



IIONERSMfth 



i 
I 



Broxian . 

Btickloir . . . 
Cdiliabury . . 
MacclcAfleM . . 
Noiltwicli 
Korthwicb 
Wimll . . . 
Chal«r(cit}) 
MncclcsfteM (tovn) 

Totals 



2.933 

7,8« 

4.917 

21. 792 

7.063 
3.296 
4.03G 
■t.313 



fio.r-is 



3.123 
8.27) 
5.302 
Z3AU 
020 
7.473 
3.i4A 
4.62f) 
4.74U 



64,9^^ 



10 
3G 
13 

201 

9 

2G 

se 

43 



40Q 



88 
280 
104 
1022 
134 
254 
•J.'i3 
368 
2SJ 



iais 



ncci'P*Tiovs. 



in 



IBM 



2,013 
2,944 
3,«33 
3,0-48 
2.194 
I.G38 
I.4S8 
3Si 

m 

16.JB7 



m 



604 

3:364 
IJ83 
16.4} i 
1.406 
3.?a7 
l,U;^0 
■i.66!i 
4,3i>Q 



31.997 



i, 



iOT 
2.0&3 

3.534 

2.0 78 

i.oor. 

1.009 

■nt 



I3,iei 



PERRONS. 



8.301 
21.031 
13.623 
60,033 
11.447 
IV.022 
9.S37 
V,03.1 
I1,ui>2 



164,131 



«.2U 
21.311 
13,2«9 
£3.3 1< 

I9.rj7 

i].ru9 

I2.r;4 



iro.j^s 



mAM, 

I Bam J 
yvn at 



10.413 


4.087 


42.942 


10,718 


26,601 


6.4»2 


123.349 


2S.272 


sa.ors 


a,5io 


3S,U9 


9.044 


la.ioo 


4,&70 


21.344 


4.797 


!i3,129 


d.4S0 


334,391 


78.9-1 U 



TIm) popuJBikxi of Clitwhire at each ot the four viiuiuora- 
tivDi v^i: — 

U^l«(. PrulM. TMal. tnr. pn CfiL 

1801 . 92.759 98.992 191.731 

1811 . IIP.MI 110.190 227.031 1839 

I821* . 1.1,'.932 137.146 270.098 I8-B9 

la31 . 164,133 170.219 334.391 23-81 

Sbwinx an iiicre»au Ijulwcttn tlic (int uid U*l |icric<U of 
Ui.U'l* MTPOtift, or 74^ per cent., which i* 17} per n-nt 
bcyntn) the i;ctict.il rate of incrcoM Ihroufthmil Ei)i;lnn'l. 

Ctmnlf KijiTiittt, Crime, ^. — Tbu hum« cx|icndi:cl for 
tJw rclior ul ll>u poor ul tlic four date* of 

liOlwen £C^Mi7 ttlii«li wat &t. \id., 

lail „ 1II..t;o „ lO*. V'/.)r><reiieh inlmbiU 

IMI .. 104.0S1 .. 7*. *"i.) mit. 

IS31 „ IU2.$72 .. 6f. 2(/J 

The anm ci])end«l for llie suine purpose in tlic year GtidinK 
23lh March. IS34. wot 9';.Gia^i and usuinini; thai the 
(vipubiiian linil imtrciuied at Ibe aaiii'e rate nf per ueniafjc 
finrc 19^1,09 in ibc ten years preicilinx thai period, the 
aborc «uni civet on avenge of it. \id. for car.ti inlmliitant. 
All tlicK nventgrs an- brlow lUosc f«r (be wbule of Knftland 
and Walcn. 

The hum raised in Clicihire for poor'»-ralc, county 
nU), lUfi trther local pu.rpoi«>. in Ibe your viidinit 25lli 
Mareli. 1633, wa> 141.402:. 19<.. and was levied u[)on the 
varitnu dcteriptions of proporty as folluvt :— 

£. ». d. 
On land .... 99.9UH IS 
DweilinR'boutes . . 29.416 13 U 

Mills, rmiodos. S«. . . 7,»a7 ta 

MiirUarial pronu, na.rigation. See. 4.429 10 

£l41,4di 19 
The ainouni cxpnitlad was— 

For the r»ltef uftlie poor . . 98.372 .1 

In cuits of law. removal of paupers, &c. ',iW 17 
For ottier purposes .... 37.687 10 



£143.740 10 

tlie returns made up for the year ondingi Marcli, 1G34, 
tcriptiiiii* of property ostessud for Iin-al I'liriiosos ar« 
lt»tiii]:uishcxt; l3ls-22'aA I6t. was rtwcd in (bat yeari 
and thu exRuivliiura wat as fallows : — 

For the rcLcf of the poor . . 92,040 

In suits ■}!' law, nimoval of pauper*, tu. e.5M 12 
For other parpMA . . . 37,105 is 




£ 138.313 10 



The lavtiiit clTectei] in Iho ciim* vx|K.'nd«(l fur the reltel 
ofthopoorin 1 834. as eomp-jted wiili ihu expenditure of 1833, 
IS Ihi-mroru rather more liian 6 per rent. ; the seounil item 
■ft, huwe\er. greater than that of (ho pa'ocilini* jear. re- 
ducing the whole mnuunl of savint; to aligut 3| per 
cent. 

The number of lurnpikc-lrusU in Che»bire. at as- 
cerlnineil in I S29, was 27 ; llie number of miles vT road 
iindiT tliair cbarKv wss .14^ ; ilio annual income oruinic 
from ttio lolls and pansh composition was \%.i'til. \ and 
the annual oxpenrlitiife 13.354'. 

Tha rounly i;x|ienililiire in 1834, eulusivo of the rvWtst 
tat the poor, tras 41.082/. 9r. id., disbursed as fuUowa :— 

£. ». d. 
Bridgn, bui!dinf(s, and repairs. &c. 



Gaula, houses of o»rteclion, &e.. t 

c. J 



3,179 
14.037 



and niatntaiiiing prisoimrt, 8tr. 

Coroner .... 488 13 

Lunaiir: sajlums . . . 329 

Expenses of prosocutiona . . 9,970 3 

,. clerks uf the peace 737 14 

,. conveyance of prisonersl , . , , . 

before trial . )'■'«'"« 

„ conveyance of ImnnporCs 617 10 

apprehending and con- 1 ,3. ,., 

vi)iiii; ^ujironts . J 
high and bpeciul uuii- 1 



6-i6 & % 



stables 

dcU-paymentofprin-l, . „ , 
cipn.1 niid interest . J •"" " 
„ miscclUnuuus , . !.946 19 3 

Tliu numbci- of jtetyons charged with criminal olfcreca in 
(he three septenmal periods ending witli 1B21I, IS'J7, and 
1F134. were lG7i. 2443. and 3802: making an average of 
239 animally in tliu finit period, of 340 in the aeeuiid |>erio(l, 
and of S52 in the tliird period. The numbers of pcmons tried 
at quorier.BUMiuTU in vaeli of llio yvnn 1831. IVJ'i, and 
1833. Ill rekpect (o whiali any costs wi-rc paid »ut uf the 
cuunty rates, wen* 377. 3)6. 39^. respectively. Anion-; the 
persons chorgod wub blTetices, ibure wore c-ominiKvd fur 

isii. 1SJ9. lavi 
Fulonies . . 344 339 379 

Misdemeanors . 38 39 34 

The total number of committals in each oftheaamc years 
was 399, 403, and 431 rt^pcctivcly of whom 

Tbo number wnvified wa« . 
„ ,, nctiiiittvil 

„ „ discliari'od by 

proclainat iirti . 



332 
50 

J7 



330 
4« 



367 
4G 



18 



At the ustces and sessions tiu 183d). &33 patntu were 



fTBK PENNY CYCU)FADIA,J 



V«t«Vtt^B. 



C JI E 



CHE 



ci1i»fre'i1 with cnmos in Chcihiro: out brwliich numhcr, 31 
w(>re chnrf^>'] n'lth mT^cea ngaiiist tlie person, 10 of wlikli 
wero «rtBmf>ii ni.«tilU; 49 fnr olTenMs ajjainsC properly 
RammlUnd with vioImico; and 380 fiir ofTnKWt npiitii.t pni' 
party commiitod nriihaut Tiolen<r«. Of the r«mmninit «!. 
there were 3G irmnioilteii far riot, 21 for poBclunf;. 1 tor 
>non, 2 ftpf iitlerino; false motiuy. 8 fnr jwrjur^- ntid imltiw- 
All otthl, 1 for killing and maiming cstlln. 1 for furucry. 
mud 3 for keeping disorderly housest. Of th(»« eoTntiHiWd. 
411 wan convictvd, nni) Vtl ao^uilted. or no bills ivptc 
found againut then. The gtnai«r part of tic piinklimciiiK 
awarded la those CDnvicteil wu very iliglit : SJI wnvMin- 
lenc«i] lo im[irtionment for n\ months or under ; dC for one 
y«ar or under; 17 for two ;»n, ard 1 for ttireo ysars ; 4 
wna fined, and T wore dlswhiiiged on iiurelic*. Of the re- 
DlltDiag 9S. 1 9 were sentenced lo dealh. which senteneewas 
eommuted to liitiijidrtation or impntonment : nnd 71 trere 
»enten<'«d to trsn* imitation fur vanoiit period*. Of the 
oflTendors, 461 vore malei. and 72 ftiinul«). Amonx the 
wIioIb pumlwr, 20i could read and vnte, ISS muM read 
only, 1(7 could neither reid nor write, and iho dsurps of 
instruction of 6 could not be a»certaiued. Tltu ptupurLiui) 
of the ofTondrrs to the population in 1835 vbb 1 in 637. 

Tho number of pvrKin» qnnlificd to vote far iho county 
members ofCbeshire b 10.235, beiuK I in S3 of Hut whole 
populntion, and I in & of the male population above 20 years 
of igfi. The expenses of the lost ciociioD of county mem- 
borft lo parliament, wero lo ilie intiobitonls of the county, 
413/. \'j». sJ., and Tore paid oulof llie general nounty nite. 

Tlifre arc ten Dnvin^-lianka iq this county. The num- 
ber of depositors and auiuuni of dcpoeits on the '.luth No- 
vnobcr. 18^3, 1833, 1S34, and 1S33 teapec lively, vkk: — 
mx isB. lut. i«:ia. 
NsKbrr (idvpMtmrt . BSH 9S01 lO.wa ID,«t 

Auount (Jdfraiii . taiT.W 93n.*ta au.KU 30) .en 
The various sum* plitrod in tho savings-banks iu IS34 
and 1835 were diilributi'd u* under ■ — 



Not exceed iojt 30 

&l> 

lOO 

« ISO 

80« 

Above 200 



. 4.7M £3-1,140 



3.0Ui 
1,403 

6& 



93.097 

iU«7 
16.891 



DeinMun. UrpnaliV 
0.281 X 36.2eU 

lv:t.070 



3.314 

I,«I7 

Ml 

its 
43 



67.8IIS 

sa.iNi 

13. 1 ^!) 



Tulal . lO.OSO i:3i(;.TM 10.1.13 Jf3si.&:i 
B</ttcalion.—'[he folluwiiiu porliiiulars am obtained tiota 
the parlianvntary inquiry on education made in Uis eciuion 
of IBM:— 

„ . . »rt.-l.. f.M*M, TWO. 

Infant Sebovts 61 

Number of infants at aneli Brhocrfs, agvs 
ftom a (0 7 years :-- 

Males .... 647 

Feuinles . . . (hJ9 

Sex not specified 3i2 



Daily Schools MS 

Number of cluldrcu at buuh Si-hools, ages 
from ^ to 14 year* ;— 

Males .... 1-I.JtlO 

Fcmaivs , . . 11,098 

6«x bpI speciBed 4,733 

SchouU . eos 



iil6 



-so.fiei 



Total of children under dally instruction . 38,li)0 

Bmday Sehools 3fi3 

NuralNHr of children at such Sebaols, oged 
n«m4 to lftyet)«^— 

MaIos 3^,314 

Femnles .... S«,S3l 
Sex not spedfled 4,837 

ifi.9?2 

An^iiminK Ibat the population between 2 and !.> year* 
im-reaMtl in the same raiio at tho whole of the population 
b«tveen 1621 and 1831, end has lontinucil tn increase in 
the samir nitio rince, we fli^ that tbcte niiut have been 
livinc iu Chraliint <in 183'!) 1 17,243 persons helween tfause 
»(te». A vtiy lari;e numWr of the idholars attend both 
ilmly 011(1 Sundny £cbuuU>: ihiiiy-niiie »rhtiols, conlainini; 
»ars children, are reiumed from Various placvs as atleodfng 



Inth daily nnd finndav ulioolu, and theH ak a Mill Rreal.'r 
number nni tpepillcd: til wlint proportion tho du|)l»at, 
etilry of cliildren in thus produced h Ibereforo unci-rlatn, 
hut wo niBv PonHudo tlJil not t>io-lfafr<k of (he cfaddieii 



ft-tfUo instn 


iclion. 

Mainltnonee (^ Sehnnl*. 






nrr" 








twill. 






fi:iik. 


4.1* 

1.1(0 
M 


:..;— 





inriot School. 

SiidiUf Schoul' 


1 

n 

» 


e 

3911 


3 
CI 

3ti 




41 

1 


1 
99 

IU 


sn 

■MM 


Tbi.1... 


IDS 


vst* 


<0J 


saan 


«i.ia9 


«a 


434> 



The selioob rslablishe<l by Dissenlorn, included in tJa 
above statement, are : — 

SttMli. i;«boUrt. 

InRint Schools 

Daily Schoois 17 1*303 

SuriiUt SchooU US 28^172 

The Schools established since I61« 
are: 

Infant nivl other daily scbooU . 331 16.B8a 
Sunib} Schiulb -i'JO 44.S94 

PoTty-eigtit liunrding-iicliooU are incluilud in tlie niimbn 
of diiily sflwolrt a* given nborc. 

No fthool in this ooimiy nppcan lo be confined e\Aa- 
sivcly ii) ihcchiklrcii of piirunU uf ihe eatuliiinhcd church, n 
ofuny (Hlicr rclitciousdcnauiinulion. Sucli cxclubi>>ii isdis- 
claimfl ni almost ewry imtancc, csp«.-iolly in m-Lm(1ii ctia- 
bli»bcd by Di»»cnterf, together witU schools foi the cbiMrcn 
of RotaMi Cullioliv purerits. 

LenOiuf; libTariea of books arc attached lo sigbly-lbrca 
scliooU in Clicshiro. 

CIIE'SNE. ANDRE' DU, born in \m in the provnce 
of TDuruiiwr. t<«an>o d;ntii>f;iii»li('il fi>i' his bislonual and 
philvli^xirul erudition, iinii was one of the uiuat leurtwd men 
of Fnnre in hi* age. Tho work for»li>rli lie it best kiKian 
IK lii» valuable collection nf tlieoldcTil freni-L chronlclere 
'Hitlorifo Finncorum !)<finlurrs cuivtaiii-i, ab OoiilisOii- 
ginu unquc nh Philippi IV, tcmporn,' oK which ho ediled 
4 I'ul. fol. and his wn. Ftan^ojn ilii (.'hfonc, edited the Stii 
BlUr hia fulhfr's doalli. He uIko puUisbi-d: 2. * liisloire 
dcs KoiH. Uucs.et Comttftde Boofitogneeld' Arlo*.' 2 *<>l.4to. 
3. ' ilialoir* de* Cnndinaux PraiiTaia.' 4- * Bibliotbora 
( honi scene is.' S. ' Bibliotli^uo des Auleurn nut oni ^rt 
THiAtoire et Topn;>rBphii.' d« In Fnineo.' 6. ' Histciire d«s 
l*apai,' '2 viil. (t>l. 1. * llifcloire jirnfaloginua dot Uiiismm 
de I^xembourg, ilo Monimoreuvy, Vccrv. Guisncs. Cbiiil- 
Ion, Bi'tbunct &c.,' 7 vol. fol.. )M>fiilt>s a Hi^iir)- of Engloud 
in U vol. ful., ynris, IG14. I>uchetD<^ diod tn 1C4U tMBf 
Purts. lie lut been called tho faihor of Frvntli hiktury. 

CHESS, to adopt tliu dcflnitiisti of Ur. John«oTi, u 'a nice 
and nhxtrUHo )pnie, in nhirU iviu m.-u uf men aru mnml in 
oppQtitioii to eauli other.' The be^t metbud of le^iriiing iltc 
names oltlie piocvs with 'Ivir luoiot, and the tnauner ul 

filaeing tbetn at llio iH-giniiiii^ of the ((jiiil-. u lo dike m 
lOur' a lesson from a frivad ; aud no will ibLTvfurv pass wee 
this part of the alphabet ol iho tinroe, to make ruiiu ht 
more ititerctttng matter; premising', howevoi-, two points, 
wbicli aro oRcn UHkn»«n to drawin^-runm as ditiiiii;uislic«l 
Ihira club- play en. The I1r«t is, that thougli every [men 
may be uoored two squares at its first move, it nny be taken 
by any pawn whicli could have t^iken it. bad il moved but 
uriutquaro; and lite pann iiv tui^li ciul' iKsnid lu be tsikeiirM 

t«ii\aut. TliUK. supposo (lie while (|iieeii s bithiip'i [>-iu n lo 
uva advanced to the sdvrrs.-in 'k nitcen's bishop'x janrlh 
si|Uare. and the black <iiiiwn\'i.iKi;ii[*» pawn lo be at lis 
own tquarc : if ihe black should luuve hu i^vieen's knigbt's 
pawn two iqiiores. tlto white may take it with hit t)ueen'» 
biiliop'n p;i«n, aitd ihcwhilti nawn it plturd ul ib'C bluck 
quecn'i kniuht'^ ibiiJ square. ju>t as if the black pawn had 
been motcd one tqnare only. T1m> scoond point ia, ibat 
wlien a pawn bat tearbcd IIm last 8r|uure on Ibe adverav 
tide of (he boaril, il becomus a .<|ueo«. rook, btsbop, 
knight, at the player to nhom il lielo)t|>s mfty rhooae; 
is Ihis privilege limited, a* common platers oflcn sup 
to case* where ihc Ijrxt ipiren iir a rook. &e.. has bff«n 
NofalioH uani m rhett. Tbu board ts supposed 
divided into two equal parlf. ono of which btloaga W^ 
white, (lie other to (lie black iilajcr. Tltc snuaru on winch 
the king stands is callod (be king's square ; the one in (Wnt 



ef tl 111* lone'* •MWi'l H]uaT«; Ui« 1)0X1 m rroot of Omt the 

Vmp'i thiMl wjiimc ; ihcii lli* iiuXl tlio kiiigVroiittti wiUAW ; 

th« iM-xl again ii oiled tbu UitiK k nnh M{UAr<,ar thi; ti(1v<rr- 

■iMf'* k\afi* font lit MjuaTi>, ami mud. ThobU^iop (.inTiiImg 

viirli ii ■timda tU« kinit'ft bmbop's square ; th<^ n«xi square 

in rront u Iba kiax'u Uiltcfp 6 WN-otitl k>iktar«, nn<l xt «n. In 

liko tnaaner w* hktw the kmg'* kniglii * »i]uan\ tlie ttirtjt « 

.nok't w|UKf«, tbe i[iie«n'i tqutiie, llie quMD'« bniion's 

iho (|tiMn*« knif;hl's squaTv. khI tho t|uv»n'« Tvnk'c 

; uiil etch [niuilur-pii>c« givos iK nanta lo llie oihur 

on iU Ale. Thu-powni too Uke llieir nnine!! friHu 

bsbra whioh tlicy bIbiuI, and an> rnllifl ili« kinii's 

. ibo qt>e«n'« pawn, ibo king'* bi«li«|i'ii |iiiwn, iliv 

g'i rwk's pawn, Sw. Suppou wa wltbea to di>u-Tib» a 

luation in vhicb tiw quc«ns paou ns in it) iiriftitml 

nailioa; wb mif^ht ny that It vat nl itH Rquarc. ur nt 

ineen't MOODil tqauo. If it hwl been moved oti« tciuare. 

a mighl ny thar it waE at ile thin] squan, or at the 

[^e<pii'« itiird tqiiarp; ili« formpr pliran i» noiMrictly ac- 

,mra(o, bui i* >anL-tiijni<d by llix bail nrilLTi,. 

Tills noLilian. liaweter, is iMiuiuonly employid in n innra 

impvinl iouK Tutm; ibus K «19ihIs fur kinit. Q- V'r Iu^tii, 

lor rook. It. fur li>i>lii<p. Kl. fur kn»i;bl, P. Ibr pairn. mi. 

»quare, adv. for aili*i-r«a»} n. cIir. fi>r theckinu : oliwjniitg 

n»j aund Ibr ktng'i as w«ll as kinc. Q. for quren'*. 

Q. Kt. ataiicU for quv«i'» kiiitfhi. Q Kl. P. for qiurvna 

ibt*! pkwn. and &a on. 

ia KDOtber tnethol of natalir>n frequently empbye'l 

linenlal wiilM*, wbich wii*itts in iisii>K tbe firtt 

iMun of the alphabet ta d(!*ii;naie iIk eight 0ln, 

It itat nfrbl flgtiiea to (lc»ign»'.e tha fqnnrcs nf thr«e 

llrit ^W P. E. 4 mc.ins lliat liic pbycr (»f itie while 

bat noTcd hia kinu** pawn two squares, and V. K. A 

note* llw saine ii>ove for the block, litis nniation Is 

Ihliteven the in«l abbn-viutrd fuitii of titc lirat- 

onr ; but it is perplexing niid Jitllcilll b* fullnw. 

bciftfi baMilon a leB» naitir*! divifliim of the l>iKrd 

Ipuy here olnWrFc (bat ibc rnn^o orwiiKinrt ninninf; 

' t to li-f^ arc rn)lni raniif, uitd iIiom! ruiiniti» iVora 

cr Ui tlic oibor ari- cilldl //« ,■ ili« linua bluptujn 

V arrcH) llio briani an- k'riui:i] dingonaU, 

Ticcil.tiCAL Tmiis. f'iuth'iig. Thi^> if a cotiibiiicd ninto 

fli« kins ami rtMk. nhich Is allowoi) oiictt in lti« Kit;iiu. 

ir toHlio-l oFcant-iim i> >■ followti : flmt. ititb th* K. K., 

E R. muM W pbireil inn lli« K. B. aqiuic, and the K. nt 

Kt. »quaro; itrcon'lly, with llic Q. U.,lbc R. tuutl be 

ircd on tfae Q. nqjarc. and t!)o K. on Q. 1]. b>iiiure. Tlie 

wv Ifi-twcvn tb« kiot; and rouk muat bo unoccHPWil ; 

Ifter tiic kini; nor tlia loak niu»t bavv moved ; aiiu iho 

ori-t uiiicli tbc kine lIl«^L-a luunt nut lio atlM-kod at 

: by aiiv iii|v(.-r>« I'icil), 

'A MBiiiRcft an sIlMk mailc on tha kins by n ^leoo or 

l li> ibii piecv tlUt more*, but by uiie wliich t« bcliind it ; 
' osatnplH, place tlto «Uit« kin^ at bis «irn >qua>o. bUflk 
•prti al licr king'* *quitrc. ond a black kniglit at «dv. 
)<;'* ibird iquuTv; by pliyin),' tlic kiiiuUt t>> adv. kiiiK's 
tfilit B fuurtli «quaiv, y.jii ^'we cAfek tif ditfovtri/ vnb 

u>4 »q., or kiiifi;'* kLUghL* accoud w| , }ou give diuiiU 

A p^tpttuat ehefh C^nsatA in an nltctnatMii nf ohcrks, 
-- ' -fwhw-li tlia adTDiMc kin]{A«ra|M«only tobokuk- 
oliier. Thiu luppow th« pwew lo be in tbo 
, .- ,. B ..luatic'ii: — 

/J/..C*, HTtitf. 

K-aLK Klm. K.at K K.sq. 

p. al K, Kl nq. Q, al IC *q. 

U. at fh. Q. K. 2 sq. 
R. at a-K*. Q. It J tq. 
In tliK tfiiiiMl uMtiion, wliib! bavitif; tlw mo^o ran draw 
br [raRte by diM^hiiix al adt. K. m.. nml ikon al nilv. K. 
I. fuiirth eq, iiid aima at aiU. K. «q., and ho ou adinfi- 
lff«-n. 
CA/cAndb, ^VbcM the kin^ is atlackitd and lonnoi 
^k, taJi« the piectf lliat diocka him, or iiitur- 
< II uiiil In Ui cherAmalfd. ;)im1 ttto Kaaiv 
'■■ 'v'm givet tlie ehfchmalti. In ulbor 
u) aiiacknl tbat Iw would iii««iiably 
< r kiTit;. liv bu loll 111? eauio. 

t%,illr!ii f^■U■N. When U<1 puurilt I'l itio Minp i-ulaur 

on. llie MOM) Ble, ibt; tuocu adtaiiccd una m callud u 



douUed navn ; thuSirihorcU a pawn on K. H. second »q., 
and nnotner on K. R. third iq.. the latter ii eaUcd a doubled 
putrii. 

Drawn GMn". When nMtber purty can cbeck mate the 
othi-T, ihe garao it drami. TIiiji ntny luiption in many wa} s ; 
Drat, if the forc« remainm^! on the board is not luneient to 
oliofkMata^, tt* if y*ii have only your king tin<I a bishop, or a 
kniRht, orbaib kniQhtii, aeainsc the advene kin^; Mcondly, 
u ben you havv aufneient &ree, hut ate unable lo eheekmnte 
uilh i( : tlio Iwonlf-Mrand law in Lcnii'a ' Elemcnli' bears 
Upon thiB point, and l« tu fullow* — ' An the g;anie it drawing 
to a eonelution. if one of the playefc reisiin with a rock and 
bithnp nunintt » rtMik, with both bithopa, or with a knipbt 
and btihiip a^alnUa kinff, he mtut cberkmaie hiH ndvor- 
ary in nrty moves on each tide at most ; fbr tf at the expi- 
ration of fifty movMchwkmate be not effoetH, ilir game 
mim boMiiaidaruii at drawn.' &jr. &e.* TbirtUy. by a |Mtr- 
patual chMk on the adi^^tie king: fourihly.'when bolh 
playemact on the defensive, ond nljuCun from 'attaekitig the 
adveraary ; IKlfaly. when bolh plnyera bare an equal bii[ 
flmall force, at a rauh or qneen ; and &iitbly. when one of 
the kiiitra is dah-nialed. 

Enhixng«-''fn ^ain (A*. When n player cibtainn a rook 
for a hilltop or kniKlii. lie it taid tu ffnm the exchange, a 
rook being more nluable th:tn a knight or n bithop, 

(tamttii. Thii word in derivwl from tlte Italian gamiello. 
a irifi|iii)K u]i of the hocli ; the Kings Ouubil bcgint in the 
followiniT manner: 

tf^iU. BlacM. 

1. K.P. 2»q. 1. K. P. 2tq. 

2. K. B. P. 2 iq. 

If hlurk nbfUiitx fromiakiaK the offeied pmrn, hi- is said 
lo rufiiM iho eutnhlt.- 
The Mloviii'g nun-cs constitute iho Queen's Camliit : 

IfMle. Black. 

1. g. P. 3 B4. 1. Q. P. i iq. 

■:. g. B. p. i Ml. 

titaiunin. a natitc of Alepno. sho pnblbhed a kooO 
annly^i* of ihjt a|>cnine, called it the gambit cf Aleppo, 
ati appdlali'iri nhioh wai aftorwunls adoptud b; Philidnr. 

'J'hi; t.irnllte of ilte kni;;ht in the fulluwinK manner cun- 
Aiiluti-.t thi- Miiziu Gnnibit. \ihich a perhaps the isoit bril- 
liant ujiviiiiii; hillivrio inveulvd : 

I. K. P.Saq. I. K. P.2*q. 

'I. K. It. P. a «|. 2. p. lake P. 

3 K. Kl. IQ K. B. 3 «q. 3. K. Kt. P. 9 wa. 

i, K B. loQ. B. 4»q. -1. K. Kt. P. I sq. 

&. Ca.llea. S. K. Kl, P. takes Kl. 

The Saltia ami tho Cunnin^luiin Gamhil arc likewise 
variolic:^ of ilio Ktnfi's Gumkl. The Ijopea Gambit, in 
which ihc K B. P. i» not uicnllred niitil ihe fourth or flfth 
laove, b«E^M in the Iblluwin^ or aoine tinnlur luniiiict : 
IVhili. IHath. 

1. K.P.2tq. I. K.P.aM. 

3. K. B, to g. B. 4 >q. 1. K. 6. lo g. B. 4 iq. 
3. Q. lo K. -i to. 3. g. P. 1 «q. 

\. K. B P. 2 *q. 

In the Biihup's Gambit tlie flrat playvr tiKiTes K. B. to 
Q. B. 4 lb vqiiare it hit tbtnl move, instead of K. Kt. lo 
K. It. .^rd Mjuare. 

^fin'tr Piece U an appoltalion ronimon la tliEt bisliop and 
kniirlii. 

Panted PrtN'ff. A pawn i» called pamfJ when it is no 
lonsi-i Dl»lniclcd by nny adnrso pawn un it* own Ale, or 
cither 1^ the adjnminx on A. 

.'itiilf"iittf. Tliift iiaino is i-iven lo the tcmunalion of the 
I^Diet when the player whow turn it i* to move bat hi» kinj; 
to placed, that tbouiih not in c^iock he cannot move wilbovt 
lioinr into check, and there is Dotbinjr «!*« lo play. Tbo 
eirnc if< ihrn drawn, ll wai fgrmcity tho law among 
Ivn^liih playcra, that lliu pUjer whoso king w»« iiiile- 
malvl won the irime, and many unin-trurlcd |iliijon< iwa- 
ipne Ihia to be the ca*e itiU ; Imt lUv roIi- h^n Imii; ilnee 
bctii) altered, with invat propriety. The following is an 
exiiniplv of a tluU-innte ; 






as 



CHE 



S2 



CHE 



I. K.ntK.R.«q. ». K.atK.R. «i. 

3, g. Bt aJv. K B. 2 aq, 
White hcu tlie movo, and i* coiwuiiiPiillj' slttlcmaied. 
lliU i« llio COMB likewiw iii liws fcJlowinp iKMitiaii : 

I. K. ntK.R.wi. I- K.alK.R. *i^ 

!>. B. »t K. R. a M. 2. Q « «^v- K. D. 2 «|. 

3. R. at K. R, a «n.. 
Whit* in to move; he oinnot roote llie Vinic wilHout 
ftotns into di*ck of tlie fiueen, nor c«n he movo the bislnop 
without expcwiiig hlmsrif lo rlimW of the rook ; li« is coiise- 
<|U«nity MitlecnittMl. Ttio ntuJeiit who is (tcsimiii uf seeing 
roranrkftblepoiition* where tUeBamo iMlrawii liy aulcmatn, 
will find Ibom in I^wiss e<Ulimi «( .So/ra/f . pp. 108. Ill, 
li'i. IS.I, IS4, 172: in l-ewi>'» Stainniii. niluaiions 97, 28. 
au, liiii ; anil in LhwuV ChfM Prol/lcm). liiluations M 
anriflS. 

The f<.i:n*iiii{ pitDM will extrnplitV many of (lie pro- 
<*ilm^i Inwi and ileniniiciiiii ; llic foiirlti i» onis «f lliv match 
RDinfJi pLiyod liKtwtwn the Lumlun anil KtUnburKli tluW, in 
tho ye<>n )S-i4— -JB : 

Game I (i-V*/"* .«!/-■). 
niack. »'Mle. 

1. K,B. P. I.»4. 1- K. P.^n(i, 

2. K. Kt. P. 2 W). ?. Q- lo a'l*. K. R. 4 «]. 

Clicckmnlitig. 



Bi'trk. 

1. K. P. 2 B*l. 

2. X. B. to g. B. 4 &\. 

3. K. Ki, loK.K, 3«<]. 



1. K. P. 2 «|. 

2. K.B. i<ig B Jiq. 

3. Q.b>Ur. K. R. 4 sq. 
A. g. take* K. B. P. 

ChpokmalmK- 
Blaek'a tliird move ought to hRt« twen Q. to K. lecond 
•qusK. 

CitMf 3 (i4 OamM/rmn Grtcoi. 



Blach. 

1. K. P. « BU. 

2. K. P. i*kes P. 

3. K. Kt, P. ■: »q. 

4. K. B. p. I xq. 
.■i. p. tsk'a Kt. 
C. K. to kia 2 ii). 

?. K.to bis sq. 

5. K. tv his J »q. 



1. K. P. 2 sq. 

2. K B. P. 2 «'l. 
:i. K. Ki. tr> K. B. 3sq. 

4. K. B. to Q. B. 4 «i. 

5. K. Ki, ukr» K Kt. P. 
fi. Cj. 10 a<)v. K. R. 4 »|. 

cliii. 
7, Q. ukn K. B. P. ftixl 

8 Q la w\v, K. R. 4 %H. 

9. g. I" adv. K. 4 »qflBn<) 
clicckinatot. 
BUok's ftiurili move vu ■ T»rv bul oner : he oiighi to hnvc 
pluitH] enher K. B. lo K Kl. i muan; or K. Kt, P. I 
u|>ur«: liavi[i>: c<>ininiil<Kl t1ii« miataKP, liuwewr. he »houl(l 
h^iie |it[i)ml K. R. P. 2 squares ut hi» Shh move, inslc-nil of 
takinj; Die Kt. Tho pawn irhirh vhilv Ukc-ii at hn* rih 
liK)\'o, luvin? been j II > I Wficcun die liiihupn Itk-, retains 
tlw nimeal'K. B. P., lhi)uuh iimii;UCal«o bi: caU<:il K. Kt. P. 
ir Mark at hi» 7th mo\-e vcrc lo inir^o«« K. Kt.. while 
wmiMtht^rkmKtcon t!icinar«bvp)a>iii|:g, (o adv. K. •itb »q. 
Came 4. 



mile. 
K. P. 2 «(. 
I. K. Kt.toK B.3»i. 
3 a P, 2 •n. 

4. K. R. log. B. 4iq. 

5. Q B. P. I »i. 
G. K. c':isilp«. 

7. Q. Kt. take* P. 

A. g. Kt laailr. g. 4 m]. 

■J. g. KL P. 2 HI. 
lU. g. Kt. lakm Kt. 
It. K.Kt ua.lv.K.Kt.4s(|. 
12. g, B in g Kl. 2 B(|. 

vt g i>g. Kt. 3h|. 

14. K. Kl. iak<u K. If. P. 
li. g l.ik<-« K. B. 

Ifi. K B, P. I <q. 

17. g. bkciKt. 



BtafA. 

1. K. P. 2 sq. 

2. g Kl. t>g. it. 3 sn, 

3. K. P. labv. H. 

4. K. B. to g. B. 4 If). 

5. g, to K. J K(( 

6. P. tikes P. 

7. g. p. 1 »q. 

8- Q. to iMr 'i *q. 

». g, Ki. ink*.-. P. 

IV. K. B. UkeH Kl. 

11. K. Kt. to K. R. 3Eq. 

12. K- to K. B. M|. 

13. g. to K. 2 u). 

14. K. Kt. lakm Kt. 
M. K Kl. Ill K. 4 «T]. 
Ifi. Kl. tak«^K. B. 

7. Q. to K. B, ii-q. 



Gatn» 4.— 
horAnn, 

\nue. 
n. g-toQ- II. 3fq. 

ID. K. B. P. 1 w. 

30. K. R. to K.B. 4 M). 
21. K. P. 1 I.). 

23. g. inkci P. 

23. g. R. M K. Ml, 

24. K. B. P. I i^ri. 

23. K. R-tnn.lt. K.B.Jiq. 

If,. g.toa<)v,g.B.'l ^,rb^. 

27. K. R Inlvui P. elig. 

as. g. Uikoii p. dig, 

29. B. to g. l *(!. 

.10. O. to oilv.g.B. 41.(1. eliB. 

31. g.lowK.K.Kl.jiq-vltg. 

32. g. B. i-hwVi. • 

33. g. lonclv. g. 4 tq. 
34- g. to ndv- g. Kt. 2 kq. 
35. K. B. P. cliwki. 

3S. R. to K. B.tq.olii!. 
37. g. lo K. 4 Nq. chK. 
3B. g. to adr. K. sq. chg. 
3Q. g.taai1v.K.Kt.";.<'htt. 

40. K. Kt. P.2 w|. 

41. g. take. Q, R. 

42. K. to K. R. wj. 

43. B. log. It. 3 <ci. 

44. g, 111 ai)t-. g. B. 3 Bq. 

«.g. lakes g. Kl. p. 

46. K. to K. Kt. M|. 

47. g. U) Q. Kl. 2 wi- 
As. g. tu K. Kt. 2 Ml. 
4'J- K. lakcK g. 

30. K. lukcs B. 

&\. B. to adv. K. 2sq. 

ii. Q. R. P. 1 Ml- 



•omflAiwiF. 

ESnhvrgh. 



18. g. B.io K. 3«i. 

0, g. n. irt nuv. g. B. 4 1 

LI. g. Kt. p. 2 «q. 



"■fc. 



211. 

21. p. lakos P. 

KJ. K- It. P. I »r 

S3. K. K. 10 K- R. 2 nq. 

24 K. Kl. P.-: Ml. 

23. g. K. P. i ►q. 

•2(,. K. lu K- Kl. iq. 

27. P. lakpfi R. 

SB. K. lo K. ». *<\. 

2y. It. to K. .1 «q. 

30. K.to K. Kl. Kq. 

31. K. lu K. B. *q, 

32. K. lu bin »q. 

33. g. K.luil3 3 «q. 

34. g. to K. R. 4 »q. 
31. K. Iike> P. 

3G. K. 10 K(. 3 *q. 
37. Biftlvi|i inler]M)Mab 
3l*. RcHikiDluipnwu. 
3». K.-lo K. B. 3 )i|. 

40. g. R. lo its Kq. 

41. g. lakva P. rhg. 

42. R. lu g. 2 w| 

43. K. to K. B. 2 sq. 

44. K. to adv. g. K). 

4*. g to.iilT. K.4»q.rInE, 

40. K. loK. Kl. 3 sq. 

47. g.Iofiiiv.K.Kl.4r((.cll& 

4-4. g. tukLii g. cbi*. 

49. B.lo<idv.K.R.3«q.cliB. 

At). R. tukus H. 

31. g. R. P. 1 *q. 

i2. R.luK.B. 4Mi. 



The London rhili rcsigncrl the etiini;. 

The London rUib Ii»d the (^aine in their liondft until tht 
Hnfnrtiinato lhu)i^h iiisieiiiuim sacrifice of Ibo rook atlbr 
twenly-scvonlh move. They migln have wuii, at ihc iwcniji- 
fourth move, by I'lK'i'kiii" nit.1i g. at adv. g. B. 4 nit.. Aiid 
then plnyink; 0- R Vj adv. K. i m],, a^ Mr. I.ewib bai dr 
moitslialrd in liU exrellent eililiiin ul' litu miilcli catr**. 
p. 30. el sfq. : or llit-y might hnvc won at llie tnrnt>-«,i»tk 
movo. by plityiiij; B. tu g. 4 t-q-. ti-'< Mr. Ia'Wi^ lias bliuwii ii 
hi) ' Keinack* on the Report of the Conmiiitce uf lh« Kdiii- 
hnrsh Chess C'lul*.' p, 7. f/ &rif. E>*cn iiftct the MicriBor 
of tlio rook, Laiidun mi;.'1il have dtawii tlio ~iti)i« b\ a prr- 
petuul cheek, by thtikitii; BK-'i" '""^^ Q- »' t*^^'- Q- ^- 4 aq.< 
at the ii move. nnJ tlien at adv. K. Kt. 4 •!].. &r. 

lliftorg and Litfrnhire i//lkrGa>"f. Tlw Kaiue «f ebcM 
it of |fre»l antiquily, niid aitpeani lo hat« bcirn iii\«ntcd in 
China or IIindo>tan. Sir William Jonei inrliiios to tbi 
latter tuppOMtiuii. Iti the second volume of the 'Asiatic 
Renearehei,' be ii.iyif, ' We may ho ftnti«fivd with th« leali- 
uiuny of tha PertianK: n-ho, though ax mueb inclined m 
other nntioni to appropriate the miicnioui invtinlions ot a 
roreisn i>eople, nniinininuily aj^cv lliat the fjanie wou im- 
purtt.>d froni iha wcat of India in Die sixth century of our 
wn. It seomi to have been immomorially knov-n'm Hin- 
do*ian by th* name of CAafuran^ja, i.#., the tatir an^at.vt 
membcrt of nn nrmr ; which are those, olephnntu, hono, 
ehariott, and foni-Kildiert; and in thiK wnM the word ia 
frcqtienily iiwd by epic poeta in their doseriplions of real 
armiM. By a natural oumipiion of tli« jiura Santeril arord, 
it was ehaaged by the old Persians into rftatnng ; but the 
A>ib4. who soon nn^r took po^arMJon of ibeir rounir}', had 
neither the initial nor Iho HtiBl k'tter of that word in their 
alphabet, and eonM»|ueiitly altered it further into Mhatranj. 
wnieh found its kov preiien'tly into the nirujern Peniai^ and 
at Irnif^h into tho dialects of India, where tho true lUTiva- 
tiun of »he wunl in known only lo l)i« learned. Thus baa a 
«vryai);ni(Ieant won) in the tiaered langunijc of the Brsh* 
mins been tt-antfuruied byprogresMve ehanges mio urratnu-, 
»cw«Ai, orAflM, cAcm; and by n whimsieal rnneurrenee ot 
cireumvlunnea ha* {{ivcn birth lo the Knghiih uord efv^k, 
nnd even a nanie t) the <>JTAei}uer of Great Britain.' lEv 
Mpoaki d1«i> of ' Ike r.ir A. or urmod chariot, which Ike BcU- 
Kiiletv prunoiineoil rofA. anil which the Peninnt (!hsni;ed 
iaio rokh, vbcDce came the nxwt of some European natkint ; 



iAiiaM 



u tlie vHTge bdO fat of the Frawh ara uippwed lo In cor- 
nipitoni m/crx* attfi_fil. tli« primt) mintMtr uid vlephanl or 
the Ptnianii ntid Artil>K.' 

It i» jieffottljf dear that cli«sa was not Vnawn to llie 
(irceltt ur Romans : ituleetl it is commonlv aupiiosed not to 
liBVO )iem initoducvd inlc Europe iHI tlw titno of the Crii> 
nden : tliuucti there i* it net of Latin wrsca in Hyde, ile- 
achliin^ 1)10 game. >lnch U Mid to tiotc bcon wriilcn during 
Ibe tiuMi of the Saxon*, nnd tliitrctbrc ■ irood iiiiinlirr or 
>'eur& bcToro llie (Iral tniiiatli^. Sevcnil poinu in which ihe 
eutvfn K*<no iiov difTi-Ts frum ours tctc the □ oWfvcd in 
Europe. Thn folloiviii^ ntu the pccutiantin of the llin- 
<l0fltan«« gniae. a» ^tt\\ by a naiivu player * 

' I. In thu HindiftUnuc i;amo ihu kinf; is placed lo l)i« 
t>kHI hind, (O tbat (iic kiii); of one party i» oppoulo l)ic 
■{ucrn of the fitlier. 

'S. Thcf« are thtvo modes of winning ikoeaiiM Tbo Gnt 

«alK-^ l^")!]. when th« lotinit parly hai no )ii«gq lell on the 

Vuinl — tbv i^m« in then diDcuiitinncd. Tlii»niu[le of win- 

ininfc ifl rtckuuuO Iho least cnHlilaUv, and in many parU it 

' 1* ilocnwd a dra^i^n itamo. The second i« by ch«ckinule with 

% pioi-e, when the lutinf; yo,Ttj mii$l hate one or titore piMea 

temainin^. That l\\m\ la by chivkntate wilh a pawn ([>iod- 

mli), the iMinfi party havinf; one or more pieces remaining. 

' Thta Ukt «l>o«s ihu cresleal atiperiorily. 

'3. Stalemate in tioC known in the Uindotlanee game; 
if one parly j^t mlo that positian iheadvemary uiuit nako 
loom for him lo move. In homv p.irt of In'lia lie that ia 
put in thit proriu'nmant hii4 a ri|thl l» remiirn from the 
iKiird anf one of the odveriarj' * pieee* ho may choo<e. 

'•I. No part}' can make a drawn i^me ly an iiniverul 
(perpvttHlj chwk ; liv that iuu tlw u|>lion mud adept tome 
< Mber mare. 

' i. The pawns on reachinf! the Innt tiquiLrv nf the board 
iTO IranaSninod inti ihv inasier {iiei-c of ihai fiiv. vx-opi lite 
king** fawn, which bvi-nnes at^ueen. It' ih« ixiuii bu uu 
the knigllt'i file, the knight immodinteiy on bein^ made 
lakoa one move in addition to the la«t movx of iho pawn. 
Bnbu tome othi^ piece ■.■ummand the aijtiare to which the 
pawn wac adianeniR. 

*i. No pawn ran be puthod ti|> to 1)ie la»l Bcpinre of llie 
kmrd. ttor take any pitcw on that line, to lun); u tliv matter 
ftm> of that file MSVins. 

* 1. Tlw kin? doM not eaillo, hut it allowed the roori! of 
a kwf^t anc« in tt>e iramc. not however to take niiy piei^e — 
•or Kin be exrrciHi thit piinlogu afU-r hivmg been onru 

'i. Tho two royal pawni and thoae of the tvo rooU are 
to mote tno tqmret eirh 9t Hr^l, on limi! ni Ilieir 
rwmain at Ihrir wiuirvt. The other pawns move uiily 
•qiiare at a time. 
'% At tfaebeninninc of a itntno, four or eight move*, aa 
>y b« detonoined. are pl.iyM up uii both aidea. Thit in a 
yraal mewauK prevents tiiinetcshory eichanjt<!> till n Rene- 
fa) diapoailion it adopted and the piem* brought dtit. 

' IS. Thi: flrti mi^-r at ihc; Ihiiijudiuk <>f * rautcli i» arlii* 

tcsnr ; aftcrwanU he Ihul hu> *m\ most tfuraei moret flnt.' 

(J^jRipa on Cht»i. adtpird to ihe Jiuropean mode 0/ 

^^U rwiMiitias prinetpaHjf o/Puritiona or rriticui Sittta- 

Wi^ifalcu/atfd to imprtien lAe Learner and ercrcite the 

^^^Pry. By Trrranyaduchaiya Stiaittrvc. Tniiialalcd from 

In ihc Laliu vtrraca ahovu meuliuned. the <iueon is di- 
ftrvd to he placed on the right hand of the kinjd ftndtbere- 
ferc ihc queoD of one party will he oppwite the king uf the 
■liter, a* in Indb. 

*|ba pusMMai vuraMoluu. vOrDin loiuni Wnrol, 
Kin* Btf^ dnUruin liim Krcliii potiiilwl.' • 

l__ Other pcculiohliet mcnlioned by Trvvani;a'liivliatva 

arc (oiii)d in ibe older Kurofwan wrilcrt. 'i'hut no 

I lb« kiBK dues not ciisllu -, aixl Ihctc i* do exiiui|)lc 

itg in Snrratt ■ traimlalion of ' Unmi.tno.' A;;-.iin. the 

in tho K«me may movu hko a kni);ht; nuil wo 

taneei of lh>t tingulnr prkvll4^|i;c in Sariult ■( * Ruy 

p. 97 ; m bit ' Gunolto.' p. S ; and in ht« ' Gusta- 

Setcnut,' p. 41. 

Hindo«iane«'inod»tar« villi preveriredat Stroebcck, 

of rh«>t».pla*enn«ar IlalberttaiU. of which Ur. 

ai inveti a very liitcrpMinir an^uiit. Otir Indian 

. Ihni four L>r <'if>Ki TnLAvi arr pUyc-rl ti|>i>n uach tide ; 

oHv »r hia game* the u.-uc muve> are played hy both 

MvenlMfl timet t At Stroeheck. in hku maimer. 

«<!e«* being placed u uanal, each {Mrl}' it obliged Ui ^ 



play Ilia klnit'i rook's pawn. qaMU'a rook'a pawn, tnd 
qoMli's pawn two t^iuarea. anu Ibo qnaen m her Ihird 
Mqiiare.' (I^wis't Chett LeMont, aeoond teriet. p. J16.) 
And 111 in India, llie pritilrKc of mnvinir two squares is re- 
ttricted (ottie pnwna of the kiiiit. i^iteen. and moUa, tost 
Sli-ochcrk it UconHncd to thoteuf the queen and tooka. At 
Siroi-lierk ton casttmi; i* not allntvcd, hut Mr. Lewis wat 
intormcd that some players liavu lately iiermiiifd It. 

The tillni;rri pottcst n (^hctt-bontrd wliirli wat pKirntcd 
to ihem by the eler^lot uf Brandt' 11 burtr. en the [3tti of May, 
lli^l; 'on Ihe other HtUo the bmml it illvided into V6 
Noiinres (12 by 8) 1 ihit is iniondrd for the routier ttiimc, 
which it played with the usual clicsmen. to whiih are 
addoil. for each player, four piiwiM, Iwu couricrt, n man, 
and a fool, whirh hut two nic now culled stale cauutellors.' 
(Lewia't CAta /.eijums. auc.anA terir*, p. 4 1 i.) 

In thit icDiiit!- which has been played at Riroeberk from 
time immemuriiil. aimthcr otic ol' Ike antique rulet of chtas 
npponrt to be preiei'ved. In tbo rouner gome tbc move of 
Ihe bishop is ciinSi)cI to ihn second tquare from llio one 
on which ho *lnnilt; thus, a bishop plac«d on the kintr'n 
4 sq. can he pUy^il only to K. Kt. 2 kij , Q. B. i »q., <j. B. 
G»<).,or K- KLGsq.; and in the Latin venHmubove tjunied, 
we are told that ' Omdit calvu* per trnntvcr^um terliani oj 
talnilnra,' thai is to nay, * the bithopiittarkt the third squsrw 
In an ohliquo (lireclion ; ' the squnre on whieh lie stands 
beinft ineluded m the throo, acrording to the old way of 
reelconing : jiui as Damiana. for innlance, liilka of a. puwn 
moving three Kqnuret : and Mr. Lowki, adopting thit mode. 
ipeak* of ihe bishops mot« in the courier gome, beini; 
limited lo ihreo iquares. 

Tliu ruB'ler who is ini-lined to in^'ettif^te the history 
of Cheis may codbuIi Hyde'a Ireatite. ' Mniulragorins, 
Neu HiaoriA -Shahdudti. Uxoniis, IG94 ;' ' Leihiilizii, Aii- 
noiaiiii du qitibutdani LMdis,' Kco.. in 'Misc. Soc Reif. 
Bero]..' I. i., an. I'll) : the hitinrienl ilitquitition on iho 
game of Chess, by- Dainea Barriiiglon. in tho !iTh vol. of the 
' ArcliiBobgia :' Sir William Jones's * Etuty,' in the and 
voL of the ■ Aataiic Ratnarchus :' and a paper, by Mr. Ejli't 
Irftin, in tlw ' Transactions of llie Royul Iiitli Acuiluiiiy.* 
Twitf't wvrk. cnlitled ' Chess,' 3 vols., s\o.. is on siaiiMug 
tv]iiTlury ufatiecdotos uf cbets- players, acruuiits of cbe!>a- 
hoioks. and paisaget relating to the game, exiructi-d from 
an infinity of authors. 

Jiropo Dm-rietole. n Dominican friar, wrolo a treatise on 
Cheis iK-f'ore [he year t3U0. eiitillcd ' Sdhitium I.udi Sc«ii-- 
ehoriim. scilicet Libclhis ile Moiibus Hu'minum et Ollicm 
Nobdiiim,' Thi* wan a liowk of greflt repiiution for »<.'\cinl 
centuries. Cuxionn work un Chess, printed in 147-1. t'u 
a trantlaliot) fVom a French translalion of Daccictole's 
Treulite. Tlw object of the writer however it ml her to 
teach morals than Chess : he merely jcivcs lliu move*, nnd 
then li'cals of tho duties of the variouii ranks represeiileil by 
iht; thc^vmcn. ThiK. in CoMon, ' Tlic Ihirdc chtpilrc uf 
the necinide iioctate trelelh nf the alphynt, ihcr ofTicrK. oiid 
maitoi-s. Tlie alphyns ought to be mndu and furiunl iTi 
mancre of juges .lytlynge in a ohayor. with a book open lu 
fore their eycA,' £u. 

And then oomes an account of Iho r^fllcea of theeo judges, 
one of whom is tuppoicd to sit in criminal, and Ihe other in 
civil coses. Tlie alpliyn, we may remark, it the bithop. 
Valiittiftne of ehrtt tcritcrs in rhrcnoiogie^ vrder: — 
The curliest giraclicul writer on Chen is Luc«ns, wbn^e 
treatise came to light only a few years since. It is entitled 
* Arte bretw, o intnidtiucion muy noceststia para saber 
jugar si Axedict, eon nvnto y cincuunte Jucgos de portido.' 
Salamurics, 4ta., ahiiul M95. 

Ills b»jk vras copitd by Daroiano, who published n 
treat) tc at Rome in Iit3,<nlillcd ' Libro da imparotv {;iu< 
ocui« a Scocehi,' &c.. .Ito. There is another edition, 
pnnictt al Rome in IS'i4*. 

Ruy l..(.pcz. ' Lil>ro de la inreneion liberal y arte de 
juego del Axedres, be. £nA1cani de UcnatM.* I SSI. -Ito. 

Gianutio lUoratio). ' Libro nel quale si tratta delta ma- ' 
nieradi giuocar a' Scaeehi,coQ aleuni sottitusirai pariiii.' 
TuTino, 1597. 4to. 

* It M ■ CDrtoiii fUl Hi lltrnrf Klitarr. (*»< Tlaaiuiaa'i vort «>■ la lie 

IWB (wIaI allbuvl ■cllBU«lT.I«Uril> i <U III* ^linlut l>DfiU(> uf Illll^Ull'a 

tniulMhaof ItaruDL'»lil»vl{l>lrirlgM inriii't li) lli)< tullioi ;i>ubUm1 
niH.<a.r f* nf* *»*y tnrvi>[«m«. ikfrl — > Oi» Plhai*. W>. Scv^illml^.., IMi.l 
Iv Una. I bill (ll ilikf 'WPHRvIf tirwl. iti* <««T "f ■•■ AMwilo I'ann. ■ )••■. 
ullh .ulaili-l'l* If^Dto-it. nuMi Umbi id U (F|i>liil«tl usiIm hit uhii ijanir. 
milKnil uM>Ht J» .aullnii irtiild* ii>ih>n liim-riri m* ewtW wo hi <F>' 
l>n ntl^uH. MM utiulHl ■( IMMii*. bf Uk>. HuiK la IMOl ika MllR U 
V«nn,l>j Hilar Purl, l»l«t^' p.CS, 



ri 



CHE 



H E 



Bali-io f Al«»ii^ro). "TrBtU** ixAV inroiijilmje e dell' arte 
libci-alti ilt-l ciiiacadculi Scacchi.' Nap. ISOl, I6t2, 1616 ; 
ili%ho in lib. vj., per Gia Dom. MmtUntuii, 1634. * Um- 
mnoKopra it Eiiiacu d«i[K Scacchi con la sua Apolo^'iiLrontrO 
ilCanx-ra,' 1'>3'I, 17j3. 4ia 

' II I>utliii(\ Miia il onliere uranta io]Va il 

eiuoca fic' Snoclii,* &c. Na[>. 1C3'1. 410. 

Scleiiua (Gustaviu.) ' l>ii» Kcliach ©Jav Kooni(t- Spiel. 
1.^118.,' ICIG, fitljo. Cl'bit book was wriitcn by llie tlukv of 

Cri-Tu ((liunchino), * TmlUlo di nobiliaaiino b niililare 
•MFoiUo de' Si-acvUi.' (W'c do not kngv Ike dale of tUi* 
WDi'k. but tbM of the eMlicsl t'rctich traniUlion is Uli.) 

Carn.-ra (Pitttni). ■ Dd giuooo dcfili Svucclu,' &c. Mi- 
lilelli, ISir. 4lo. 

Boitin tOapt.) * The ii«tito game of Clicn.' LoiKlon, 
1731. lamo. , 

Stanittia (Pbllppe). 'Essui suf le joa dc« K*hc<«,' fee, 
]'«'.*, i;37. IBmo. , 

PhiLdor (A. D.) ' Anftljw du i«u dett Hcliee*,' &»- 
LimdriM. lTi9. 9*0. 

HK)(Bn-M« Dol). 'Ovwmzbni praiishs snim HptuoM 
AtfU Htiitchi: 4U. Moduna. 1 750. tTliia m thu ocloliradKl 
im»n]in<:»i4 Modciiew.) 

I»lli (Oimmb). ■ OMitntloni ioori««jtntiiDhA wtpn il 
giuceo do«li Heuchi.' n«lAKna, i;r>n. Foliu. 

OMio ((I Conle Ckrlo). • 11 gluoco dcgti Boa«<chi.' Tortnn, 
irCA. 2 tqK, Sra. 

Ponxfnni (UomcniM I'AnoniM). * II giuora inrompiiT- 
»Wle di'Ril Scnechi," &p. Modem. Ilfij, -Iw. Tlie« is 
«i KnL^li^li tmnelution of liiis work b} iJinghnin- 

'Tr.iiiA ihlfori(;u« el prntii)ii« ilu Juu dM EcliMa, pnr une 
soptfl^ iIm atniLTiruni.' Porii IT 75 and I78B. 

' l.«9 SiralagduicB dci Eohces.' S tam. lemo. Puii. 
All. X. Tlicro ID an EngliUi tnmtlftlion of (his work by 
Keirn^. 

Alleaier. ■ Nene lli«OTetlich-pre«liach« Anweisung sum 
Schocnspirfe.' Bvo. Wien, Iftil. 

Koch a. F. W.) ■Ci>deidorSchncli»piolk<m«U* B rota., 
Sro. Mat^debui^, 1813. 

Sarnti (J. H ) 1. 'Treatoe'on tbe g»n» of Chi>«ii.' 
2tul«,, .9*D. l^ndon. 1»08, 

S. ' TniiHlaliDi) «f lh« irorka of DaiQiuiA. Ritjr hapet. 
and Snliio. on tbe ijainieuf Cht'W." &vo. London, 1913. 

.1. * Translation of tbe unrka of GianutJo and Ga»taviiit 
St-luiiii*.' 1 Vol!.. (l«>o. Loud., 1617. 

<l. ' New IVeflliM on tli« cam« of ClftM.' upon a plan 
at prosmiivc IraprarecDenl bitbcno unattenpted. i vi>ls., 
8VO. Lond., 1B21. 

TrevatiBJiilarharjB Shaslreei. ' Esiays on Clie«. adapted 
lu lli(;Bnn)|>MUi niodDorjiUi).* &(■. Biinibuf. 1914. 

'A Kvlcriion of flrty garnet, jilay (id by tbe automaton rbeM- 
plater' lyiiidiiR, 1S20. (I*atru and mote arc given by Ihe 
auioinaton in all tbese icatnu.) 

Cnrhrane. ' A Trtaibe on tli« game of Cbe^* ; coiiiiiin- 
Ini[ llie tramfs on odda, from the '■ Trail* iV» Amateure : ' 
the tanwN of Ihe cclebratnl aiionymous ModoncM; ; n vn- 
ricly of Kumei actually plajed; and a catalogue of vrittTH 
onCfiMs.' Lond. 8vo, 1822. 

Silbt-nchmidt. ' Da» Gainbit, oder AiigrilT und VcT- 
lliiidinunK KCgcn Wnmhitrflge.' fcc. Brun«wirk. 18'2<. Svo. 

Maurillon, t. ' AnucuunK tur Brtcrnutit( de« Sclmcli- 
apii'l*,' &r. Bttcn, 1^:7. eva 

2. * Bclvlirciidt! Uiitn-hatitini; fiir juniru ancebenda 
8cbacbspi«1o[.* &C B^sen. lH3t and 19.13. l6mo. 

I*«-la <Wm.) 1. ' Oricinol Chn^i. ot Spccimena of Hi»- 
dwlunn rKruliciico in that cclclimtcd f»aia.' 2 vtt]a. 
LoH'U 1817. 

2. ' SlBinma on Ctiesa,' vlth noties. Bvo. Lmid., 181$. 
^^H 3. * Oraco nn Chess,* uilb notes, 8ro. Loud, 1619, 

^^P 4. ' 8arrnUoii(.'lii'M,' wiili note*. 8vo. Ij>iid., lB3i. 

^^^ 5. 'BkmonU of ibc KJiine iif Cbca*.' 13iiio. L»i>J. 

m 1 823. 

■ 6. ' diciiA Prohlefnt.' ISmi. L/ind.. ISi7. 

I 7. 'Tbo Garaea of the Match at Clicu plajed 1>y the 

H Lond^Mi and the Edinburgh CbciiH Clubs vilh Dtimcroun 

■ varialiona and rcmarkl-' 8vo. Lond., \f>-ia, 

m 8, * Rcmofk.-* on (lt» Report of the CotnniittM of lite 

■ E«liuUt|{h Clw^s Uab.' &w. L^nd., I3S0. 

H 9. * A Svhea of ProgrvMiva Lo^vn* on tlw game of 

■ CboM.' 8va. London, i»\. i„ I83t, v«l. ij.. |832. 

■ U. ' A SuloiHtoo of Ganwfl at Cltea*. plB>«d >l the Wcbt- 

■ Kuaikt Cbci* Clubi bctitcan Hotisieur L. C dio la Uuur- 



•loniiait and an Enalisli antaltiur of fint-raU akiUt 
iviaai4«.' h\-Q. Loution. Ib.^j. 

1 1. ' Clicss lor beKi""«r».' London. IKJ. 

Mr. Ijtira Um tikcvt.-w pgblulu.'d a wry valDaVIc Ira&f 
Ulion of Cainvre. 

' Tlw <iaiu«s of llto Mxtch at Clieas, Stc, aa icpM-ltd lu 
Ibc CoiamittcD of [lie Kdiuliurgb Ctx** Club,' Kdinbtnwt 
aiul ly>iirlan, \Si9. 8*0. 

WBlker<OeoT),f}, ). < VarintioEia on IbeMuzta Ganbii.' 
Loixion, lfi3i- lima, 

2. ' A Ncff TrcotiK on UfaaM.' London, 163S ; aaemd 
edition, 1^:13, nnnli Bro. 

3. ' A Ni-vr Tranttbtiun of PbAidur'ft Anidj lia.' LoDdna, 
U3'i, loyal Idmo. 

4. * A Stlcclion of Qamea al CIimi, kctnallr ^ayed by 
Philidor und liitt coiitcmjiorarict. now l^nl pmrliahail fran 
llie original HSS., with note*.' fcc. Lundun, lUiS, aaull 
iEto. 

i. ' Chat* made Euiy.' LobdoD, 1836. 

Walk«T iW. Oi9vn<v«aJ,> 'A telvclion ol Ratnaa al 
Cl>««i ftrttihllv plawl in l.,oiu!tin, t>V the Ulc AWxando 
Mc ItnnUGll. fc*t).,''Gt«. Lamlon, tiniti. IKmo- 

C'llUSTEK. an antiant ond ^elutirai«d city of KngUitd, 
on lbs It<rer Dee, near to whcie it InllB into an ■atuary 
oftU^ Ini^li (.'banncl. 

InnnilnnfriUhr imprriiinnnfthnnnnnnii pnamatiiin nftkii 
laland more obaenabte thnn in the niiuari of «o many ean* 
■iUerablc pUcn. iiitu whii-li thia wn^d C'Am/m>, whieli'iitbe 
I.atin I'littrum at Cattra, nntcM ; MaitcbMlex, RibebMlar, 
GranicliNlcr. ECc. Sotnetitnst it uppean n the form at 
Cattsr, as Donpattar, Tadcastcr. It is vixaKitBtt* ntneb 
eooiRiRteil. aa in MancL-ler, Kxator, Wroxeter. Il occora 
\wra wiiliuut any preltx, but uiitivniU' ibU city vat aftaa 
called "West ChesMr. Ttiere another UhasMra and Ciatofs. 

Ii miffht bo infanvd IVom llw name aloaalhat theaewctc 
on^unlly tnilitary siations. RutCbeatar does lut d«|i4md 
un eiyiDulo^y alone (brpm>f of ila Roman ertjiin, ocol na 
havintf b«cn tlio Gtatkin cf a part e< the Honan anaf. Tbe 
rllMribiiiiiin ai iho HimdU. the two main tboTouftklaraa vul- 
tiii){ one another al i i^jbt au^ili^^ >>i the cemra of tha city, m 
Roman. Tbera is roason to oonoludc tliai ilm Eariiflcatnis 
of tli9 niy are on a Roman batia. ^mo rttnaint Ji Rowan 
iiintcinry buve bouii dikpovcruil ; nml Cbuler bai produced 
iiiimnieTalib coin*, flbulni. inicfibed tiks. iiiticritied 
and nil JK. the mital rattisca of the Kuniani. Thai 
iTn|iottirit diKUVeiy or tbis Hind was taatia iii liiU, 
\ii\\w itliai U> .tupittT Taiiaruii ■kuh ilug; up, n IiIgIi hail 1 
raitieil by an officer oftbe (aenlioih Lc(;ion called tbeVx4^ 
rious. Olh^r traceE of Ihii pariiriilaf I^igion bare beea 
fiiiind at L^lxislpr. rnnfirmini: what wn flml in Antomna^ 
Iliiierary, that nl Otta (wbab i> evidt-iilly Dk.- Mvv. nnuiiiiy 
thu station on the Doe, ac l>uiiiuister is in tbt oiue ltiu«- 
ran' iiieiiiion<>il aa Danunt. tlw Don, tiiv rixir on nbicb il 
I* *ituil*dj tlitt ta-entioth Legion bad its atalioiL llw 
Welsh name of Cbcsirr has rolicivnc« to ibc unoe Oict. \xiv$. 
wlieii rrndeml intu Kii^li»h, llie City of tha Le^siuu ou die 
Hattirsuf the ]>m. 

Cliestcr had. in ike middle aj^. several hisloriraj mitar* 
of its own. as Roger oalted Du C^tiia, Ralph lIiKden. anil 
Heniy BnidRha<r, Wc paasuverlhairtiadilionary •loricsof 
titi- nniii|Ulty and ortKin of ihelr my •■ undowmnc rouanl, 
and WDiiidcr what Itas Bovi Itcen rtilati^tlasiltaauinoient and 
ihe true aMoiinl of llw oriirin of ihU oily. Wa iiii;;bt. if out 
limitii would allow, ^mnitio the inqoiry Ibrlfarr. mul aik wky 
ike Romans (Ixi-d upon thi* puliit aa iba |>cnnanenl Malhn 
of one of ibeir tui,'ii'ns, and at what poriDd of iheii pmscunui 
of Bii^ain this wnsdmic. Tlio Meisn. Lyaona ronctitc that 
thu iiri^'lnnl raairuin was runstniutcd by Oshiniis Scapula 
»(«n oner ihedGfcnt of L'areclaous. 

Olivier waH vviduitll.v iho inoit conHilorahlo place In a 
latut: Irarl uf country tit tlie Knnian liuici', ami Mroiiliriurd 
whni Ibc KuniBii» hod Hithdrawti tbuir furoaa. Tb« pi*- 
kCKAion uf il was an dbivcl uf iin|iarianca la tbo Sa\i»u aail 
(u the ii'inain^ uf llio Bnluos. The tvo nntiuiu itMn to haiW 
puMCiH'd il bv turns, ami tlvia* ccrintnlr one »f tbelaal, if 
n-jt tb« Uit. of Hm) plooDii whKli VicMcd tu Ibo Saxon |ioirer. 
lu ihe Salon Clironkl* ve are told that ElhalfHd. ktnK of 
Nnribumbti*, luok it IVom lb« Brilona In a.u.CO}. Alttr 
that dnio it was in Ibv hands of tiiv UtitoDtt.wba lt«h( roun- 
rih in il forpolitml purpoMft, Finally, in a.d. 84*. it Ml 
Under Ihe power of K<li«rt. 

Frvin that |>PTK»i l<iiho C'on<iu««l. 1M4, Chnter ii often 
ucDtiMMd iu Uw KOiiAli of Ibo tfa»» lOMNigBlr, and lU 



muoeu 
til baa 



CHE 



55 



nnt 



MinaliiU Var* (1«lie1ilr>4 in recant Ihtl Kinn; Fdwin vu 
v*¥! Jay towt:<l ijy MS ktni;& (no daulyt mitill Wolsh ]>t)i>(.'««) 
on lti« w«I«r« i>rtliu Dre. Itt oituMltutl n-t a fT»nli*r ^»r(^l^Il■< 
a^inm*) WaXm necVManly )!a»« it iiotKtrlftnM ; hui il linH 
utu} ft caltM(|it«nMi M a |>U(« uTBi^UTilr for the itlhnbitunbi 
rnha eM3t wh«D (tivv wen moDoced viU) invuJon rrnn the 
OauN And N»iihiii«n'. 

The cireumMBnr« irhirh we httv* just nonlioned nus 
\h» paUBc of otie of lli« iDMt importanl cv»nt8 in tin; 
liuiiiry of Cbi!U«r. On one oecft*io», whon n d^uPMit 
frara llic t>inc» w«8 afiprehuiided. lh» l>oity uf Siiinl Wer- 
btifgh. n Saxon taint, dnuchtrr nf Wulph^ra knin of M.rr- 
ria. whirli h»4 bo*[i pTct«r\-ed b« & «nnail rclio, wa* rc- 
tnuvcd fnr serurity lo Cli«stor. Thi* wu in *.d. B7S. 
5'ti»'w rotlii* roinalnnil at Cbifnt*r. No (Iwbt iorao kirnl of 
lliin cmnmuiiity txiitMl al OlioDUr hafctn thi* tirrum- 
VMUrrod : but from Ihii time Saint Werburi^li l^ccame 
ttitcUr faint ofChMier; a relit^'iaui coTsiuuiutj »>» 
ittTidml. oinon^ w)i«m ths wMlKild in ospcrial h-^nour, 
it ill whoM cliuwh her iwliM *efo »uro|itU(iii*lv Mi^hrint^dl, 
I'- liuiiMti fofiiinupd lo (loumb tiirauah apel-toi) of «ix ccxi' 
Tii-e Dii'l n hair, ono of the treallbiwt uf ibe nionaslic 
lablulirnentt of Knitland. itM nnnunl rflvrnitrs •.■ncco'Iiiii; 
000/., »l)en at the Reform a li on it was iliitMiivcd Ailh ibo 
ber fouiidslions of iU chui. 

CbeCiM- bft'l sl»o in iho Saxon times a ])«culiflr locul go- 
it. mill [loculiar mtiniHp&l eusioma, ct which theiv U 
and par titular aivutinl in * UoiDftclay Book.' Th« 
ofllio rated )iou!t»a wb*4:ii. Itbad itt tradn tij 
A *nt\ iU lioine trad9 : nnd there Is rea^an lo bcll^^vc Ibat 
itiun* of ilio munil)pn> of pnriieiiliir tnulos, wbicli 
lUiiahrd loiifier nlOiirit^rthan in intut otlicr [)l»r»fi, 
" ■ ....... 1,, Suxoti liiDi.-*, and ihal «vwi lome of ttie 

i> arM tlio^porla with which lli« inhnbiliinti 

..- -it'tn Frum tirncimraomnrlalciitutlDinod, muy 

tinuotjaiix of Suxan itugivi. C'heilL--r had aho in 
lini«t a large tAirfi mliachcd to II, whirh in form hu 
n ugiil) roiiipsrvil fj an engl^'t wine. ^^ ''P ^^ ■' t*>ii<?b- 
i nil Vutkxbiiir. ThlKWiu calkd Clii*«lr'r-«1>ire (CuttriH 
1 re K conlnt'led mio Chetbira. The hii-hopof l.^'hlietd was 
M) in romak> ttmos doI iinOequentI)' called bishop of 
It cater. 

At tba Conqticsl thi* iliifcwa* jzit'cn by one tvcanrnir grani 

mil tbt* exception only of what belonuei! tn the iiiiJii>i)) to 

laaU iir.Aira[i''ke,(!oinmotily calli^) Mu^b Liiiiiis. or liiiub 

"oif, who had for hix favnuiilo di'vift' 111? W«ir>i Hitail. 

iifth wai a near ti.>^.uii«M ufibo Cuniiiioror, and |)K<.t!»«d 

■.« |>ijritiiii of the cDix^netisI counlty u'ilb iha S^xon title 

Kajt. bui uiih »oui« |invile;jp« which did not alwajd nc- 

:iM[idiii Kueh cot 1 (■<»■'.< I ri*. Chekhire It^mine what it 

■-nlj Pulatiiie. buvingcouru peculiar loilwir and 

I -. !. uf^ila un'n leoords. Iliigh rvtid^i) In tbu cnelle 

tCtietliT. atn! ibrrc Iw hrld bis omrlii ami j>ar1iainvnt*. in 
lii'.li lat ilii- 'tiperiortiorilie nali^ioDwhoUMtaof the L-ininty, 
If • cigluKteai iiihinreu^Jioncs. amon:iwlwm 

:■' (jrwiier portion of liwterrilorj. Ttieiuc- 
1(1 1 01 liiit faiuily. of whom lhcr« iira- »ix, ntaiii* 
MtBo lUIe- Tlui aeries temiiiiated in tbc leiun 
111.. BDi] from tbat UtDQ thu Earldom of Citealer 
Iwra ID ihn rniwnor in the linmU of mwiibcrs of the 
bjBl bnuc. Muniof tltelanje lenuacA cn;jt«d bj iK' Coii* 
Percrled wocer or later lu the crown by fbifclturo or 
rngn. 
Tlie jwrwxl from iho Comiueit lo Iho rerirmiilion of 
^lijioti. foruu ftiwiher great ara in iho bi:Mory of English 
III iliai poiiod Ciestcr was often viaiu-d by the 
g, and was uccaaii^iialty the sconu uf intcruftliiijj; pub- 
dreolL. It boa bad u seriea of cliarien. by wliii'b 
a^bk pririlegca vim granted or conflnacd. uom the 
^ntuiiff to tbc cloM or tbai period, vie., fixni Iliij^b 
ami Mino MhDT uf thu stKvrmliii;; eoils of Cbuati^r, 
ivn ihey were extinct, TrMin ibu Kiii',;s Bilnaid 
a and Third. Ritbgiid ibc SccoivJ, and Ilvnr^' 
ntb. A* early u l'^43 iboru i» found a iiettou 
til tbe title of ina^ior, tvbo presided ovet a niuM mm- 
till oc laercatufiul, Cbcslcr nna in tbOM timca a plaec 
cmurkmblc trade. Bctidu llic great inon^ater) of Saint 
crl iir^h. t'lcfo waa a teljjjiou* iwmnninity of u-omcn 
:i iU walls: ibe black, tlic wuito, and tbg 
■ !: Ill Mtablubmcnt m Cbo^l.-r : a «u11ece 
ritkMiciJ, and hi.-^pitiiU of Saint AniM 
BaplULofHlii'li I'lc latlir ewapcd 
luo. al ILc lUIormilifrU. and evniinuei lo thii day ; 






he* idci niJiiMroas parish ehurcbes. alt of which were ftatidsd 
before (he cl-jsc of the poriod of which wo are speakini;. 

Ube»(<rT had, diirmg lhi» poiiud, ainone its iiihutntants. 
Minewboae names are eunncclcti with iLia eurU liicriiuire 
of Rngland ; wo haw already mctitumod lliice suih pcrsm*. 
and tt may be added, ibiit UikvIi-h, thr moii coU-braud of 
Ihe three, whose «n was (be reign of Edward III., 'a -mp- 
posed W be the author of * not of mi'tterieit. or reli^iioUH 
dranw*, which «■««» exhibited by the aovcral trac!f» in 
Cbe»ter from limo to tini«, and of wbich copies bJl^el!c- 
»c«iid«d to the prtMiil day. 

Tow.itds ths elo«c of the reigii of Kine Henry VIll.. two 
(-feat rhangei taolt place nl Chciter, First, in Ihe rti'lh of 
(hat rci;^ii, wrils wore fint iuued to it to wnd members to 
parliament; ntid sceond, it became tbe «eat of one cf the 
newly appointed bixbop*. Tho hoiine of Saint Wi-rbgrsb 
being diiiiated. tta church became the cathedral of ibo new 
8e«. A dean and mx probe nil an i?* «iTe placed in il, Tbomaa 
niirt, the Iniil abbot of Saint Werburgh, in Cbestcr, betiig 
madetbcflntdetin. The r«t«nucor (bediisolvcd nioiiaitery 
riiriiisbed a provision for the prebendaries, dif-.m, end biakop. 
Tlio dioretn n»isn<<d la hito wa« Iho wliylo county tif 
ChiTkH-r. which bad prg^ion*]^ Ijeen under tbu »iipcrin- 
tendcncc of tho bi&liup of I.irhRcId, nnd (he county of 
LancBiler, with the arehdeaconry of Richmond, pan of ibo 
onii(<til diocpBO of York. Al the nme period, I S44. a gram- 
inar tphool wo* foiindod, mid Chett«r wai appointed, aUiul 
the iunie time, one of (he sunetunry places. 

From iho period of the Rt'formation lo ilio ptesent tiino llicrc 
am nutery strikini>(>vrril« in Ibp history of (.'hotter, noUiiiijj 
wbieb in nny (■mitieiil degr«e alToctiid tbe condition or clia- 
racter of the place. Il occaniDiially recoired royal voLilant*, 
and in Iho civil xnia it bail lo endure a protruntod siejltt. 
King Charlea 1. wa« for a umr. in the city, and fVotn one' of 
the towera. on ihe walls, is said U have personally witncu*«l 
Iha def«nt of his army on Rowton Heath. Tho threa earliuJii 
chartoTS in thapoiniaMionof Ibecorparatiunui!re|;r3mo<l by 
Ranulph or Handle. carl of Chesler. early in the ihiit«et>ifa 
century. Cbarten were (T^B^ted or renowed by scvotal 
ni'kRarcbs. and its corporation and parliamentary sniiala ex- 
hibit Iho iiauol Binotint of party strugi^le* and disputed 
rights: KO that ibe Relbriu Acl.and the Municipal Corpom- 
tion Reform Act, may beregariletl as what more tliun any 
tiling elw ill its mora rerent history will inltm<nco the 
future cbnracler and cimdition of tbe place. Previously lo 
iho pa«!>iii)ctr the Reform Act, the elcdioD of laumbcrA of 
piirltatnent was in ibe freenien, w bo were usually about MOO. 
The i-ily WHS diviilcd into tirchc wards and nine ptLti^hes. 

The mmliirn history of the trade of Chester it r.iibor the 
hiib>ry of iig decay, to which the ^ratperlty of tho port of 
Liverpool has in some decree ronlribnled; but this dei'Iinv 
is partly owin^ 10 the bad navigation of the Dee. A fuw 
gloTcs are aiuiufarturcd here, and Cbnler has long bad 
a icpulati'in (br tbc taaking of tobacco- pi jiei. Icm fain. i>I 
which there were two of very early date, and one by a 
cbiirler of Kint{CIiar1ea Il„ were ton™ amongst the nioU 
cclcbf aled of that spcciea of mart, aa iim)i at the inland ron - 
Minijiiion waichiclly supplied in that way. Km); Wiilum 
oiUbli.ihrd a niiniai Clieftler, wliicli had tiowevi-r no Iniii; 
continuance. A canal, which waa cut in KJ^.bad noeiu-cves 
tilt after mnnyvt-an tbc onmpany uiiit«d lticm^Klvc« to the pro- 
prietors of tta- Glleamcrucaxia]. When the Act of Toleration 
gavo liberty to tho nt>n'e<.<nfainiing Frolealanta to meet 
publicly for worship, tbvy erocted a spacioiu mectini^-hDUM 
m Chester, one of tho earliast miiii^lcrs m wliicti was 
Matthew Hunry. wti^to wii ting* were lonK in great cnlrrco 
in ibo non-courortutil body. Tbc modem Indcpviideiits. tbe 
Uaptiita, and tbe Quakers, have eocb meeting-places in 
CbuMcri Iberu are aUo a Roman Catholic mid flvi: Mctbo- 
diat ctiBpcts. 11mi Krammv-achool of CheMer, calltil Ibti 
King*a Bchool, which i* attached to the cadKidral, i» iinilei 
tho direction »f tbc dean and chapter; lber« i» alio the 
marquis of Wrttmioilcr* school, for -(00 or 150 bi>j« ami 
girU, "ho arc educated at the expense of IIm mar<iuis; 
a diocesni) trcltool, and tlire« infiiiit schooU. C!ir«l''r bil 
bad many public bcnofaelors, so that it* chorllies are nu- 
merous. In 1*00 a blue-coot aehool was founJod, and in 
17&0 another for girls. Tbe General loOrtnarywiu upoutd 
in )76l. In KC3 an act of parliament was passed for Iha 
rceulatiun of a house of industry ; tltcre is aUo a wliool of 
inituttry; and luoday-MhooIs wen: eslabhtbod wImd Drst 
tba idea waa tuge^'tod. 
Clietter baa alwnys been tho lesideDce dC tcwi.v'^ ^&:m<C<ft% 



J 



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56 



f/R 



«ri((ni Iry.' ft W im llicntre. iU aitemljly. Blid iU raceB. 
ScveMl (wfi^a* ol' limrnry t'lniniiufei Imvi- tdxukd lii-re ui 
Kwenl Imuis. a^ Dr. llayki^r;ti utid Mi. Fulcunvt- lu tlia 
M»if»>uvi>lli CKUiiiry Clii-»K'r uv& ihti te&id«n{.« of n r«> 
muiknUu futuily iiaiual Hglme. A inM* fur iicciimuialin); 
local aiul Ui&torH-al iiiroiio.iiioii upv<'aiii>l in Ibut xiii-ct'uive 
1^110 riitiiHiH of'tlikK family. I lu! iiidi<i(lij;ils ill benrinif Itio 
tiuiieuf RuiiiluJ. Tiie last lUndiil Huliiir bmiiK pwr tulil 
Iba (vtMilo collectioa lo thu uari uf Oi^Cit'il, wl«i «as ilii:u. 
foritiiiiji; hh ^tnat liliraiy. Thew nianuacripU cmuc uilh 
Uiu ruAl of lliu Harleian colk'«tioii lu the BtiLmli Munuiini. 
wheru Lliey (urm 361 vnluinc*. uuinlKred in llm caiuk'tcui; 
||li!<l— '^lt(7: (licy aliduiul li) luiiiulo inforinotitjii, chpDclaUjr 
rMpL-uiiiit: CliwUT and ilie whole o>miiy. 

T)r- t>iipu1atLoii uf Clicitcr, lii t7J>l, w»a H.ria persona; 
in iUi- la^l n^'iKiii. 1631. it ^03 21..14-I. Ttio number of 
iiouii-i itiliutiiicil was 1D9A; uninhabited, 3d8; biiiUling, 
43. The inimhcr of fitmilw*. iHii; of wliich .13.1 wire 
cliicUy i-inpluyvil in ui;ii<:ullure; '2605 in irivJo, mtukvifAC' 
tuti;^. und hkiiiJiciurt ; and 16(i6 not comprisixl in either uf 
tbwo daasra ; the number of marriii^u iii 1 h30 w» 3<.'(i. 

Cli«iaU:r id one of thu vat) I'liw pluuM in Kn^Und wliicU 
llBVu tnaiiiliiiiuii in a lokrublc 6l«lo of cotnplcluuuM lliu 
wu1U wbicU tverc crcclvil fgr tlulr >liift:noo in luiauta ukl-s; 
at nu pU(« aru the) »«' entire a» ul Cbfiskr. But nuw, 
iu»l<:;id nf cuiUributiitK \o ibo <Iuf«nc« tf lUc iiiUabiUnU. 
ihey aflart) only on at^rcvnbb pnttncoaJui witli pkuituut 
vicVK, >i VBriou* puiiila, i>C tlie bunoniidiiii; country ; tliuy 
mm iiumly two niilva iii circuil. Tbc walU ftnd llic roiv> arc 
twi> aitial alrtkiiii; objui-U in ClM^tcr lo n ittTiintit^r. The 
nvt SCO a ijiccK'ii yf widu r.ulpjiili, raiitcd abtrvo llio IcvitI 
wf liw nlicvt, til Iho lui){)>t of ihc fiiel ttory of a hoiuir, mid 
e^ot«d ovit he«<J by tliu third xloty of the bi>u>c', k ii n> 
if the r«K>nt m a ici'ie^ of Luu«u« wu tiicowo open, or tutlior 
ttkcu away, i^hioli w»iild olhctwiio bo what it unuil!) 
Ciilk-il the front room of U» (imt tli>or. Tho two KWial in- 
t«n)cct)i'|{ kitveU AM, Lit the moil paTt.<^ii«iruciNl on ibia 
pltii: I'eprunt tuppows tiiiit tlii* inoda fif run kiruci torn 
nt»y .lit^'o tvitluil fion> liio Rumim linii.-*. Thu rorpucalo 
pffic<rr« f>f Chcbtcr, prmiuitaly lo ili« tato Act. wero n mayoi-, 
r^curdbr, two HhentTi, twcnty-foui- aldurmrii, uiitl forty 
eominon-^oiini'ilmcri. 

_,,tKii)g« i'-tU lltiyuii Lytani-'t Magna JCriliuiHiu: Oit 
fPiitter CuiiU : iJie StroNf^ir in CArilpr. i!fc.; Mii'uripal 

. CHK.STKKLKSTHEET. [Doriiam.] . 

..CHF-STEKFIELD. a jwiBh. mimiripil borough, and 
tnarkot i^v.n m ibe hundred uf SraiKdulc. l>L?rliiKbin.-. l.<-J 
atU^ N. by W. fruin J^niion, Tlii; piiriali o( CWtmlk-ld. 
wlticli L'tfiitaiiu <everul cbapvlric!i. haiulels. und lawnsUips, 
h<«&n nreaof 13,160 ocrc4, wiLli. in HM. a popublioii of 
IQ^Wi. whicUis an incrvnM) of tail's »nlh(: uunkuaof 1831, 
Thi« i> atuibuted. pniici pally. ti> an ineicase of ti:illi(>rifK 
ani ipm workit. Ttia p>piiUtt(in oftlic boruu^h nf ChoKldi- 
(UM lU 1801. wa» 4207 1 in- 1811, ■I47fi; in 1621. iVTT , in 
183t. &77i. Two rivuleU, tliu Uypci: and tUrthcr, ruo pail 
Um t»wn. 

..divilorlii-ld i» ftinjixlun-il. (toin its iinme. to Udyo be«a 
tTlunuri Hlaiion. .It ih« Nonuan uinty it wm an intitt- 
niAcanI |ilau«. Tlie town rrecircd tBriout privilcima from 
Kinif John, but niu nut ini70rpoia[«<l lill the n/iKn of Khzu* 
belli., UixU-r l]u.-Muniui|iulCL>r|itjratii>n>* Act, it ii Koveriicd 
by f':>ur aldi.'t'iiit.'H and twelve ciiancill»rH. biil i* iiijt ditiileil 
into ward*. Tho liuiiu of the buixtiiKh arc o}-rxteiisivc with 
■ lie t'JAn^liip- which in abjgl fjur mile* in circuiuforcnce. 
Tho town it lighted uiwlur an ant pasm»l in IS'23. In anil 
n«ar lliu luwn iherv'urv ailk, Ihcu. and pip« umnufautories, 
poKniMi and non fvuadcriu». 

Cholvtllctd Church, vfvclcti duriiis the Ihii-tccotb century, 
M a bcaulifut «nd Bp«ii.-iuu!> irJifKu. Tho vvirc >■ Kinni'knbiQ 
fn(iiibciPgcrD4k<n).Tbi«G(\iukcdi)e!S- which «ai supposed lo 
be tiiercly 9pp<ui.*nt, liiubcr'ii iuc<:rt>iiii;i1 tul>« ri-ul, liy actual 
iii«jwurtnKnt. The bnUinu uut ofa pvrti^ii of ihv niiddle of 
ihv HjKrc c«ukc» ih« l>a|i on llio kiitnmit t3 dciiate from Ihu 
perpendicular >i\ feet towards the vouth, and four f<c«l four 
liMlK-n lowanJB lh« wot Tbo »pire i* Q30 fu«t hi^h. It» 
Cii'i ' '. I - iiiiy 1)4 tlictetnit of t^m« arcidcnt (perhaps 
til i^liinins) «hJdi ii not wsionl'jd. 

-wciii lh3s twcnty»ix daily anil Sunday Mboi^la 
II tiiwn of ('h«*t<'rllL-]d. A ^amouir or frciviicltftol, 

^ Ji - 1 in the reign (>1' Eliialxah, and (onuerly well ai- 
UhU'hI, l^s hven cIosmI linca 163'J. It wn« under the 
mnnu^fement of the ccrfioraikin. Tlwre are various public 



and bcnmolttit inilitutions, mid a Lucrwy ami d1u1u»<u<r 
Bocitiv in ibo Uiwn, ■ ■ 

TiiiVci«-»l«i-aeUl Canal, whwii WBiinenMS m the tidoway 
of the Trent, tfiur a citurec of fori y -six nnk?. tt-rtm naui* «l 
Chi-tlerfteld. lbi» f^unl wan i>bnn*id. Ij> Bftndli-y. ]t Lai 
»ixiy-li\i; WK>, and ittarritd lhroui;h iwo tuiinuU, «u« uf 
wluih 1* 2SSU )ank lonp. The North Midltmd Kiriwij, 
b«in'een Derby and I.iiL'd«. »i]l bu lunied |tii>' '■^'--'A. 

iWinHltinad't ArMunt ij tht /iorvwgA uf f.' ■' Jut 

IH35.) 

CHESTERFIKLD. PHILIP DORMER STAN- 
HOl'E. fiJiitili carl of. wan born in London on lUu -2inJiif 
Siipluinber. lii9J. II ewiui educated bynpmale tutur.auilal 
iLooKCof 1.3 wul to Trinity CoUi'KcCaiiibJ'. !■- ' r- h« 
»tu(li:dUicGri-ck iuidRi>iniin wnWifl wilhuin: .en. 

He itlb u> ihal h* nnrioii ly iacajrcd brcimu; „ .: ,,^-_ni, \ 
chatacter fur winch ho had the KnaLvHt <»iilviu|rt tn.afki 
life: ami timt he dnink and iiiiiiikt.'d nt colkgc iiOt«'illi' 
atanilini; liin iivcrniuu lu vrino and Igbtwco. G-.'aaiue fap 
lhuu);ht aiich pruct-t^trn were ^^iif<t«>f, and uiudu Uiio luukliu 
a man. In 1714 he l«fl the Unimrsily to inskc iW utuil 
Krand tuiir t>f Kuiupo. He poucd tl<« aumiacr u| tW 
Hai;ue. nliem liii> fanhiunablo luaocialus not (x>1y UiikIkI 
him out of hii pedantry, hut initiaUd him into d V-ta «f 
pltiy uhinh never ^ll^^^llk liiiu. Many yrare uQw hn tetl* 
bib Mtt m vn« wf hi> ielten that at lh'« Ila^uu he th<iuylil 
liamblinK an uecompliahiDcnt. and aa liu Qiawtl al fjtKtwOn- 
uble pvrfcctiuii he adopted cardi an^ dico as a i>cni«*iitj 
btep lonarda il. Kroin Ihu uamWors of the Hanu* h« wmI 
to the fa<hwnallif ladiw and lillwl coU(l»tf;iii» «f Pjii^ 
who. ai ho was of^iwlonnfl tu lw:ttl, rt»m|)lcloil hi* wHp 
culiou and Ka^u hiiu hii ' Until |K;liib.' He vai at \ uiiim. 
when the ni-ctfwioft of Gvcirpo 1. iii 1715, iitduced bim 1* 
return homo with great (.iwd. in order lo be m lituo fia- a 
court place. ThrouBh ihe iiilerort of hi* famiij connextooik 
Iw was made a (;etiUcuinu »r the bcd-diaiahat to ih« I^-incd 
ofWnl**, srtoi vvarda Gcorgu II. In the llrct pulisvusot ot 
the new reign he was retutnod for St. Gonnauia in Cocowall; 
ami n4 he was dctorniin^d lo attraet iiitmilion, treiv lb* 
moment of hi« cloction ho »lu(Ji«cl noE)iiii«; anil Ihauiclib4 
iKilhinfi, for a wholo m<>nth, but hii maidpn ^iwrcli. Thuili 
he afterwards bMinm« an ncromplnbcd i>raiOr, ina Ira 
ril'jrl waa rather a fadni-o, und boti-ajed a violeooc of niaii- 
nor rtot at all contislont wiili bit tnieotU Mlken i-odib Tlit 
speech u'aa nthnrwii^c nn fortunate, fur it allructcd jUluntico Id 
tho fart that ho wn&Dot ()uitot>f a(|e,und conw()ueiitly iMbtT 
not only t« rxpulsion from Uw Ci>mB»ns' hou*e. bui alioK) 
a line o'f SOD/. An opponent mentioned ihitiM bun pniaoly 
3.\ a fjood niodo uf silencing; his ziral : CheMerHflld tixikj iIn 
hint, nivd wiiiwlrow for wmB moDttn to I'aria, whcra. aa it 
WUM iilwuvK ■UKpo«t(Hl, tici waaenffa^ed in Eornv avovl cmud 
imrifcuo. * Ho rctumtd in 17IG. and rcauming bit MbL 
spuUo in fa\-oiir of ihe S«ptoruiml Act, In the invelaiitt 
quarrad whicb broke unl between Georua 1. laid hia tipir. fat 
adhered ta the Prince of Wales, nor ouuld hia uiielc. Geotxal 
laftorwardt Karl of) Slanbope. who waa then »l tin: betfilil 
ftf favour, villi ploiity of phieei ai hii iliiipiHal. cite iiulute 
him tu change tides. BeiuL; much willi ibt liotr aft 
pa.(ent, bo unikrtook. thff dilliculL tuili of ininiifurHtimi 
a Gi>niian priiicu inio a RriU«h kinf;. and of laakiH^ • 
favliior.iible and n \i\fM. rcllned man (at ho undcratood tA 
of llie rouKh and homely Gcor^'P. ■ 

His firkt diviaion in pariijtnwil aitaiual tlia tniri&lrv waa 
on a moliun fer tho rvpcul iil' ttie Schism Bill*. <' ' i 
decidedly took the itliliernl udc of the quolioii, ' m. 
as bo Itipd lo r.inf4-»s Uilh i>hume, ' Ibit it nas iiii|>u^iuMr 
fur tlie hi>ne«l'.-Bt iiinn m the world to he sartd om of Iha 
psleof tho (hurt h . ni>t rdnsitL-rin? ihal raailen or favlirf 
do not dcprnd upon ihi; wilt: ihut it »> a» naiural and u 
allowjbtv that aiuitlier mini iihoiili) diffL-r in opinion ftona 
inc, OS ihnt t shonld ililfirr fmin him ; aad thai If wr am 
both sincere, we are 1jo:U bUiucten, and abwUd cana»- 
<|UCRtly ltl;^e mutual ini!ut;;i:nc« fureicb other.' I 

In 1(36 lie was lemoved by llic death of his falhrr to tU 
Uuiuu of I^rdi, where, acrotdmc tu hii bio|!ia|ibiT, Ur. 
Maly, his manner uf t]>«iliin^ W.ib mi^ch more adutrisl 
than it h.-id been m the Common*. He wb> run ttitutiun till y 
<i-ciik, and devoid of KirtiitK |iu»ii:iii?, nnd as n etp^uker buL 
little fat'lllly uf tAirhillK 'hr liiL : -■■i--_-- ' r-li^r*, but 

be K«a iN'ilhant, Witty, and pcr^- :iia»tvr of 

irony, und na» ullowcd Uv nil L. . - '> >■<■ a 

ve»y uSective debater. On' the ikv. 1I,i 
whom, a* piin<*, he had steadily sor>' 



J 



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57 



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nw«l*rtH*1 »xp©o)e*J n rWi lianrBt of Uwio"f» anl plncvii; 

• ■ '_' inrtttkcn the rclaiifi! atiK>«ii)t of tho int1ib«ni-« 

u lili niMtcrs iiiin<l hy the lurcn nml llio mis- 

! 1 --, Ir i>ai<l hi* court to Mr», Uun'ottl (afli'r-.i.inK Ladi 

Sulf-'lkl, awl n«]tl«rtc<l Quvvii L'utv>liiic. wb'> i-vi-niudU) 

jxnvtnft tit ItA tttoro powcKul iban tb«> nt»tiv<^s eh4<'ko<t liiii 

BlitirVnx bopM. n«vu not alone la ihU rrror :— txinl 

H^|in|;bf»tio, Lord Batliur^t, Swifl, I'opr, nn'l n]:tny n:1irr4 

ar t«sA f.iRi«, fihsrcd in it. and in the conio<iucTit ilicnp]iDini- 

IDviil. Pope'* till* at Twipkenhotn was llw pliPi.' vf renilei- 

Votu, wh«re th« raial raittrf>M uied to rveei^'v thn inrrn&i* nf 

Chffbt«Tfi«l<l and Iho r«»t who had hi>p<^t to ri«« thmu^li hot 

fntwtir. In ITSS, lh« year Kfter the ace««ion. Lonl (Jlt«s- 

tnflelilBCi^pted the emfaaBBytO Hollnad. whpnn lir> jininetl 

Iha fri«B<l>hip of Simon Van Slincpland, n diiilinti>i>«Iieit 

•tateataan and lh«n Grand P«iw»r[ii>'. anfl attidiiously 

•oUitBted his lalcni ri>r diplomac)'. To S!)a»c>lBnd hcnOir- 

wanl* nrknowlrdgfd thf- f!rv^(ost aMteatirm, rallini; him htn 

*frl«iMl, tnaitl«r. aiul )[uhIc.' nnil aildinft. ' 'or I ^^'aa iben 

^iail« iww in builueu. and he iiislniL-red mo, he lovpl m?, 

IniMed mt.' Cli«M*rllal(l hnil Ihit m«nl nf nvi.TiiiiL> a 

ar ftom Hanoter. tor uhich »er\'irp Guornf II. inadu liini 

tuti fliewaril uf the Iloii««hoM and Knight ofthe Garrer. 

noerthr pimofill hvalib li« ulitnitivd liin rooall froni Hi>I- 

In I7SX. nnd relurnlntl la ruuri, vhett hit nllice of 

■nl eare him ronitniit 'avcmi. he airain imlulnu-d the 

•f rixiti^. A ruritmi anrodnu <• lold hy Mnracn Wnl- 

(0 iKi^'iunl for ibu rvnt^wed iliKpIeiutin! atiil niiinioiiity 

the qiiiicri, ar-d for ChcftPiflt-ld'k sudden wircsiiKn from 

lift puriji. (WalpoWa ttmttinitrettcts.'i No soorjpr hnd 

fibulp ahawn i\\% dMided oppiMitimi to Sir Robert 

le, than he was depriicil of lh« Higb-StowunTsUip, 

badly rcMiYOf] atroutt. ihni Lc simnccound vUiIini; 

ltr>KCthrr. At the riij of Rir Robert's minialry tii 

\'i''t Chcslcfllcld ii«iil into upposiiiou uj^ainst ibe tOHm- 

of tlir [ii'iv rtbinvt, witli whom, when otit of place, be 

)' ' lined \a vole in tlie itiinotiiy On llio •:aa- 

niiov n hy tbe namo of tliu ■ bro3d-ijuiloini:<l 

\j,' Ia luuk oflico ami wa« adtnitted into tbv cabitici, 

Vnn^lj Againul tho ini^linotion of tbu kins, who comiikred 

litia a* a pannnal vneray. Clieitcrflcld, while in uppusicivii, 

lud atill fuftlier (rffctidca the king by repeatedly denouncing 

ftba aniua ortb« el«clorate of Uanoier vrith the kin^otn of 

^tM^mni, and hj ptopaiinjc that thvy »hotild be separated 

ftoa wdi otlwf, and allotted to different braneb^t of tbu 

ttrifnioR funily. Al the boiiiTiningof I'-IS, the your oflbo 

'Pr?l*«4cT'M la«l war iu Scotland, and a tino of intrigue and 

ditKculltrt, Iwwai a|;ain ditpatcliod ma unbusMlor to Hul- 

lu ih« cotin« «r the >am« year ho waa natnod while 

iluid. Lord LieulennnC of Ireland, and immediately 

l« his |>n»li «biTu lie distint.'tiisbu'l biiiitcir, in a 

of very Kreal tiiibtili'nce, by bia tolerant i-pitil, and 

liktinit P^'polar manner*. His short gnventment in 

wua jierhapH the lU'nt vAbioble part of hi* public 

Qeorce II., -nlmie pr>'jurlicc» were rem<n*iKl or weak- 

rre«Jl<'d bins from Dublin in Apn), 17411, and np- 

\tA him I'rineipal Scrretirr of Stale. In eon^eqnetif^e 

^ •ktinietetl iu aoino tnouoroa wlii«h ho ronkiderLvl 

ill, and or hit now really dediuing health, ho ro- 

hi* oIRm in Jaraary, 1*48. mneh, it U taid. to 11k- 

pi^fft!\ of the UiBR, Ho WM k#pt from tho Hou«c an^rtls 

kr hi* pddineu and deafn»». but in 1751 be delivetvd an 

Uganl ipaeeli in favour of adoptintt tho New Slyt«. His 

illiiiiKyNri, ihoii|;h now and than britchlBRcd by tInKheK 

I «r wit and nerrimeiit. wi-rc rlouded by Hiekncaa and deipon- 

irarj. He died on Ibe 34lh of March, 1773. in the 79tb 

far at hia op!. Hi« nalurnl aon. to whom hia well-known 

Mtlarv wvra addr««*«d, died Ave yean twfore hira. 

^bia wifif, Mtluvina Schulemberg, Countess ofWaUlng- 

. rod liiac« to Georg* Iho Kitiit'a raiclrpM. the Durhess 

:«I. iw bad no iaciie. After luueh oppoiilion from 

U., whof>ietend«(t to found tit& objutuon on Ches- 

I'fl timMaant gamblme. thi« German Indy mttrried bis 

ip in 1733. Chmnrlleld alway* had a certain t»lv 

jrmtnia and a parliabty (or tbe lorJetT of literary 

at tliCnvnt liniea of bit life b» aiKic-iBleil with Add)- 

p». Swift. Gay. Arliutbr.ot, Voltaire, Montesquieu, 

Igitrotti. He patroniied Rstnnond. a. poet of tbinl* 

inent. but an nnforiuiiate amiahU; man. and procured 

im « acat m parliamoiu. In his inicrrounu with Samuel 

ifahnaan hr care bimtelf loidty ain, and tbe siurtly d-nior. 

long hiBiaelf alighted, avengrtl himself in lh« nkbrotcd 

S wWii ma prellxcd to Iho Tint edition uf bis l>ie- 



\ra» 



tUrial 



((^Mrr. Hin Lotlem lo hi* Son, whirh apmn;'! tUe i-car 
aftfr bi« death, leoi-e never intend«*l for pubiir^lio'i. Tbcv 
li«i-e be*n rwutb cciisiir.-d for Ibc looao motulity v UiAk they 
ar* *itpix>»ed to incuWte; but atitl it mutt b-: admiltcd 
tbal Ihey abow a greul knowled^ of tbu world, uii'l mu«ti 
praetieal fspoA Kenan, ex preued in »n ea«i', a';revAble, nnil 
cumii-l aijlt". HiiMi»cc'lUnie», cooMttiiij^'of pupeii printed 
in * Fog'n .loumnl,' and ' Cucninuti Seiwe,' of sumc of his 
spe«ehea and other ilulc papers, and a solwlioii froni his 
liners to lii« Friends, in French and Eiiglikb, lucethcr 
with n Kin«mpbicnl Momoir, written by hit friend and 
admirer, Doelor Mnty, wnre published in S vols., 4lo., ift 
1777. A third volume, of doubtrul auihentieilv, «ct ndded 
in 17;>l. Cho«lerfleld aliawrole Nos, lOU an<l loi in the 
' World," in pruino of Johnson's Diplionary. ani! sundry 
i-oliip» uf \Brij lichl veraos wliieh apjM-ared m'Doiliilpi'ji eoU 
leetiofi. (Ur. Maty's Life; Lord Orford'a Httrfti.'rol. I., 
p, 53,3. nnd viil. IV.. p. -m.) 

CHESTNUT. if.HscirnT*; Ca«Ta«*A,] 

(JHKVAL DK FRIZE. n M|Uan.> or ixilagsnil beam n. 
wood, from kit to n;ne fi-el in length, mid piorfed by iwo 
ruih nr wooden ptekeU wx f^W l-iiin' wliieh nru pnniml at 
eiicb end and shod with iron; the pitkeU ate phieeil xix 
inches anutidur. and pans ihroiigh twn ojinosite fai:'ai <il llio 
bmm in direclionj olienmtely at right nn([leK to oiieb nilu'r. 
tbe cheval rstthig on tho ground a.t ibc lower exircuiiin?* of 
the piekeu. A scriea of thofte, diapo«ed in litjei and cod- 
nedcd together by ch»in<. ia planed ui the ditrh. on lh« 
bornic, ol the entmneei. or behind the glatin of a lleUl futt; 
or on the breach roada in the rampart of a fDrtre!*, iu order 
to impede the enemy at tbe ttineof innkinic an nlUirlc. 

Cbevniix dc frize, on oecaunl of their portatiibty and tlifl 
rui'iliiy with >vliirli ihuy can be put togrlbn nr taken 1o 
pieces, were much cateeraed forinirly. ami were cmpbved 
in tbu open field ax a. protection againil charges of eiTafty ; 
but tbcy are now si;lilgm iivrd for this purptne, being easily 
derinaod by the enomy's nrliHery. 

When Badajos was' bchiei;cd in 1812. clicvaux d« fttie, 
fomicd by (Isini: sword blades in beania of wool. wer» 
pl.-inicd by iho ilEfeuder? on tho breaches in th« TrinUod 
biuiion and in ibo a^JuininK curtain, wbore ttiey prond ■ 
fatal ubvtavlc to the troops engaged in the memonblo ai< 
saull on ihul fortress. 

CHEVIOT HILLS, THE. constitote the most on»lern 
|w>rtion of Ibc esccniive mountain -range wliirh bif^im on 
the wed at Loch Ryan and truvcrraet ihe whole broo'llh of 
Soiith Srothml till it termiasic* on the boundary line br- 
tw*en Encland and Scoliaiid. Peel Fell. Ji° 17' N. luL, 
and 2" 35' W, long,, may bo contidertd as the most western 
pari of tbe C'hj>%"inl Hill*. From thin point ibv ndj(i' runt 
N.E. for about 2(1 mile*, and temiinales in Ubwiiit Hill, 
the high««t of it* 6ummil*, wbiob u 2eS6 fed aboie the 
iea. An elevntod mniminin tract, however, conlmiie* nearly 
due N. from this, sepomting Ihe Bre«niish, whieh ritvn on 
tho oasbmi dcrlivities of the Ch«vkit Hill, from tho itoaii- 
monl. whieh eriginnles on it* western lidc : 1bn trnet 
(tfrioinatea at no grmit diotanro fnwn tbe JMnMioo of Ihew 
titd rirart. whi«h t,nn ibe Till. To tbe K. of Clievint Hill, 
but separalwl fWim the ronqe by a valley, is lle^lgohope 
'2333 foet above the sen. I'ho high»tt parts af Ihi* mngo 
are coiered with peal, and the lower secliviliot with alluvial 
eartli. Tbe wbvie inountnln-treei, etpeciilly Inwanls Iha 
S., pr?senli to tbe eye a ^reat nunilier uf i.'reen liill*. dif- 
fering in form, and incloni); BatimTms deep, mmw, and 
sequGBlCTed ralteyi. The rarmalion of the rooks is pnrai- 
ti«v. GonnfltiDg of parpbTnr, especially east of Carter Fell. 
On Carter Fwll, which i« at a ibort distaim from Poel Full, 
Umcsloiie ii MUarriiHl, 

CHEVY CHACP.. tbe name nf an old English ballad. 
founded upon the binary dfa bunting eneountarwhiob look 
plane in |398 at Allerbiim, upon the aonth ofthe C'bi>viol 
billR. hctwc«n the uiatlial families of I'ercy and Dotielas. 
The older vereioD of this ballad was fint printed by Heanie, 
(Vom a niai)U!tcnpl in the Ashmolean Maaenm at Oxford, 
and aftarwarda by Hitbop Percy in the ' Roliqucsof anMcrU 
Bii|ctish Poetry.' It begins 

' Tbr \*tni (Hit it ffarttentvrlaaAt.' 
Arcardin^ to a flommuniesitkin made by tbe late Rev. J. 3. 
Onybeare 10 tbe editors of the 'I{fiii»bBibIiiit>n>pher,'tber» 
is tiDv little doulit l>ut that the anther of thi'* bfllhid was one 
Kirhanl Slieale. who dweh at Tainwurlh. whom Percy and 
Kitsoti tioili aFmed to contirler as the transcriber miy nf the 
AaliDSDlean copy. Tho style of tbia ballad ii ragged and 



N«. 410. 



(THB PENNY CYCI/)P,BD1A,1 



■Si»\..NW.-\ 



CUE 

UBcomh, tind it is taillon in llio very coarsest bii<I ^ron(lc»^ 
ii"i-llT*'rn ilialcT There mptuk the be»l reacon Tor bclkiiiiK 
thnt it:i miDpiiMiioii iitay b^daied about or noon ifVcr 1340, 

The mote niuderu bsllad of Chevy ClwM. ihtl of which 
AddUon liBs criliciiul tliu beuuliet in Uio ' SpcclaUit' (Noa. 
7*t 74), )MpB* 

■ ' Oat w^f" loBC '*' '■V* k^Dt.* 

Bmhop Percy nseribeitbiaTerwon tolhclimcorQiiMn Eli- 
xabvlb. and it was prohabi)' late in Iiit rcifn> ''^Iten it wiu 
vrittvn.or Sir Philip Svilnr) woulJ hurt liad no occasioD 
to ioniBnt lli&t itif Itallud (if dicvy Chnc«. in hi» time, wu 
to ' evfl-appaiellwl in ihe rugged garTi of niitir^uily." 

Bitbop Percy 1im pnnl»d bnlli biilhidsin his ' lloliijucs,' 
odil. 1794, vol. i.; thn <ili1 mw Bt|>. ). tin- Ulti:r hAlla^.i'.sro. 
CHEYWB. GEORGE, wftiboin in Srotland.in thn jrjir 
1(170. }l4^ «iu nt flftt inlcnilcd for thr pltiirch, Imt afitt 
allendine tlic h-rlurcs of Dr. Airhibald Pittaini. lie del«r- 
niiitci] to pnctitc niciliciiii'. Iluvinc lakmi iiia doctor's dv- 

f;r«e. ha came to London nbout ITOO, and tuon nflvr pub- 
i»hed his* Theory of Pcver^,' i)i which lie utti^tiiplii lu vx|i!uin 
till! diiclnnt!(irM!cn;li(iaoii iiioi-hiiiiicali)riiti:ivlcF. IJiv next 
wuik.'Oii Pluxionb,' naa published in |'<l.^a.iid prt:«uTi.-d 
bis ttrlmu^iaii into the Roial Society. At % tHutuicruui- b« 
ealUillhiiBJuvcnilu prixluiMiun, uid ai:kli(n>]cdgcd thnt it 
wnfljubtly cemurvd by Ue Moitrc, ta y^htai ond to Ur. Oli- 

fhitiit b« makes au aiia1(ij;y in the preface tu hi« '£May on 
leullh and Lone Lite,' fi>r bavinij Ireuttd tbeir oriticiuM 
mlb rudcneu. Hin ' Philoiuijibli-al Pmiciplos of Nttural 
Helitiion,' contdjniop the dements of uatutnl pbdosofrhf, 
■ad the cviJenco of n&tural rcIiKiun to b« deduced mm 
UieiDi wo dcilicatvd to liiu Eul uf RvsbuTf,'b, fur wtiuM use 
it sppusrs to have bwn «ritt«n. An adTerlisomGnt of the 
tbiid edition makes men tioR of k second part.'oootaitiLnE the 
PUuro of infinites, together with the pndwopbic pnnirijJw 
of i«v«ftl»d relinon ;' but vrv do not know if this pact was 
th«n firRt added. 

CheyiM's natural disposition to <or|iulcn«f wm tn [a- 
hrciMd by full liviiiit io L^ndun, that tu a fi--w ymrii li« b^ 
«&nie Tut, Hhori-bntctbed, Mbugie, find listleM.' His 
hentlh itrudtiully rkok, and, aAvr tryint; a varicLy ot tit-al- 
mi>»»l vith little htticflt, bo coiiBn«d bimMfU lu imlk, with 
■iucdi, bri-nd. lUCfily root*, and fmit,' The rXpfrilocnl vk- 
CMded, and h* was iK^n rrhi'ved of his nwot diAlroMint; 
■vniptom*. During his illne««, being dwcrtol bv In* 
'Wincing, }itatisting, and undvrtskinii' c^mnaiiiimi, who 
f«uhl not benr to sw him in nuch misery nnd diBtrcMi he 
bt>|t;iii In lijiik to rebfiion r>>r con Mil a I ion, nivl nt but *(^m» 
to this firm and Mtlled rntolution in tliu nwun, \iE , t<> ne;- 
Icl'! nwthiiij!; toi^Aeure my clomnl ppai'tf, n)i>Ti> than if I had 
b««n ei'riift«J I stMuld die wiihin tiu.' day ; nor la mind any 
lliiiiK ihaf niy s^viiUr oldigaliunti sim) liuli^• demanded of 
tae, IcM than if I h>d been annured to hvc fifly vriini mora, 
nda, ihaiigh *ith ititlnili? weaknes* and m)|wrl(«tion, ban 
Iwcn murli my <rt(li<d inleniion in Ihe main tin^.' (TAtf 
JingJuti Mtt/a'itif, -Jiul edit., p. 334.) 

In }7'2'i hu pubhOiwi an ' Eauv ou lh« tnin Nntm* nnd 
due Al^llio'l i}t Ireatiiit^ thi.> G^tut.' lof;i>tbor with tliu virtues 
of ibii Hath wilcr4, ar.d ibe »Bturv> ottd cure of most chronin 
)luua«r^ He had reiided at Kaih during Ihe funmcrt of 
W»><<ral yciin, and attnhutt-il tnnrh of tbo benefit he had 
mvitcd iti dhnklnfr ihe voter*. In 1 734 nppearod hi* well- 
knuui) ' K»ay on Health and loni; Lifo.' in whioh he in- 
eulrate* the nvi-ouity of n iilr»^t Ki^tcuun. piirlirutnrlv in 
diet, liiitb in preienlin^ and ciirinj; diicniiei. It was <Wi. 
nanfd u* Sir JitMph Jt'kyll. MnsiPt of ibe Ruili. who had 
been uudrr iho author's i.>are. In tlu' prcfaoe ho gien an 
Wfount of hit former work*, whieh he oeniurw wlM-refiiu'ty, 
with RTi-.it fmnkiHsii, partirulnrly when lie had Ireai^il 
*tlnir writers wiili levity or drsfrapoet. In 1*33 ho bMu;jhi 
out his ' Enjtliih Mulndy,' ■ tmlno mi tbn np'r^n nnd 
iiipoiir*. as well ua hjnteriu and bypT»dii>ndriar:il dise.-i>;.-i 
:ii li^nvra]. I'ltis work, onee very popniar, conlains a t'cry 
Uii»ul« urwount of tho niithor's own ease. It appears tbat 
on ht* n-i»v«ry bo crudually rutorned to a nore k™^'^*'^ 
fliet. ' HaweTCr, for near twenty yMn> 1 e<uniinao<l sober, 
moilenle, and plain in my diet, and in my ^caiiscl hvnltfa 
drunk not nhoTs a i|\iar(, ot three pints at most, of wine 
any dny (nhicli I itmn abstmlly thon^ht iwcettiry in my 
bulk and ibmngti. though oerlninly by ftr an ovsr-^oee). 
and tliul at dinner only, una hulf with vxy meal, witli water, 
llio otfaer aiier. but none moK that day. never tMling uny 
nipper, and at bnaltfMt nothing but greea tea, vniliout 



any eatable ; but by Ibete ownna every dinner ncccsEarilf 
Kcuinif n surfeit und a debauch ; anJ in Irn or twelve rears 
I swelled Io Buch an oaorinbus tire, tbut njKin my lajS 
weitrbinE 1 em-cfdefl 3i ^iimv. My liculb bi'cuma ao 
»boil, ibtit utHiii Mepping inlD my chutot t^mckl), nnd W^ 
sonto cfTurt, I va* rifudv to fiim away for want vr lircsalll. 
and my face turned bfack.' {T/ie Engtiah Staludf/, 2ai 
edit.. l/>oi).. i;0-l.p. 342.) 

TIo now rciurntid to bi-i low diet> nnd with llie mbw 
aiK-rcs.'i asbofore, thowb it required a lonjier time to p^ 
uilablish bis bealtli. ^lic propotid of n milk dit-l appran 
to have DlTunlL'fi inui^h diviTaion tu eunlemuurary v. .' 
of wbo»e t;>hc» und urcaMu^t raihct ruBlcd oui 
rniiipUceucy ; but if it ncrc trurth while to rufulv tjn :: r.nus 
it would bo eaf.y to show tbut l» was by no nioaiin a Pyiha^ 
gorenn cu.ilut: thus tlio very tiLli: of u chaplcr iu bit 
' Biiifh^h Maindy' is 'Of nervous cu*tt>, nquinnt; a loiud 
or tritumini; regimen of did, vix. of lender yuun^ aslcaal 
food, and a little wino and water one day, ai'd tb« uiba 
only milk, smfAa. and veeelaliln.' Dr. Cbeyna dieid al 
tlatb, in 1*4J, at the age of 72. 

CULVN A. VAL L>I, a valley in Tu*caTi)f, in lUnt>iiM 
of Arezxii, ninningN. and S. ,10 miluv in li-iigtli. ftvii 
Aiczfj toChiusi, und between two cbams of bills, uf wUi^ 
the wcituni divider it from the volley of the OinbroucUM 
the K. I'lom lh<: Thnioymcno lake and the valky of tlw 
Tiber, Tbe Cbiana was once hardly unything ti ' :-. - 
marafa.aiid its uir wus pesliIviitiaU until ihedrai: 
under the Gmnd Duke Lcepold 1., which wdi fii. ^..^ . u.. 
dtr bis i^on K-rdinand. By this operati'^n abo^'O 3fi tquaie 
miteacf jiruund are become now ono of the most fvrlili.- dft- 
trict» uf Tusciiny. (Manetti, Carte tdraulith* tullo atat* 
atilieu e m'/derno dtlla Val di Chiatta ; FoiiMtabrom ; Cor- 
ainv,&c.> The walcraofthcN.Dud larger put oftheCbiDiia 
now nin N. into the A rno. In uutiout Uatv* ibcy nil flowed 
S. into the Tibur. [Arko.] 

CHIAROSCV'RO is 11 branch of painting, Uie objict 
of which is to combine and arraugo the light and dark parfi 
of a picture Ig the hc»t ojI vnntot.'o. Tho lurm is dcivi' 
fnm iwo Itnltan worrda, cAra"', light, arnl 'Mrwr>, 
and includea tlie ttvatnenl of brii;lil aitit dark ccM 
tints, an «4-l| tui stmplo light and tiUufht. It tt hy ei 
iMi- that relief and depth, aDil what '» (ernivd ibc t 
.1 I'ictiid-, itrt' praduoed; by • judicious co^lr3.^t (nT 
egbiiiiii will) <lirk. Of a eombtnation of the lwi>, or bj 
grailual blendii^ ; bv invulviiig one vorl of tiie 
sbadf'W, wlule anotheV ^rt stands foilD in full lig 
making tho light gradually die away into llii? ibi 
Leonardo da Vinci va* the flmt »lio roduoed the 
chinnwcuro to any thing like a »y»tcm. It nn« afl. 
practically traprvfcd by Carrcj>gia and by Titian, 
W'honi it may be aaid Io huvu atluine<l peHc<li->n. Il fj>n 
to Kubens all liis richness and brt1liati<-y, iv I! 
his mngteal luounotihnes«. It niust however . 
main, 1i\im il» nature, diflieult tntoarh oi • 
To acouire excellenoc in the ufe »f chiar«i' . 

ahoold study the properties of Ngbt, and ih,^^ i, 

It u diffused, eollcc-tC'El, retleclod. nnd !e]Mri>h-d u. 

He should refer to tho work* of lit-- 1 >-> " 

nhteree the meana wliidi llwy havt 

naiuro; ami, tAioVo all, he s.boutd < 

note down tlieoffoeu of hglit nnd tbn ' 

objects around bim under varrou* mo 

powerful ofleclB in painlin^ will always b^ il><^ 

natnn : nnd the noit pleading will be thoM whi' : . 

lelftcicd ootof thein8nil«eBri<^irhlcl)*be pn«eiil» Ivr o(U 

choif^?. 

CHIA'VARI, a province nnd town of f 
Slules, in that part of the old Conoeio i 
Rivit'ra di Lc\iinia or Y.. eoa!t Tli- ■ 
is hocnded W. by that of Genoa. 8. I 
N. hy the pmvince of Bolibto, E, aii'l : 
Spcxin.unit N.K.by (heSialoofPanna. It 
in length N.W.Riid S.K„ and abmit 1 i mil' 
biradth. The A|)<enninv«i oetMipy the grr 
their sninmits divtde it from the valley > 
in the prorlnco of Bobbin, and from thnl of Die 1'atB, in 
State of Pnrru, tho waters of whi-h flnw \' tnio il«j Pfc 
TTm only rivers of the pnn-inivi i torrent of 

Rapallo. wliteh runa Inta llio M> ili" Vatw. 

also a raouninin 8ti*nm. which I1:m h nio t 
which eomea down from Porjtrt>iiioli. The strij 
aJung ibe cgaist tta^ » utiU eltioatoi tn wlijch Uie vine, <^u\e,. 




'lil 



mtmge, and Irmnn thritc' Tlie sionnlains abound viih elicit- 

^t-trm. Tim.- inliuliiUiiu are ctiicQy emp!ojL-i] i>n ilie m:^. 

d:iii>ri, a bustliiiK piacc. vitb 9aci0 inhiLbitants, luiil a 

nil iiiir1>3ur, is iho resilience of ihc inU-mlcntc uml of 

ic '-Qiirid n( juttioe and coniiiMMirial i'outI : it lta.i a colli-;:!.* 

i;[it iijF ili« biulHen Scbcdaniii) Piaruni, be&iilmbc public 

' lueouitv icliouU. Scstri di lAVanic lini 7(i(iO iiiliB- 

iUdIh; ftapalta is a plcoiJint town on tlii; gulf of Uixt 

mr, with fine ganlons and t'ouiiUj-lKHUOs in lite tiviicli- 

urb'Mi), and 3000 iiiliabitauu ; Santa Marghcrita, fiOLU ; 

ra^Tia. >D00; Vnre&o. 5600: Boizonosm, 4700 ; and S. 

iterouo iVAveta, SiOti ; the two ttut iirc inland am»n^ llio 

nit ^^. (Cotcadariu Sarxto. Ift24.> The popululmti uf 

li I? uf CUiaTari is about $l,0Od. (Sarritlori, 

C.fln'ACOl.R. [ClBCAft3.. NORIREKN.] 

**'' ■■"STRR.ao anlifnl wnllod city, tbo cliicr scat 
I 1-, lu wlitcb it gives nanK!. a parlianiciiur)' and 
iu;ii:i;x<i iioTvagb, ami market- town, in tli« R.i|>u-ijt' Clii- 
t«t. woMirn dtVMOU of Sussex, 5S uuka S.W. L} S. 
Lnoilon, and about G miles frcm the eca-coaflt. It 
at tit* tOTDiinaiionof a kcdiU- dv^ocm frota tbc South 
liilh. on a vligbl lixinic ^'ruund clujiinf; iii uil iIirLt- 
ill a Ion country, wliicli is pari of Uio plain ibat 
!i fi'iQ) the wust cido of Bnghtoa to rtrisiuoutli 
' ■ivcn tile Suutli IXwiis anil tlio aca, uiid alt^ini 
iiT ib i:riiil<;»t width. Tbv vilj wiikiii tlia 
' H an: «tll prcsctM-'d, ts divided by ivo priu- 
'! ninntna north and south, and vatt and nest, 
' <'jct olbtr iiKir the ce;itrc of \ho lovm ; 
-.niWiiiB Cii>j»li-r,ai"i pre»t.rviuK l!i« form 
vilcampinent. Dtyandthq w«IU lb« kubuibt 
in tba direction of the |iriii<-ipal ilrccU. A 
colled [ibe Lavaiit. « liiiti i^ ti^-nvrall)' dry in 
Uh) city 00 tbe sast and huutb »>•]<>■ The 
stand jrt aigbt p^nsbe*, btmln ui ctnle- 
inct temcd thf Cb*v, rvnnd Ihv ralhi-urul, 
parocliisl pii.'C^'s uf land. Tlio poptiUiion 
(J9I vtaa 4714; in ISi), 6*2i ; in lH'il, T3tiii 
Jt, The nvmlicr of inUubitnl houM.** in 1631 
Tlictv rclani» Kive S'7S ponons to a huutc in 
^'4C in IbJI. Tlwro i» no utanufuctory at pru- 
'<-r. TIm) cBlttotnarkiM. which i» bold <)i«(]r 
by. it one of the Ufiictt in England btld 
Liii of any lonn, end ii nlway* m-Il oup- 
ill^rlt9, ilMiPp. and pis»- Tl»t-rv &tv Hcvurul 
II) u >»ii and Iho imnwiliBio vicinity at difl<.T«nt 
tiiDct. but nooa nie of irival iinponancc. l-irgc 
]i,. . . (V -„ njceipoTtdd tbroU|>h iho lown for London 
K nigland. 
.. 1: undoubtedly a Roman station, probably 
It IS conj«ciutMl that Voipaiiari resided here, 
Britain, and IbalCIftudiuB »rceIod a icmplo in it. 
:1 to Neptune and Mincrra, of which an inscribed 
tiff «!■ in irJI, uai)ppo»»[l to bo a«)mni«'inor.iti'»n. 
'■ artt RCtrly a vile and u half in <-ircuil, 
ability cToctcd •^neinally b} lh« Kviaunii. 
Ei,.l at lltc pnnripal *tteeti there ncro forowrly for- 
loa, of which the eastern, tho U*t ttrnwhuK KakeB 
lii^3|, is said to havo aHbrdcd divided proofs of 
•ti*hilc«ture. The preteiit walis are supposed lo 
n rc-coci!4niM«d witn the materials of thw Roman 
lis and a ui>>untl of earth (ivow plsnlcd in diffefeni parli 
celni \Kv*t, which runs round the inside ul ihc'walU, 
:1 tA lie it' the kIvIc in which the Ramans eonurueled 
flu. Hul ii ia doubtful if there be any lUmnn 
m the waUsorbuildni[>s orihn eity. 
; la «uid to be a contnction of CitiOn- 
•t caatleof Ciitaa. an An(tl'>-Sixi»n (litvf. 
..i: ha gires to the ehranicles. repaired and 
^lL-',util O. atlvr n hail hum dettrojad in a sUit;u. At 
itn aurvfly Cliii'hei.lsr hnd only loo hnndtMl and 
i.-c*. which wore girt-r lo Ropir do Mont- 
rtcntC'l Iho first earl o( CliiobuMt-r- This 
iin n r-i]iieifed(,o ba\-0bwn inairumcitlalinpttjcuriiij; 
lot-al of the s«8l of the b:iilii^>rie o( Sunvjc. ut Sel- 
m llin wtilnsuU of Selsea. wliero thero was for- 
ifrty • n;ti«dcr>hlo la-ATi, to (Jhicbpsler, wLicli ii-a« one 
i.f il,,- .-.irly protMnly uf lliu plan?. The eailtiat 
.- one by Vt«phitn, eon Q ruling prevLounIv 
-,■-1 «Jid euvtonjs; which wwre further coo- 
utd «««Aiied by nuBMroat diftrlat* from iliBorvnl 



kings. Tt is included in the luc of towns of tbe Stapls 
in tlK' 27ih EdwHid III , caUad Otdinaiio Staimlurum. 
Under the Municiuitl Ciirpc>rationK' Hill tho city i» divided 
into two wards, with six alJeriiien and ei«lileea eouiiciUon, 
It rctimicd two n)rmb(?r« Id rail is me nt from an enrly dale. 
By llie Kirfijnii Ad the Wind.ity of the pjrliatnentary b»> 
rough *■»» ciitarued cmi»idrriibly ton ml the city. 

A cathoilrDlt built luomly uf wnud. was founded here Ja 
1 108. Tiio present calhcdial. whith was erected during \hn 
I Jth caiiliirj,t.-xhibita M)nies]jicin)rn»of N^nnmidoian, and 
Ekiso Miuc examples of (be Eim puiulcd *tyU-, when the Pcb> 
worth or Siiiiacx marble came into fimhion. As a csihcdial- 
eUiirrb it it of an inferior cUss. but the spire, irhicb is 
ubaul a century later in d.^Lc thiin the budy of the buildiii|c, 
b (Incly proportioned. Ttiu catlirdral in built in tliti u»uul 
form of a crosa; its extreme IciiKth from cant to we»t is 
407 fcGt; from noilh lo sautb, kSO feci; the trun^cptis ii9 
feet lonR. and 31 fcot wide; the nave and aislc4 'J* feel 
wido; and the tower and spire 300 feet hi): h. The north 
tranacpt is nuir uted as a parish church. In the interior 
there ure nine munuinunls by Flaxiouii, one of ihcm lo the 
memory of William ('olbns ihe |wcl> vbo wan a niilivc of 
Ckiche»icr. It aho coniaiuH serenl aattcnt tuonumL-nia, 
vrhirli are eunutis. and aome of meov recent date tbat ai-c 
not unwurtby of notiitv The best of the latter is in tlio 
fMTia of a iiutue to tiiu memory uf Mr. HuskiMan, %>ha was 
for tome time ni ember for^ilmcily. Ills Ihoiroikof Catew, 
Mid WM niisifd by subscription. At a short distance from 
the nurlb-vmt an^Iv of tlta cathedral is au insuWtcil bdl* 
tower, traditiuiiully kiiuifin as Roman's tuwor, wbicb ia 
nnlcd for ita ma&^irc walU. Tbo palace of tbc bisliop of 
Cbichoter, ^tbuie digcMo cdpiprcLenda nearly the euliro 
county uf Siibscx, ■» witliiii the eilj. Tbrrv la a iteat 
ani)i|ua chapcL aliaehed to the palace, «hicb has beuu re- 
p.iiivd by the late bishop, Ui. Maltby. Ctuebestfir stwl a 
sivite Jutim; tbc ci\il wars, 

Tliv average ato" annual income of seven incuiabentit of 
tbc pariNhet of Chidieoter aiuouuta Ut Gd-l/.-Uut in aia r>f 
the eases ftlicr profcnuenls ore bold. (JiciV. Het. lS3.j,) 
Tlie vucivus schuots. ilDiiy and Sunday, nniuUDicd in lbi3 
to 39; Mid to tlicaw has nicently been added an infant 
Schoi>l. Tliv whools of a dtstinel public ehaiaotci aru—eue 
Bell's school, ono Lancabtar ditto, bolli vvr) nourishing, 
end eduieuting a p-cat number of b^js ; OBch of thcAC has a 
girls' (cbool beluiiKiiig to it. The itifitut sclijol i* iuteiHlud 
to Becoiumoilait^ about 2&0. A bosrilir-g-wliool was su- 
dowed in 1702 by Oliver Whitby. Em-, for 12 Uys, tut 
from an increase in il» fundt the nuinbct ia now utigtoenled 
to '2fi, who ate boapl«<l tmtl i-duejilod. Tliis tulMol, whieh it 
under the dirccEieti of Ave IruitMS (who nmit be members 
of therhurch of Eiifiland, and 'not puriiitment men'), it 
Dilmimbly nuuuisnd : aivl thu hoys in ih« iiicr«ued dumber 
am n^t only well taught, but are clothed- Such Imjsw 
behave piojierlv receive n sum of money on leaving ilic 
aehool, to enable them to aeiile in kusitiejis, or ol]i*;r«i!>e 1p 
promote their interca's. The hojs wear tbo anticnt blue 
dre«s ti{ similar fiunilniionit. Tha revenue in about l^uof. 
per annum, and u joarly Ineroa&ing. It ia by the Fuun- 
d^ttion Chai tcr restricted to members of the church of Knt;- 
land. Anuiher. lernaed a Krammar-scbaot. wu Ihiindod 
in 1497 by bishop Story, the reteDU«a of which ate alalad 
in the tUiuctiltiM Utturnt to have been cullusively adraj- 
nimurod. Scarcele any of the ehildran of the eitinns are 
eduealod at it, as it is ■.'xduli^Kly a L-la^ftical ).choat. Them 
tsan antient EiMiBdaiion fur the tuppert of old and itiKrm 
p<x<r persoos. ealh>d St. Mark's Hoipital. (Hiiiory of Chi- 
fhtaiiv.) LilLa to many of Ihn antiinit eharitable loumla- 
tiont. mneh tuo large a proponion of the (hnda of thi* bo«- 
IHtul ifoes lu the eustoa, or director, who is altray* one of the 
(liijnilariM of the cathodtal, in the eliapter of whkb bes tbu 
l>air>nagn uf the chanty. 

Tlie parochial rhurchca in Chiehealef are reuatkahle fbr 
tlietr smaline&s and the poverty of tboir appaanne«. During 
the present ynr, ieJ6. tlie Unrest parish (Ibe SulaJeaiwry) 
was divided, and a baniboBo GkiUiie chufrb. capaUe of eon- 
tninlitg a thouwid peraons. eroeted nitlMat Ibe walh. This 
church, winch is surrounded with oii extensive cenKtery, b 
tisuK'd St. I'aul's. 

The chief public buildinK^ of Chicbcster ars the guild- 
hall, Unru nr county-ball, ouunal cliainhor, market-bnuan, 
eoni excbaoge. nuihet cross, jail. UwatTe. indrmary, 
and Ibe phitoaopbieAl society's and mecfaaniim' imtitutun^tL. 
Thu lowu-faall ia ■ rude inooovetvwc^V, "^^lAui^, ^^a t«- 

\1. 




I H 1 



•I a«il«isiiali nn iraii ii 



CHI 



'60 



. Jiftli ti t!i« oflU-.inI qiiiinvn of the e<ir]KiraiJi»n 
. and far frQlQ t>riiuiiiu'»tn1; h in joiucil tu an an- 
ttraljlv luum (if Iarl;c <tiiiicii«it>ns, in svliich nnobi at' lliu 
^" >.:» aio hdJ, Tbo nbrkcl-liuUM) U iivat nnd 

<v The onra oicdiani^ in on eluKaiit liuilihnu. 

jft' ' il ^'^ v<ib>':nirtioii, and ciJT)HMtiii({ uf Bibplenilid 

v('J' 111 Mill iitorca lor cocii lichiiitl. Tbc niEkrket 

'~r^>>, ^>lii'li>il'kLi<1»aMhciiit«r!>octi(>ngf ttioprincipalatrcctK, 
, « ttinst'4 by Mr. Britton. ' Hid muot earicbed ud buuuful 
^dnijilt- of thU dasi of buildingi in Eiifiland.' Its form ta 
aniicUg'Jii. Iiaviii^ « large cotitral column, from which 
ijirinjj numeroii* bold ribs, buiioftlU a laulUd not; d^flit 
Jwr imllMsfeei HupjiuH Ihe i'lijx-nncunibpnl pu«lUd viitt, 
pamuM, piiiiii'-li.i.ttod flyinji l>ut(re»«.-e. Tlicro nrv three 
inmlplkiUii on tibloie. in nirtK?*, niid oluck •iiahan: in- 
fcorlon abovo tlieia. Thcwholo it ttirniountod byuii u|>en 
turrol, ofinmlcriiniid inr<-i'ior nvtkmanithip. Th« markut,- 
eroii was orvctril by hiihop Story towihidi iho ct»»c of ilic 
tlfn'fiinti »niun ; bis nnn* nrc impalcxl Willi iliMe ol' lb.; 
K-iKHiiig moiurv-h on sttieldi ELttachml la the buttronMii. TIk- 
'ail 1.1 ^tiinll fliul iiT'^anv^nioni. TIia thcairw t> nam bui 
■malt. The inflnnary iw n T»ry cletjnnt atid beuuiiiiil 
tioil(ling, tiluiled on tbc niirthprn ■Io|mi ouuido tha city, 
and surrotiTiiIi'd \iiiU niriri- niimiula for the pitiianU. Ifma 
'jreck'il by ^ub^f•ripllllIl in lH'iG-7. iind was n|ieMd for iho n- 
ffplioji i.>r paiionra in Oi-iobi-r. lR*r. Itowi-i lU iMtiibliEli- 
ineni tn Ilie e\arti»us or Or. Forbes. It u oiieof tli« bc<*l 
pUnitoJ urd bcKt togulalwl r-MnbUstimfliits iti lite ktnydom, 
, iilliiom^li of Kinnll cxU'ilt ; it riKiUiiin ulioul Kixly bods, nnd 
iit tiiji^iDTti'il nt nrt innunl eK|)enie tif aboui NUO/. Tlie 
ViIPT*))' nnd |ili] lij*ujihiciil wicipiy. wliifh was mtablinhfil 
itt l^i n, iLnd li, \.iy HonrwIiiiiK, ha« Kk-j^ani and exiensive 
(jrniii^i ^ 111 iI:l- J-H.uih Sireel. wiiii rvadtiig uiid vshibiiion 

fru-s, mid uiusemn, nltich niroidy ctintiiiiiii a fine collectiua 
birda and UiJiierala, and tiiiiiiv oliiw *riirlp-i of iiiwreil 
Iv.ilii- I '-■v.-T-i nro ik-ltVL'rvd tWK"li'rly bvitw winlcr 
Wfure 1 -. nrnvransirtiiiijof abuiil 130. who pay 

anaiiuii-i; u^-.. ,,,)Li(>ii of mic inniirsi. Tim mwhaniL-v' ui- 
sUtulimi wa* foiincicd in 1829, and w aNo \wry lloumliini;: 
iUiircaent RKmbvn nin"Uitt to •150. In 1839 an elt'^unt 
Iniildiiig roe ibc puiixMci <if ihe KOfioly nnn ended by »ul>- 
, KtipliOn at Uio South Galv. Lt'c-turex U-rar« tito nMcnb«n 
Utt fiBifiilady delivered diirin;: ihu winter, ami arc very well 
Kltciitlcd, Th!n iii*iiinitoii bni no museum, but has an ux- 
teniivo wall-selMicd library. 

Ill ISI* ah Act was pAued for making acnnal fhrni ChJ- 
cbntcr harbmir to the city, a dlKtoncc of about n inik- and 
ft half, wliieh fonai a btvuirb of the Putlxinuulli ajid 
..Tfitiiw ■.iiml. by ths way gf Anindd. Then- i\ a iumy «ii 
tlw hivbuur, to «hiob vi>«<:l4of ISI) to IHil ton* cnii t'tiim* 
up at hi(:h tides. Tbo laiial hai nrtt been verv |ir<ifiiable, 
^ the dufs are !italH lo e-^ii.il th« land carriD^c (i\im tbo 
, luay. Tlii> rilli>vviri;* italciiiftit jbows the uuuibcr of veaielft 

.wilh'lEtO 1'ii:l,.i 

Iu>»nnl» Oulviinli. 

. 6 . . 410 , . 3 . . 130 
. ' . . I'Jf. . . .1 . . IWi 

. J . . -UK. . , i , . 113 

J Uwalb OuHartt. 

im . . 33.914 . 2aC . lli,U2 

3B8 . j;,"J0 . 2m . u.iii 

*Pfie CTO>* rv^sLpt of Cn^tontv' rcvitniM polloeli'd nt Chi- 
i;hi»ter in li-iSivas H»3»/.; in IKIH. tyi'il. 

< Iku a ricitn. nual. and eunifurUilileajipoaraiim: 

iLl II built. liahtMl, tvuiunxl, and dn»ned; ih* 

j^iiLipjl ^lict'tsBiPBpadou!.. and cuauiii inniiy liifRp houxv*. 
Ihcrc ore aiiniinl horw rare* in ib» n«t|iltljjurliaod. at 
' .GcuIiikhI I'urk. ihc »*ut of thu Diikv of RiHiioand. whuli 
klliai-l iiitmemus rinitms. (UiniiMi'a PmurMijm Anitijui- 
Hei : 6*co;rrupAy nfiht' SunfUi /or Lnfhu.iou ■>/ t'ar/ul 
^ 'KnvtclcJsc: finundtiry and ilunicijisl OtTpvruiiuris fie 
fjorlx; Uay'd Hut. t^CMcAealtr; (htnnttimcation Jrum 
I, 12ftiVA«frr.) 

■ CHICK !'EA. [Ci«i«.l 
' ■ : AWS. an Iiidun UiIm- in ilw Uniied &iu\if% 

11, ' ■ limltiiin-; the norUicrn ]Mt-li<in ul ihu Blaiu i>r 

j^ jMi*tiftftjijii, uii b»t3i »M(-t of iho U|>pcr bTunchi's of the 
iwikh TooiUgWii aini Vuoo. Tht-y wore lunuurlv rnoio 
iiuuieiuua, but lb«) baiv hevn coiisideraUy reduced by war 



-iwr 



aadtiwMuall-poX. At prcicnt tlieir numliut dtWa not ti^fig 
to cxceorl 3()U». Tlwy (peak u language aiiniUr iv |(i4tt 
of llinr auuLlicrn n«i);libour&, the CUo«taiT», and haiv moidK 
»ouig pru|;nv»» ill civilualiyii ; llity e«lli*«e oum, <^-4tJir,' 
potaluvB, udd buut-T>Ml; und hav« hcrda of c-nttle. sUecf^ 
uid awini:. They live in romfortablc c«btns, and ban 
erected s tebwl at (lifir«wni-xputiM!. A fuw iniKrmnwSci 
uro actnu in imuarlinu njlifc'ioiie instrueli^n to th«in.' 

CU ICKW££U, a coiuciicn annual, with i<A\ li|;hl ^Tt«a' 
oppi.4110 gvato IcavH. a biiiilo Hl?m, and tninuii.- irbrte 
)><itsls. almost Hplii into two jmris. It and |*rf>undb«l «ra 
iwo |il.iii!ii wiiith nL« to ba li>und in tlowcr on any iluy in iIk 
year; loXMMtX* \Mu\& tl Steitaritt mfdia. 

CHICUKV 13 n )i«KDnia< plan* faring a coiujK^k 
ti'.\v«>r, wtiich ^ive» Iho nama to the Kub-laraily orik-vti4fe 
of the ehieorarea; which belonge lu ihe family VntnpntHfe, 
Il ban a fusiform rouC lik« n c&rr^C. rmm tbe rr»vti of 
which tari^u and sucnilent leavet vpreacl ()\il. with dee{t|j 
iTidontdd eilgcu. The wbulu [tlani la bitior and aromatR; 
and the leaven ai uell as tll« nwt have lieen lunl m Tn«- 
dieinc, in th« form uf a decoclion, oe a tunic blttt^r and 
diuroiic. It i* (rei|D(iiitl]' uaed nu a unhid, eKpnoTSlty who 
blanched. Yat thi» (lurpu^e. the rootn ajv taken up in ike 
end of autumn ; they are then placed in eaad ot lif^i 
inmild, ill a ci^lkr frDiii ubicli the lijjht H rts^^lurjed. It* 
teate* h;ivitig been cut lilT jueviouily uiihin half an inth 
of (hu eri>Mn. Frcbh alender k;ives Eoon gKnv mil ef At 
cuau amd, bi-inu dB|trjvL-d qf lif^hi. tbty arc mui^h mor^de- 
liL-ato ami Lender limn those wbii-h i^iuv in thi^ ^^VT\ j^roirad 
The bMI«rnesa aLao ia thua leuened, and they fonii n rciy 
ploaxant winter aulad, wtiicU, from ihe long-.'ilender. and 
mailed iiaie of tlw leares. ihu Krencli call bdriV lU 
capupiti (monka beard). It is pleaianler la the tiul« (hso 
wminoii vndivu. and aliniulalCa th(> alomach by tls bttira 
and aruinalic ipiahty. 

The liixiirijtDt ffi-owih of the leaKtof the cldcory. lod 
Ibcir upci-dy r(-|iri>iUicliui] aHcr they huca be«n cut, lor- 
I4tj*led thi: mure extt'iiti^Q cnttivatiuit of ihiit piani ut Mm 
tui eaillc and aheep. who uro liind of lb« leaven. Mr. Ctenf 
do I'anucl. vihn cultivated il nc« I'lrii in a lii-h mil, pro- 
ductid vxtntonlin^tiy erupt. Tlio lir»t yenr he cm it anl> 
twice, hut aTierwanla fuur and ftve times iu i year: ii 
produced more gicun fuud ttian any other plant cultiriied 
fur lliia purpv.->u. Arthur Yuunu wa» lo atnick with it thai 
hu Mtuiiiily nfi-WiiineiirW il lo llm iiuticu of Britiah agn- 
culturiaU; and ia ihe i]ueriea aunt to varioaa parli of thr 
country ly iho Board I'f Aifricultufe, oue wa*. wbelhec 
clucvry \va* cullivulcd in the dis:rirt as ictm\ food for eallle. 
But nutwitheluiHhiiK lU ubuiidant prwliior, it haa not, been 
found Fo luucb »upi.-riur m tith<>r ^reen foud a$ to matiuia 
ndliviliLiii gcner.il. Some accuialo cx|)eiintt^nu on a lu^ 
M^ale wenj uitide in France al (he nali-^nal form uf Rata- 
buUiUut, Iu UACunain ihit value uf cbuvry compared Wll^ 
tuccinu and othci: green food. The chicory vtaa dcclarod U- 
feiri<jf> givinii a diBUgivcable liuie tu milL end buUcrW&ni 
C4w« ate kept upuu iL For »hiiep it ia verjr good, attd a 
amall ponivn mixud with their oUicr foMi may pmtabtj'bt 
a preservative against ihe rot. " ' 

Chicory is now chicUy cuUivalvd in Belgium and Otrtuaby, 
for the pufpjau vf prufianiiK f[i.'[ii thu ruul u ponder vVkh 
VA1I his iub>titulcd fur (vlTec, 'I'Lii hiia bee>L'Uie u vcrj cb»* 
i-idurftblt) iic(iv1ou('.vniuiert:v, Il \nt* very lately iuimdurvil 
iiita lli'itam, und ihv vuneunipliun ot' it, and conaeiiuent 
demand, inercaieil »o rapidly, ihnt tbe (,'<>% ctntuent thoi^t 
ptt-iiuc lo put a chv«'k un iU importation by » dul]- of ttL 
p«r ton on (ti« dried root. 

lo Lav« the mat* in purfeGtijn. the M.-<d ahiuld bo sown, 
or rather drilled, in April, hka thutof tlio<,iuroL If auvu 
MMnur, liioy are apt U) run lo teed. The liinJ aIkuM b« 
ruib. deep, and bgbt. Tb<.< plants »l>oold be thinned oat lo 
aix ineJKw in tlie ro*-*, and nm-l cai«fitlly o etde^f. In Scp- 
tniulwf tlio Wves should be tiiiDlly ^-athcied and tiic nxK* 
tuk«u up. uhieh may be done with a conim«n pM*T0-f.4k. 
They a ra then cleaned by tciMpinK a»d washing, »piil»hcrt 
ilii'V ar.! llnekvat.andcut acn'>i»in picws nbuuilviogrthro* 
itu.'h(M loi)^. TliQ&e piceca are dried by ti.caiix of a tJow «v<ii 
or a kiin. hoi.ie nivcty ia tM|Ufri>d in drying, lo prvv^nl lU 
(uiirruni betiij; t«urehe<l and to ktop lliu ptnper flaTuuf, 
lu lb» hUlo it t* iiold lo lb* mcrchanlji, packed in ba^ 

Il a aiU'CH'.l'iI:. Wil UL el II 1 1--.1 LI :. I -.inal' ii.ri'.'i rxr '. : .n-ttd 

•xaisly ai'< ■ . m 

jiuuiiiU ai. I ■■!■■■ . .ijsa 

alleiduiuai pii<dui.-v, buciutctuu dear lot lb« Ubvunng ctauea 



Niuny, ch'urory wu nlroosl univerully 

titul'-, Jii4 Ihc tiutc K hy tnttnj tliAiig^ht 

■ y pM!fi>r llic coflt'owitlt wliiuh a r<3urlh 

ur aQ'-> -orj' h»B be«n mixed. Cliicory i'* bsirl 

laoKliAtj-L 1 .,, AuA (.irnjiiirc fwili f;rniinil to [irevonl 

(It d^'ituii^rAtin^v UulLi-t thu >ml 11 rich Mid lt;tli(, iha roob 
«tll iKii ('.1'L.i' ;>> :i ("iKid iiUo in otte wason, and olil rrob 
be. iriiijiy. It ■» mily thn yountr Tuuit 1 liat 

miv i for wimmerco. Tliey lo*o a jjrwii por- 

iMt xi I . in dr>ij):r. The b«t pn^^rition of the 

land Col .: uks ur rTuvcr. Tlw manure ktiaulil lj« 

Uii' 1; u p: Jtii{lied up in autumn, wbich will aoee- 

iai I iiJip-jtiiigti tir ttiu ruoLf. The land shiiuldbe 

' Vlv|ir"-'' "'i^J ilijep in *priii;i, aiiil laid It^lit ; tlic nuniicu 
LwTuucJ Ace. and tli« chicory s««d driltud in row* nulv« 

(in!:-: .ltd riill«il. Liquid matiUM «pi«ad o^^or the 

1^1.. .ii:h uci-cli-rate llw Krawih of llie ptania. whirli 

mu..L ^. ;......:>jd out liki; turitipk or c&rrou ta nix or eiglil 

' iteUm ti'»n rUiil Iq plniii. 
: , (miEMSKB. rB»VAKiA.p.Jl-3 
, iimilCAHrA. [Mkxico.] 

, . t:!'n..H]..\IN. alwal but prculiar inHammatioD ot ihe 

■-tiV-'- ■■'■" ii[i',»!ariiij: uiKier Oii« uf three form ». Tliu 

] ] uii i:- uiicutlvil With ro(li)M), ftncllint;, nnil n 

I .,tfsiiv 111 ..^_L juil iiuliiii;!, otlva quilc inUilciabV. ^a tbii 

I , Mcuiiil vt ichtrcr fnrm lIiu lolour of the svrwllcii part i» of a 

I ,, ie«ff/:i n'X, ^iiiiclaan uf n dark bluo ealoiir, and at olhcr 

^ tinwtk ocii uf u. piirpU liuo. In tb« tblnl or the aeivrext 

[ ijC^ta,axiijU Mi^iduB liAv on tlig aurlhito of t\i« reddoiiMl 

,«U>I •Wsiiltfrt uLui, wlitcli DiDSOununvetteil ininaore«, ft^otii 

. uii.i'U ^ ihiii irritaliti^ mall«r diKhur^ua, iho irritaCing 

.1 iL U vviy didcull ta alter, or ht bring thu 

..u of lickllhy eu|>ptuat(i>ii . 

It • I^At !•(-• uUikmui«t)on of irbich this ttoublcsoniQ coin- 
plaini i* XU'^ ■ror.M.-nuoin.v is of a pocuhar kind, not xvty 
t w«li ' i. iur8«»n!> condudu b«csuso tboy find that 

. tl \~ <-'] l>y tli<^ application* vhich aro most bcii«- 

. r . y inUauitnalion. 

^ raiM« oT chilbUin in alwari cold, and mgro 

liiij >-.<.M ikpplicd art«r tlwpurt had hocn pruviuucly 

bt>M^. HoryCi) tliuMpciODN arc motr tiiVlocI t'JtIic 

' ■' ■•' 1 have ri>nliacl(.-'l ihe Wl haiit of ping iwi- 

' nn lire wh«n tWy eaitm li«ra« in winter vilb 

,,uJ luri Very old. H«n<-« alw III* rbief ^eaU 

are lliow part:) uf the bcxl/ which are moat 

•udUiii ultcrna(ion*orheat and rotd. aa the i)im«, 

toeft, htwU. uDil fingont. Yaun;; p«rionB an nioi« 

t to it thin ad'illi. fcnmlei than tnalnt, and it M«ni« 

' iy to atiuck periom of a fair iktn. 

Ltching, which in potfanp; thi^ most trftuble- 

aomc |i^n ul '.tiis couipluint. it htit nlicvcil by nnitve and 

IogiK-n>iitinuvd f>icti<Mt with tamphoruicd ipirita of winti, or 

Willi ' 'if lWi>piirts of camphoratM spirits ii-ilh one 

oi['. -.iiii-t. Sututt lurgeoiw apgak highly of tha 

■"'■ ■ part of the tincture of eanihiindcx In six of 

jji iiiiuiiriil uo a hilion. But ' one of Ihe txnit 

;; cliilulains uf the mddar kind is to rui> them 

with anow or ice-c<iM waier. or 10 bathe thcni in if;(«-ffator 
^ MVBTJtL liciwa a day. kL-cpiiig tbcta iramerwd each tiwi- uniil 
B uw (MJn anil itching abate. Aflar Iho paru have berni 
nibbrd fir >>nl}»wl in this way. ihcy «houM be MmW ilri«d 
^wu' I I 1 (.-oven^il with tlaniicl or leather socks." 

' 1 < .:in^ upplicaliotift, only in a moro diluted fotiD, 

f a{»;iiu. ii;i'j ::. ipit ihit ix-si rriiiDclii-x wliun r epical iunti aiiiM. 
, In tbii 1.IS1.- iIiL' &)i|iii.'.UKin of heal 10 the pari atTeeud 
•hoiiid \rv iDiMt cjrviuii^r avoided. Wheti thL' Tusiclw ler- 
f,lB*V*tv ti\ mtn*. lt>«) rin|uiio Mimulutini; <Irr«-«in;;t. 

g,,. f- 'ii,!! u teller than *iire, and tile mail effevlual 

i^ii iiiK againft the nnooyance ul this irriiAtin^ 

aa^ ^.~.- - .dinjiljr proltactod diA^asa ii to acctntom tha 
aVua u> tDCxJcTiilv rnctiiin, lu aiuid rlolhinir tha parts too 

laaMuli. I ? id >liUmaf«carofull.> sudden and (.'Tcatahcr- 

lul ur>*l cold : and nrMtrdingly to take panieuUir 

nu< ' uiiuivdiatclv into a warm room or near a fire 

, Mti ti lUc (.uit! air : and to vaih ih« parts frequently villi 
, ec^ wni^r. iConpcr'a Surgical Dicttomtry.) 




Tlr 



of the ne» rrpuhlii^s on ili« ronttnent of 

. lies alotii^ the alidrea oftho l^ariAc between 

' ' ' t))o nrchipelairo of Cliiloe. which 

iboul tiro de^Tcc^ farther ■•.lulh. 

i«n tliu vihoie coast lo th« Strait 

.^ a portion of PaUfonia, aa \ie- 

. i-ut M no MllkiBenta Iwtcbv-eti 

tJ ,■■■'1/1., |rj II -.K-jt-.-ii:.: 



I I! > 
formed in iheio eounlriea. iv« (ball limit our doccriptioD t4 
Ibe tract, br-tn-etin 'JJ'^ and .12" N. IaL» which eytanuft from 
tlie ehainof the AndrH, forming it« eastern boundary (bfc- 
iwveii 6%" and 71° W. lonf^.l. ut ihe ahcrcsof the PEiciBe 
Oeuan (Iwtwoun 71*. 70* otui T*" W. li>ii|:.) ' 

Chila i> hounded un Ihe cast by lltu cepuMic of La Plato, 
rr»m uhioh it li iIivhIimI liy ilie Andes. On lUe north It 
hurdun un llie dosert of Anu-iimu. wUii;)i Ix'toni^K to Btilitio. 
Ou the west it m waslied by the Pticili'i: and on ibe Miuib 
it is separali'd frrnn tho isUnd of Chilue by the Stnj^'ipf 
Clraeaci, and bnuii(l«d by the Buy of Aiioud. 

lu extent fniin narih tJ touth ii about 1 1 7 J rallei 1 Ha 
lirendth varies helireen 100 and'jllU miles; and its mean 
may bo taken at 1^0 inilvs. Thii inruld ^ivc it a surfico 
of l*fi,:2Ju Miuam luile!^. which dot-b not diQ«r much from 
the calculition of lluinbgldl. who as^igni to it an area of 
lA.UO Spanish lni(iii>* fii) = 1 degree), or 170,8a0 square 
mdeii. Ii m i)i«rRfurealiuulGO,O0lJ square miles larger than 
the Britiali islands. 

Tlie Andi?N. nhich fium iho Strait of Magalhaeni aa far 
north OS llni B:>y of Aiicud pren cluse un the chores of the 
Paciflc, appear lu turneiAat at the iiartlicrn extremity of that 
bay, but toon resume iheir norlhcni direction, in wlu'oh 
with huniii slixlit htinila tii lh» ea»t ami west tlioy coniinue 
along tlie bouuikry line of Cliik-. So far aa we yet know, 
they ooDBticuie up lo Si" 5. Int. one sin^lo raocc about lOu 
miles or mure in nidtti. Between Si" and ^4" 8. Ut, tbey 
divide into iwo raiiu;ei, which uiiitu ai;aln north of 3-1°, and 
iiidme ihc elevated loDKitudinol valley of Tunyan. llic mu't 
ivjtilliL'rn iif those valleys by wliich the AmlcH nrc itiMin- 
guislii'-l from ivil otlioi mountain iniiveB. Abetil 3i' -iii' lliu 
eham (Jirwic-s acain, nud It^oset the bni;itu'lnial ^^Ilcy «^ 
Uvp^dlatd, which cKtvnds Dorthwai^ lo Oi/* S. hi. : the elcTS- 
tionof thisvalkyallJiu pusl-liousuvf Uspallata tinnfuuixl by 
Mien to bo dCrir feet above the heo. ll belongs to the stute 
of La Plato. No part of the Chilian Aiijn Las been mcu- 
suEcd. o\<:«pt ibree mountain pusnv^: buts'iiui- uflliu nuoic- 
rouspoakain t ho chain have btcu ustiroatcd to rit c to \i,aCQ 
aod ii,Wt> fcet. This estimate is (oundwl <m itio fnal Itiiit 
in those latiludi*s tlio anon-lino it found at alioiil 1 l,(l(iu 
fcwl nhove the tea. Tb« summits, wliicli are (.'ok'crvd u'l'Lh 
perpetual tiiow. art the Peak of A<oni-ugiia (t^ouih of 3-^}, 
the Peak of TupuiiKatu (south of 3.1"), tla Voli iino Peii* 
qnet'tM (niNir 3.I'), tbo Pe^ik of Do'cobcjt.idu (noilJior Jt'), 
and tliu Volcano of Antueo ^nortb of 37^. The m^aa 
hai|;ht of the whola rani;e &acniB 10 be lonec south nf 3^^ 
ihiiu iiirlh of it, though tho ttummilit in thu vV'tc rsnj'a 
seem to attain ticarly the tume elevation. TltU portion ot 
Uie Andea contains many volcuuovs. lliey arc vxin'mdy 
aumerous to ilio south of 35', where nearly ln«»ty nre 
known la oxJst, and it is supposed that tnauy are stifl ua- 
kiiown. Bolw»cm 3i° and 3ll^ only a few occur, and at 
great distanccK frotii one anulhur. Still larlhur iiotlh no 
volaino is knawn hi exist in Iha Anilet, between tliiii of Co* 
quitnbu (touth of 30'). and thatof Aucaiua (south of ;il°). 

Suieni! niniiiilain-[ia"p\ iraxernc thu raiigu. The most 
fiequentcd ii that uf Ai^oucai{Ua. wlm-h )>i>^*^ over the 
range between the peaks of Acotacagua und Tupuiigaio, tni- 
versMS the valtoy of Usnallata. and unitei :jantiajjp> da Chile 
with Mt^iidoiain I.s Plata, lis Injihcst point, called La 
Cumbre. in. accordine to tliu calculation of Penllaud. I'i.-I54 
feet abuie tlic sea. The pass of the Purlilla travcrM.-s the 
Andes south of the peak of Tupnn<3to, po&sing ihrouHh 
thv noriltcrD part of (lie valley of Tunynn, It s*tms to be 
the same ruatl ihal Dr. Oillics iiieosurod, whosn bi|(hcst ele* 
viiiion he found In lie l-t.^tflS feel above the son. tJoutliuf 
the souiheru oxtrcniity of the ^nllcy of Tunjan, neiir (he 
volcano PeiKiuancs, is atiollwi' uim, wliith, aocordiiii; to Dr. 
UillioB, rises 10 13.210 feeL The l*iusdel lldi.chun iru- 
verses tiM rajige between tile wlcaoo of I'cLcroo and the 
peak of DTtcahcuilo, Olid is leas eleviled than tho others, 
aiiicu i^Kvlalionexwivdato itssuniinil, Tbi^ pais uf Aiiiuco. 
which riotaca the range near tlte foot «f ibc voicune of thai 
name, piubably does not rise to a K>val h<.-i;;Ul. As it Ira- 
vcrsiw lh« ooualry of \'u» indupvitUcui IimJiioi. who occupy 
tbe PampOAof Lel'iata, it is nu< oiUchLiK'ii. Ijonles these 
pluses tbero ure others wer the Atidts, hu| ■>" 
lllipriicli<^4hle for niuk-s 111 '■iiiler(fioi;i Jiiue < 

Tlio distrAls oH;hd-:n.!(ih«f t'.- ^ ■ !■ 
lat.) tvir.'nible ihc eiieiit v( Pvvu, »■■ 
try may bo roiwiderid ■'■ '' *■ ■■'■■' 
Near tlw luKU nuiK'-' ' 
eOtftflieetaUrtu iht: tt-. r, ' 



'I. 

I J - S. 

■ I CUllO- 

Vii.i... 

■ lid 

. ■ -■ , ;t. 



n 



I 



C JJ I 



tin it knnlniitn noKr Ihc mo in on oxUtoMivc fUtn. «boQt 
twenty mile* irt biMlih, nml from »iisly ui vixiiiy reel aWvc 
tlie <MM. Tbc countr>' bctwct^ti ihis plnin tinil iIk chain or 
■lie A&iliti i* vert uiicwn, cxliibitine nuoxtoiis ri^Kcft ol' 
loir hills, nlilrh in some paiti. ropi-ciall)' ucac (lie Atidcv, 
and near the plntn nionx tb« sbonw. run pMulWI lo Ihc kivoC 
otiiin >nr1 Uk pMiflc; but lu Iho ii)lr[incilift;c country ibo)' 
CMitinSBlly cban|t« lli«ir dircrliiit. llic nurfaou of this 
countty pre6cat» aitbcr bare rtKkf . or is covered with tund, 
am] iieirly without \ei:«1oliun, cxoO|<t k f«w «lur>t<f<l Blirulw, 
which fifnrrall) occur ialhc oarrw Klen*Bn«) r>viiit*,wilb 
irhirh il t« tpsnaKly inlcrMclcd. A few hvcrs riaiug in 
tlie Andes run in 'Wep bed* throni^h tht« Mointry. but most 
of Ihcin hare only water in the *rrmg (Scplonbcr nil Dc- 
ccmlktr), mhcn tho enow i> mellini; in the upper tegiaa of 
Ike Andex, und tbey tio iiy durinj; Aight or uin» Rionlhs 
«ribt vwifi Only (hrw rivori, tb«Co(>iJip?i, Giirbco, and 
Chunp*. lur« vat«f all (h« jc«r round. On their banks Are 
ihtf few cullimlcd tj>aUt, which ar« trripniod hj" water drawn 
frou the tivcri. But all tho «mall levt^i tracio ulonK tho 
nDlcrcvurtfs are itut Gt t^t cultivallon; th« greater part oT 
Ihhu are mvemi^ wilh incrustation i or salt, which in iomo 
filacvB art Bvc or «ix iaehes ihirk, and ornipy Ih* whola 
HirFat-L-, i^oicrinfccven the low ttruxcjt. ThuTew »poU which 
araciil^ivntird pimluce only Indian corn. potnlo<.t.a umall 

Jmtility f( whsat, and poniidcrahle tjuautitiea of fmitj, 
'«» niuiitiinii of cquki cslcnt jumoks Kro^tor nsoiillio 
wealth, ei)>#na1ly itold. silvar. aitd copnor, but the extreme 
Mttiliiy of ihK roiiniry provenu the irorfciog of these mmet, 
cvcfpi iKhfO ihe^ arc very rich. In eliiuale theeo disirtiMB 
r«*cinb)e I't-ru. It i^evcr mini, btii goinetimos a |)relly 
Btronii ilftw roll* in the ninmini^, which rcfn'«lic» the |ii»nti. 
TkNvxIroitK' (Iri'i^fst oriha air u aceerapasiod vab & very 
raod^tidu d<'RrM of hMl.the ihcnnoineter in tunimer tarel^ 
aiiiiintnt; inoic than 'tf; and in vinlnr tho terapuratur* is 
9«itieiiina<t ko Inv, that ih« motiiiii[[ dew Is changed into 
nwM'. Tlii* (jeiicial tk'*eriptinn u|>]ihoB only to (h« rouairy 
DAith of 3ti'. BiHiih of whicli line the ciiUiiiihlo «pul* vn 
inefo oxli>niive and tnmr ntinieroiia, aiid the eouulry Is aii- 
iitmlly fefr^iiiiivl bv n fi'« ihuwen of rain. 

Fruin lite ^imT-^apped pealt of .^connigiia a mcnmtsin- 
rillce nins dirpclly trMi, and tomiinalcii at a kliorl dittunce 
n«m the tea. It \* raUeJ Oie«Ia (ridfte) de los AnKclec, 
tiilit MfBiiii ft roiuidernhle bei<;ht, nhirh howwer ^rvatly 
(leowtseia^ itfroccrdi wntaanl. Ancttuir mlcc.hcanrhiiia 
ofrihnn lhi>An'lM at thu peak of Tupiiiinato, run« fir»i 
norlli-wesl, and r» called Cuema de U D,ilic5a : it then lutra 
wvsl.ind miiyhe >ai>) tj> terminalR atthr Cxmi^ana doQiiil- 
lou, n monniain vbich rite* M nl)0ut 2^i)i) ivm aVove the 
MHL. from whirh it is nhottt inetve miles dlaTant. A iniKh 
lewer ndae exttnd* 6iiher nef-i. irrininntiiie nni fir ("(om 
lin shore and the mouth of tlio R'o di> Acthi'iikii™, Thii 
wexterly ridtce. which i> called Cue.->ia de Chac:ihiico. Is 
tratcraed by iho roail whi<-h runs (Vim tho ino\iniitin-|)3sB 
of the C^mhre. and atlshiain tliia plarir an ekmliMnof Z&90 
frM aliovc llir »ra. The cHiiilri cml wl by tticC'ii-Hiu dchtu 
AncHcv. and thnwof I^ Ihihti^a ond l^liiK'Bhiici>, Ib drainal 
by Uie Rio de .AconengUB, llii* river viifs on the noKhwcsl 
d4:Hmty at tho penh of TupunS^tn, aiwl rnii* toorc ihnn 
oin^thinl of in OOLinc hi n ilamiw and cl^^aI■1l slen, nearly 
parallel to Iheehain of the Ande<i in a N N.W. direction : 
It llien rradually lums wvEit, but the viillcy throoeh wliirh 
it ftona in iittll nnrrow. till it has tonntnuli-il another third 
of its fourv, when It eiitt'n tlk- rnlloy or plain of Arnnrii- 

gna,Khcikutifiil level IniKt, eMciidins fmni E.^.G. to W.N. W. 
ftern tnileM, with a hrvadthorthirivvn where widest. 'Htis 
]dafu ta about SCO'J I'vet nbovo (he tco, but ai the liier huit 
water civiii"!' '■< "■' i'm^ ^}■<■ nlmlt, it i« well ciiltivatciJ, and 
pcrbap* '' M of Chilu, At it* ueilem 

eXtrerait; i.a to the vallc}' ofPulUOndo. 

wbirh it srrnllor, hut also I'eitdc mnd weU ciiHiratcd, and 
extends northwartl to tbc Ciietta <lo lot Ahfrele*. Aflcr 
the jonclitm of the Rio de Aooncairua wilh the Rio Pit- 
tucndo, the n)0«<nl3ins Oiiitm approach iU bank, hut tinm 
retre^it a hitlc r^rtber ; and facnec to the mouth of tlio rirer 
extends the r.ilkr iif Quillota, which it not much inferior in 
fertility to the otijerv, sti^l is about throe or fi.>ur nulot wiiio. 
BoUlhof Ibe Cue«ta do <,'h.T'*ljiiM) the Uicl eunnln.' heciiis 
looecupv a luiieh l.trjicr jvtrtlfn of the nirf»ee. The ploin 
orSantlnsv.bcciDning ol ibe P'oCi'f ihe wnjie, exienda tmilh 
In Hie haiikH i>r the Rto M■'>VJM^, Tiwjirds th<i rwnh li i* 
ftvtn *'X to ciihv miles wide, hut farther touth it [jmwb 
wider, and en like bank of the MavpA, from ca^l to weatt )l 



» ^^ CHI 

it al>out twenty miloa. It4ioi1 ia tlony kTtd dnT.ond ti«ltt 
not he cullivulud whecu it li nut iritfiBtoJ. CvlttvaiM 
acc«nliiti:iy Gxitts onlr in the neiglibonriiood oflb«rtvMi> 
and of Ibc cunol. by <nLiv-h the water of the Mayptt hm l>e«i 
hrcrucht u|Hiii il. Mien thou|ihl that not oii«-l«nib «f lit 

Sloin wa« under eultivuli<4), but in ibit teapocl llniro h^ 
oubtlots been toiDo iiDprovttnvnl of Ute yeank The n)V» 
try between tiie pUin aud the Aiide» i» (llUid by Baoi'iitwM 
of varioiiB hcuibt*. wi'.li tleep deehntiet, and uewly wtiiwai 
V t-^e lilt ion : the valleys mteuecting Lliem ore &a(ruw,ai^ 
covert with an iuiTD<:-n;e number of i;r«Aler or Mnaita 
stojiod, which ha\o Ulleii d'>wu from tiw n4>ftie*rU iii*iib> 
tains. The emtnlry between the plain of Sanlingo aail 
the PaciGo Im travertej by toaae tkof:e4 of bdla. vimii 
rise lo no Rreut heiitht above ibe a>]j>cent plamA. BBd tie 
touihern offaeta froui IheCuetla nrCbieabuto. Xh* pimt 
between them ure pretty level. aCkd uf nioilervie eileBls.tta 
<ioil ti dry Bud alony, wiihout wiierand treen. 

llie Kio Maj^fi hn; its foiircri in Iho Andea, hel«een lb* 
Peak ofTupuni^alo and thai of Caut^iiviiut, noil uD»-lliti4 
aritt cuurio liei between tbv biith olTaeu oftbe Abdei n 
nnrrow valVeyt. TownwU the plain of Saimajso ita «i]l>7 
widnns. When Ui 9 river )uu ci) lend itie plain, the cmoftltf 
Maypii eonduott a portion of its valcn to the ocDtre ef lao 
plain, while the river, eontinuinK iia wentem euursa, ii»> 
veruM iti tuutliern p..irtiQii. Ader iia junrli^jn with the Km 
de Ctilitia, a hirh imvervca the pluiii ol' Suitiiiipi, Ikic hat 
water ordy In ibe rainy aeason. the Hay p& enlen ihv valMf 
ofMelipilU. fr>>Tn four tosix tndBtmd«.wt>iah eaataiiulii]^ 
tracts nf well- Fulli rated land. The nhulv'matM of tlJB 
Maypi't is alwiU ttiO inilet. 

The country youth 'tl ihu Rio Maypi^ has a difleronl rha* 
racier. TeivanU the Andes it it eovertnl wiib tiie hi|th 
laloml brancheB of Ihul niiit;o. wliieh eiickct umnr nnri 
elcTalvl valleys. But abuul iwa-lhtrds of ibe aooslry rite 
in setitle undulations, and coniam eampariUively Bbw utivp 
QDd high hiLls. Uore also the mins are by bo SKntia ahum- 
dant. nor do they b>'t wi any length cf iiuia: agriotiltm 
thurelbre cannot bu earned oB witliouL IrnfiaiwD. uimI Ibe 
tracts of i^rouRd uiuler cuUintion aia not exttmtive. 'In 
this want of moifllurv the naked fare of ibe ixiuntrt mnit 
bo aitribntcd. N« irootof Inriie «iie are tuund tn Cbit 
nmth of Ihii Kio Cnehapual. but ttu-ir nuuher ItMBeaMa 
farihor south, till on the biiDki of the Kiu Xlaiils the Jbivnt 
of hiiih limber ireMbecmnever} cxteuuvc. The ttio Mnte 
rutea iu Ibo Amks at the fool of the Peak of Du)calic«hl». 
near 3G\ and runt flrit iicaiij <Itic vest. ^Vhen it hatcc* 
rired at the more level wiiniry it turns nonh-wetl. and Havr- 
iiiK in a diaconal lino, falls into the aea about 34<* 40'. I(«t 
llie tniAi ntirtliem of tlie navlfable rivers of Chile. At hvh 
tides veiseU, not drawing mans than six feet waier. mim 
enter its niouih, and procaod aanin stsal) ditiuee up i. 
Flat riier-har^'S may aacenil at any sesfon Sat iweBly nib* 
and upwards, llieae faraoraUe oircumstani^va, uniied to 
the fl-riility of the couiiirT on its banks, and ihcexieimii* 
fnie^ts of bmber lroc». aill prtibalil; >ui>n reti^r dtb riirrr c< 
ruimldcrahle importance. The country between lh« ttiu 
Maule and the Rtu Biiibio is itiU better nrlnpted in ai^rKiOl* 
turo; but tince the eipuUion of tho Upaulardi il haa bc«fl 
nearly dcacrlcd, on account of the frcffiirlit inoiirnofks of 
the ndRhhDurinir Indian Irihea. This iittt cuiiiaina nnirk 
mrirc level |>round than any other poTliou of Chile. Tko 
Andes here terminate by a ttrep i)esc«nl. and wiiIkiuI ef- 
acU; and at Ibuir foot heeins, in llie tiorthfrn diatrirta. an 
undulalinK country, intersected nil h smali plaina^ In the 
tijutbcin di^triets the trval couniry hegiim in> mediate I y at 
the iW of the ranee, and extends to a cunaiileniblu diitaiue 
ffuvi it. Tlio Traveeia (heath] of Vumbcl. a plain n\iy 
■uilc lone, a»d nearly aa wide, botwt-eB the towns of Vunr- 
bel bihI Tucapol. in oovercd nilfa sand and small pic«c6 a' 
votcanu: nuttier; it is iriihout liees. water, antt n-gataajoo, 
except at a few npets, I'ooppin ibinht it probable that it 
was once covered with w^tcr, and formed a lake, A eham 
of lixv bilh divides it on tkie aoutb froin the plain of ilm 
Isia du Lsxa, which i» nearly aa lurfiu, anil cotiliiina oily a 
fvw Ion- hiili. This plain, wbicb ts covnvd with vrusN it ef 
ttreit fritihty. The country between this plain and the wa 
)» eoturcd with hi(;h but t'cnllytlopittK hillt. which an 
piuily clolhEd with uuuili and jiarll) bare and sterile. Along 
Iho nvcrs. eMteciaily the Biobio^ ibe ««ll iavcfy tetil*. 

TIk- Rio Itiobio ri»M in the Andes near S(f°, and rtme 

in a V\\N-\V. courte 14 (he Peeilic, which it eiilerv N. of 

I 37;S*' IU«:a4M.»$m«« oC «bOu|..]»itt)I«t. Ui lu ufyw 



C H I 



G3 



C H t 



ecnitse it u deep and rapid. It becomes navi^ble for canoes 
and rafb at Naicimiento, 40 miles from its mouth, which 
Captain B. Hall found two miles wide, though too shallow 
for targe tcmbIs. This river may ho considered as the 
Huthem boundarf-line of Chile. To the S. of it, the re- 
poblic possesses only the fortress of ValiliTia, and a few 
nsKller fortresses along the S. bank of tho river, Tlicse 
brtificfttioDi, which were erected by the Spaniards to prc- 
Tent the incursiom of the Araucaiiians, having fallen into 
Aecay during the war of independence, the Indians were 
enabled to oremin the sonthorn districts of Chile, and to 
lay them waste Of late years the republican government 
bns rebuilt them, and is now enabled to defend these 
eoantriei againut the Indians. 

Though the country S. of the Biobio is Included in the 
territories of the republic, it is, with the exception of a few 
•mall tracts, entirely in posseasian of the independent tribes, 
colled Araucanos. This country, so far as it is known, a 
nearly covered with high trees, which frequently furm im- 
peaetrable forests. The surface seems to be nearly a level 
up to tbe foot of the Andes, with the exception of a range 
of hills running N. and S., and the soil very fertile, as may 
%e iafarred from the great number of warriors that tho 
Indiana can send into the field. The Rio Callacalla (also 
Darned Sm de Valdivia) is by far tho deepest of the rivers 
of Chile : sixty-gun ships can enter its mouth without great 
danger ; but it is not known how far it is navigable. Sumo 
of fba amaller nvcn are also said not to have a bar at 
their entrance, and to form pretty safe harbours for vessels 
oC middliaf( sixe. 

The climate of the central portion of Chile, of which alone 
wo hare more particular information, may be compared in 
some degree with that of Italy. The greatest lieut occurs 
ia the months of January and February, at whicti lime the 
themaometer on the coast frequently rises to 83" during tlie 
day, and 70° to 75" durini: the night. The hutiest part of 
the day it before ten o'clock in the morning, aliout wliich 
time wind rises in the 8-, which often blows with great 
TioWncai In the interior, even in the elevated vallcj' of 
Aeoncasna, the thermometci' fn-qucntly rises to 90' and 33° 
in the shade ; u)d us the soulliern wind is n'>t strong here, 
the days are sultry, but atsuti-Eet a dulicUtrul breeze tsets 
in, which cools the air. The months of Mandi and Aprd 
are nueli more temperate, cs-pccially in tlie interiur, end 
■t the end of the latter months tlie ruins generally set in. 
RoioB fan only between May and August, and tlicn the 
Andes aw covered with snow, which generally lies for four 
or five months on the higher parts of the range. Snow and 
nlw) some ice occur in the elevated valleys, hut it soon melts, 
and tbie atmd«p]iere is only chilly while the ruin is falling. 
Snov never occurs along the sea. The number of rainy 
days in the northern districts is commonly fourteen, and 
sddom more than twenty ihrnughout the year. This rain, 
whieh is very heavy, leldom falls for more than three days 
Offathtuomly. In tlie southern districts, where the number 
of rainy days is much greater, being on an average forty, 
tfaa rain sometimes continues ten days without intermission. 
AAer tbe rainy season, in September the spring begins, 
whieh ia frequently more chilly than the winter itself, and 
iee is sometimes observed even on the coast Whenever an 
easterly wind brings down the cold air from the snow- 
covaed Andes, the thermometer sinks in a short time 15° 
or 18^, but soon rises again. Summer Iwgins towards tlie 
commencement of November, anil then the sky, which, 
during tbe spring, is covered with clouds, is entirely free 
fmm them. The heat gradually inereases. and in tlte 
nortbeni districts vegetation begins to die away in Decern- 
Wt. but in the southern districts the country is always 
clodied with verdure, as tliu plants are occasionally re- 
freshed by rain, and the dews arc frequent and heavy. 
The mean temperature at the moulh of the Kio Aconcagua 
in July and August ia 70", and at Talcahuaua, near 
Concepcion, one or two dci:roes less. 

Chile is subject to strong perioilical gales. J-n the be- 
ginning of the rainy season (May and June) the nortli 
and nonh-westem winds prevail, and frequently blow with 
•iTv*.t violence. As all the harbourii of this coast arc open to 
iLat quarter, vessels abandon them, and weather the utorra 
ill tbe open sea. During eight or nine months the wind 
l>i i-A's fmm tbe S., and frequently with great force, especially 
i;i autumn (from February to April). At the same time a 
current runs along tbe coast to the N., both which circum- 
tiaoces ^four navigatioD BOtthvard, but the letum tQ tbe B. 



is rendered very tedious and diflicult. Easterly winds are 
rare, except in September, when, as already observed, they - 
suddenly lower the thermometer, and in February and 
March. In the latter season they blow only in the vullo)s 
of the Andes, and raise the tlicrmometer from 77' to 80° 
even in valleys which are upwanla of 5000 feet above tbe 
sea. They blow with such a force, that they throw down 
the strongest trees. 

Probably no country is more subject to earthquakes than 
Chile ; they occur, however, much more frequently along 
the coast than in the interior. In the northern diDtricis 
slight shocks are felt almost every day. and occasionally 
several times in a day. Sometimes they destroy the towns 
and lay waste a great extent of country. In lb 19 the luuii 
of Copiapi^ was levelled to the ground, and in lH'Ii tho 
damage done in Vatpiiraiso and the country about it was 
not much less. In the luit earthquake the rocks inclosing 
the harbour of Quintero. which is gome miles N. of tlio 
mouth of the Rio Aconcagua, were raised four or Ave loot 
above their former level. 

The climate of Chile varies much in the different dis- 
tricts ; but it is everv where so healthy, that it is dillicult to 
determine what kind of diseases are prevalent. 

Intertropical plants do not succeed j for though the heat 
in the northern district is great, the extreme dryness of the 
air is unfavourable to the growth of plants which require a 
long time for coming to maturity. The sugar-cane was 
tried some years ago, but it has been abandoned. Agri- 
culture is bmited to the productions of Europe, Indian 
corn is grown every where, but not to a great amount. 
Wheat is the staple; it is raised all over the country, and 
gives in miiiiy places very abundant crops, especially S. of the 
Rio Maule. whence coutiiderable quantiliev of Hour are ex- 
ported to tbe liarbours along the western ooastof S. America, 
where it enieis intociniipetitiun with the flour brought from 
the United States. Large quantities ate from time to time 
shipitcd tu CcHik's L;ind or New South Wales. Barley i» 
grown in the soulliern provinces to some extent, but \eTy 
little N, of tbe Kio Maule ; oats only on a few estates, and 
rye ia net known. 1 .eg umi nous vegetables are grown abun- 
dantly, espei.ially different kinds of beans, and supply an 
article ofexponalion. Hemp is raised in tlte country N. of the 
Rio MaypLi, an<l grows to an extraordinary height. Since it 
has been OM-ertaincd that the henipof Chile is su;»arior 
even to tbe Russian, tbe state favours this biaiu:h of agri- 
culture by granting to its cultivators many advantages. 
Hemp is grown in no other country on tho W. coast of 
S. America. 

Vegetables are not much cultivated, except in tlte coun- 
tries about the capital and the most . frequented parts. 
Potatoes however are grown in great obuudanco in th» 
northern districts. Capsicum is roised in tlie valley of 
Aconcagua, and forme a considerable article in the internal 
commerce of the country. The quinoa (Cbenopodium 
quinoa) is peculiar to Chile, which, in the southern pro- 
vinces, is raised in abundance, and somewhat renemliles 
millet ; a pleasant beverage is made of it. Melons and 
water-melons, as well as pumpkins, succeed very weJI in tlie 
northern provinces, where they are rai»ed iu great quautities, 
and attain a surprising size. 

Figs, crapes, pomegranates, oranges, and peaches succeed 
best in tlie most northern districts, whence they ore exported 
tu the other purts of tlie stale. Wine is made at different 
places, but not yet with any great success. The best is 
made near Concepcion. Tbe otii'e-tree succeeds as well as 
in Spain, and its cultivation is rapidly increasing, but the 
oil is bad for want of a proper method ot preparing it. Ex- 
tensive forests of wild apple and pear trees occur along the 
foot of tbe Andes in the southern provinces. The fruiu are 
hardly eatable, but cider is made of them. The fores;*, 
which cover no considerable a portion of the soutiiorn pro- 
vinces, contain many fine timber-trees, which form one nf 
the morp important articles of export. In the Aiidva 
S. of tbe volcano of Antuco, many valleys are covered with 
forests of the ArauuU'iB, whose fruits contain a gr^ut 
number of nuts twice as large as an almond, wliich aro voi-y 
palatable, and constitute the principal food of the Indian 
tribe of the Pehuenclies. (Poeppig.) 

CatUe are very abundant north of the Rio Maule, tbedo- 
divitioB of the mountains and high hills aifording copiuui; 
pasture for four or five noaths, and some low tracts whivli 
aretownwitblucemeifurthQieniaiadercif tbeyear, Sin^j^ 
propheton aomotiioes possess £com 10,000 to 2O,UO0 bead t>I 



C H I 



CSttlo. Live Hock, jerked beat, tallow, ani} hides, itru iat^e 
srrirln iir«poT:. Ctux-v i» laailp on tlie Uiiitif of ibc R»u 
HiWk WiJ x'iit to IVni : awt kiuttfr in ihc nuithtwuihgwl 
of llw intiicr loniis Hor'i'i hare grcally Occreuctl iii 
liUBibcr darin:; ihc Imt ivrentj yrart. Tlif) arv of n Dlid- 
d)ii>ic tkiiv •iixl !itn»)K ; of Imw jean Uotscb uud luuln haw 
1i«*ii crtportnl lo C^k i TiAtitl uvt tkio Ctpv ur Goud Hu|)c. 
Rhprp ate D>rt nuiiM-roua, kiiJ tlicir nnul » t>ud. Croat* nn* 
krpl liv llie knw-r rlnw^H, tul ore ii<it nuini;n>u*. Swim; 
vivf-juntl in nVitiodanrr ill llic aiX'htptflaKo ")'CKil^«,«h«nr4i 
Itams Kfv estraricl : oii th-j conUii«at Iticv w lv»i nu- 
nicroiin. Vuni U Milltd in lliu lintUxirH n* proviviuna fur 
Ibc »tp»rt», Tliu itUA rf M'x'ia, U-!«wf» Uuneopoion 
ttU'l VftMivio, ia utcriui) willi wild lit>ts>«> ami |»gt, bclh (iF 
n'hitli aro tiMil k.i fnitli alork bj' tiiB vrhaling and icalitiK 
kitljn ill till- Facilic. 

Wi>ld <ius» w Rtwtnl in Ihe Mitd of n*atly all Ih* rivor* 
vliirl) rotne iliwii from itio Aiid«>, at in lh« Rto do Acim- 
MpiUi K>(> Mitulc, uivl Riobin. Some tvetily ytun njga 
ihany of tli« lOhabitanU o» ll>o hittk* nf Ibwa tireanw 
ttvio'ernplvjfd in w.i«liiiit{ ilic gold »ftm!, bui il I* now only 
(I-fii* ill fpw plnonn. Some jiold tninu occur in the north- 
< ' -iFtdii. wU«i« lh«; are worhvl. but the prudnu ia 
'''mU*. Olhnv vo Hoid to exalt in the soullwrrt 
jir-Mdcf., Iiut nan* »re wurkeil. Silver is Mill more nbiin- 
iiiint, l)ui ihe ann^w 14 only from D (11 10 m«rc« (uiic tBui<D 
^ H oiincct) in Ihn nar^rn, vr 30V0 lb*, iif ore. In IMi hav- 
n >'r vi1r^ nih liU^r iiiiiie* ««rc di^eoverrd about sixty niilos 
t'.mli 0/ ilic tonn of Co|)inp(\ vhmt llie oru wai found w 
rinh at fhiqwiiliy to coiilaiii dO ut 70 |»er c*ni. of pure 
Mi-UI. Tlioir warkinu Iiaa ooinmonc»d with Ercai nftirity, 
■fld oil Ihe iicher rai:i«-i Jro ncsrlj ntiamloned. Pueppiit 
tfaintu tlmt Ihc pnvliicir of ill ilie mlver mines. <-vm iii- 
ftHdin? Ilio rirh on* diMxiTCied in that jeiir, did nol iiw*^! 
ISQ.OSu or lao.O'io tmrr*. TI18 coppar minw jire %cry ini- 
mpr(Mi« in the norlhvni diatricU. wpi-cially about Illnpcl. 
f.Kpi.ruNi, Cni)ta|)ft, and Smwo : ci>p]irr i* ol»n found 
r^hcr Miith in th* Andca. but m Qot worked, Tliti rapper 
arCapMpft iamoatnlued. Mien eatiniatcd ibc qinntity 
of rofi|>«r exportnl in 1624 at •to.VOO cwt. ; in I82'J it tv^a 
W et.OOO; the mean may Iw SO.OOO. A aniall portian 
rtitno* to Rnroiv. but by far tbe larger pnit fpKi to Indii 
and tlw United Sintoi. Orcsof 1cm, lio, and iron, srcnid 
to esist. biit they are not worked. 

Th* ca<al nmnation eilendi under a considuntUo part of 
Ihe aoBlbem nimvinees. Tbo coal isal pi-oscntbad, but it 
h hoped that It will ttnprv^o in <|ualily aa ihc niinn arc 
Wok d««per. 8«lt don nul ext^t lu mtRciutit quanlily. A 
Conil tl«ul (!< i-<>ilcrlvit in th« lakes vf Uucalcnu. touih of 
thv nxKilli (]f tbe Rk) Mayp^. inwhich the sail waterof Ibc 
ara is iMk)je<'li'd t-} cvapvration. A gt^ui <^uanitLr of •alt i« 
iif artad fttm Peru dM Pataftonid. Tke Utter i* <>.-<llccti-tt 
bv ilrr iT-.cllain, jmrtlv frviD l»kM, and parity rn>tn the sideH 
bi < 1 ihn Matera fiida« of the Andn between .16" 

ani: .1 latitude. 

The iM^tatioD of Chile, noirlh of th« Ri« Biebio. in »b- 
ItPaly Mmposed «f dMc^ndanisofKuKipeAn*. If tlwiro bnn 
luNMi any inixBiro with the ropper-MliMirMl net. It tn»«t 
have beea xeiy amall. Thore are no Indians north of the 
BhAui, cu«|M in the valleys of the Andes south ot 34^ 
M. lat NegroM are few in number. Tbe mpulatiun 
ii diflbrenlly ataled by tTavnlUrt. Mler* thonpht Ihfit it 
did notcxMcd $&0.«M, but the partial c«ntus of Mime pro- 
Tln<«s shows (hat he hu much underrated it. Many «ho 
hare se«a the country are of opinion that l.^OC.OOO ean 
hardly be too lotieh. The mosl recunl nlimniFO carry it 
ereii U l,4aQ.fl00. Tbe Indians who inbahit tlie country 
•oulh of the BioWi arc knonn liv the name of Araticaniaiit. 
anil have obrttead tamo relobntv hr the liiitli dr«r«>e nf 
ch-ibsation Utrlknied inihetn by Molina [AnArcANiANv]. 
of whirb, howerer, modern tnivellera baiv been unable 
to And any trares. Tbvy appear to ronmi>l of *«if ral 
tribei. who «peak diSorvnt ttta}»elH of the snme Uniftiace. 
and are dixided by the Cliileiios into /nrfior cotttitvi, 
or luilians tnhahiiitij; the eoast, and into iVo/iwAtw. who 
inhabit tbe extensive wnnded plaina atntcUnJc alonit the 
fixitaf the AimIa. Ilia tbe loiter Indiana who bavc resisted 
nil UMBpta to uniiavr ibcn. and have at lut destroyed 
nmrly all iba aettleiiiema ealaMisbMl ■outb of the Biobio. 
nwae natiofu derive their prindpU subsittcnee fhiai a|rri- 
enltutv. enltftiilst Iftdiaa com. potatoes, bcAos, oiid wme 
other artieka. In the vallersof the Andea betveen 34°amt 
Sf S. Ut are the Pohuenobes, wbo aaam ivilwr >o be ail< 



diets"! to n wanderini^ life. AH tbcw <»•>" •i-'i -"i" 
|flcte iiidepcnilcTicc, an'l ffi-qucnllj to*.. 
tricis between llic Hijbiv an! 'A ■'\h- m 

Ttie cwmiry north of tl>e 1' 
six ptv^iuce*. lo 'nbivh atv u 
cdiiiprulivndiiiK the Europeaii ■ 
nveiiund lbcpronihf« uf Chib*. ■ 
|ieln|;D of thut name. 

I. Tlio prvtiiice of Coctuinbo «ainprAmda tba 
northern blaril« pctrinn ol the rcpulit'i ■' .' "' 
C'huspa fi>r its Wi i-.il iry on the «owi!i. I ■ 

and ri>|ipvr,iind dried fruit'4. Imtiiine*, 

in Chile, ore worked ojuefly in tbe 1 

small tonne of Co4|Uiml>i>, C<i)>iiip\ I; . - 

Tho capital i,i (Jiinlnd do Sef^nn, a «mi 1 uwtn ^\ 

41x10 inhnbilants, Eiumied cotnetvhat iaun> than -■ 

from the boy orCocjuimba. 

II. The province of Aconcagua Fontoinslbe vallcr rif tbe 
Rio Actmcafniii, and the eciuntrws nonh 1^ it In 
Chuapa. It exports enlilo and wheal, and has •,. 
mini** of cold and rapper. Tho capital, 8. Kcltpo. --t liUt 
Viejn de Aroneii'iiii. ■•^nlJiins abu>'e ln.trDO ^^ii^U. !■ ibt 
Talley there ai-e aW Quillou. v.iih 8000 inhnbiljiK*. slid S. 
Kos.!. or VdU Kuava de Aeonrui>vii. uf nv/irl)- ef(iLal«ii*. 
N«^r I'ok'rrn ihcrr are rich nii!i<H <jt siKnr. 

III. Tlie province of S;iiitiago coiupiphuida ib» (iatni 
aleitiK the fool of the Andes on 1>t'' -i-^- rf it... *(,- 
Miiypti, iind the hilly imd in nonic 1 

coumry betwwa llw pluiria and the ! 

fcir iTiinr*. und their produce i* small. Its ' 

in wheat and rattle. It runinins tl.c capital < 

Siniin<|:a, and iho tnosi frc'iuented hurbour. V<tlp<iiatu 

Riinroeun. towurda its soutlicrn boundiry, H a |)Int« tf 

tome imporianoe. > 

IV. The prcninctf of Colrbutuu exieod* betwetrn iha 
riven Cachnpoal and Miuile. and compn^liii ' 

partly lei el and parlly biliy. It i« ef 
ai>d produces cum in nbunJanre; uittlu ^i> .< 
nntnemiA. It docs not oppcur thai there are an; 
OMtali. In Ihb prmin'-c ibc iramcnw fore*'* > f^in 
cover so ronsjderable 11 pnriion nf ilic wuib 
there arc no fureaia. Tiie ritpital. San Kenu 
onooniic tno'lrouhiderabtelowtuoflhc u'li'i 
in a vcrv fcrfclp cnuiilry. Talca is also a pin 

V. Tlie proiincv "( Maulu exlemh from thu lUo 
to the Rjo hala. and to its uprfc bmnch the W» 
It pTcducc9> com. wine, and taliii»:o. and i- 
nilb Infty (brcsl treet. Iii^prvI-uUi ilie 1 
ofCbile, and cunsista m<!sily 'jf 
some smnll pUim. Copper ab'i 
eatllf con^ilitute" iLl Clinnpal ^w-iLlit ■ . 
The ehicf town in Villn di.- C'uu<|tJ«ncs. « s 
atrd in a well culli<'uU-d jdxiu. 

VI. The proviiiee t<f Coii«'p«-;oo lie* bii 
Iiata Btid Kiobio, and com pre he 1 id ^ tbe 
Yamlwl and the fertile plain of Iitn do Iji«.<. 
ri>Bntr\* oxtendinff b*tw«!ti tbe ptaiiiH oml ' 
lesv fertile Ihnn Maule, a gnrrtl part of li - 
oecupuxl by tho TraT«<ia du Ynnibcl and 
bettreen it and tbo fea ; bvit Ibc rofnlindcr 
esjierially ilie plain of Ijiia. C-im iiriil ■ 
pnnctpa] expons. Tbe f^pital « Coneejfc-i' 
the inlrrior, was fornierly a place of fotaw 
has been niurh T^ntuced of Inte years by np^.-:- ., .... 
ofthe IndiniiB. ' ' 

VII. Tin? pruvinee of Valdivia roraprelMudt ibc n-i^i. 
trie* bctuoen the Rio Hinliio und the BavnT An 

nearl) at) (hi* tract in o(vtip:i-d by indcprnaent Jiv 
Kxeept the town* of Valdiita and Umtuo, the i 
setiletnenta are limittd In n finall number of fnn 
aionjt tho banks of tl» Biflliir\ niuons "hirh Na 
is the most rmfnrlanl. Tiinl«r and a liltle eoffj 
iwttm). The raniml is Valdivuu Oumo, n sraali t.iiaii, 
Uea in 4t' SO* 8. lat. 
Vin, Tlie province of Chill?, [Cnitoii.J 
Chile is probably Ihe only AtnerK^aii slate ftitnerlt Ub- 
Jert to Spain whoae commercv li>>» mcrevnl sii»re the »- 
paration front the mother eouuir>'. Tbe iiepottsitons Hi 
IK3E amounlcd, acrerfllng to u ron^b eitiruate of ihi* mrr' 
cbanta of Valparaiso, to abnul l.ccff.notiJ, nnil thv npor- 
toiion. ineludtii)^ ibe transit eomrmin-R. did nM fkll modt 
short of lM*.000t. In Pocppiii'a * Tnvo)»' Iho Mlowlng 
table it Kiv«o : 



M> ^ 



65 



C H I 



4nl 



AfiicWaf iMjnM. 



A>lM. I<kl, 






tSL Balm 
I 



llBla.nl»lMtlHr,taMa. bullion, 
■cod. rnrUnnl. MAnn. IhC 

^kOW, lltJvt, *ugUa ffiff^ 

pnrl 1. 



IvMnuU. 



OMtoO. 









>Bwai Run4«aa 



CadK 

— »«i»It Mi» 

in NiDta. 

UTerpou 



II llMkUo' 
; Aal^np. 



IMUhi, 

fatM*; •■(■r.oMWa, ttMibOl- 
UM, Mil. iiMIU. 



<<iiii*r, hUm ol Bdn iHtn, In: 
rii(o> 

ila^i. «VH tntkid (Diili. 



ut 



lull. •Oittf. inxliv 
lUtjChnrw wiun llucu, tatlpit (U 

ri>tia«»v >|iHtiiU(*U nnJlpi. all; 
Bw«Twa taS tmlUa ■■Kidi. 
■Wir Aim IIvtmiw ftoJ llT^ 

niiit.ii<t.<]uirkilhai.|Hiptr.utl 

•OKH «i1h gOdfU. 

VTiiw. htmailr, iDk lanit i lluna, 
ctuik, tuiidiradti |nprr, w- 
fkuiM : biki 1 talU<MVrr, 

C^pl Wnll»r. 

hkrilwarv*. )ud Ifua ul#nt.il« ^ 

ewtluTj.ftc 
tJlwl>i.(<u4l>. |Uu; iniB sfMillR 
tAk mil (I'liau eu^>, iinrttt. 



Ani«lc*a<Bspar1. 



Kwtlt; fruit I. 

wm*, r4Utrb») i>4l- 
lor. tnkdl Imf. 
klmoadi, HklDiiii, 
lUahri. 

TtiiMNir. 

KvrarMa uii ladina 
fMt I •lor. (iii- 
slBt iuutf fmtl'. 

TtmaniK 

OdllBn. 

Cvpiwt tad bultiuK. 

vniM>i,taib]t, fcoiiu, 

S>'bMI,ftlrilli)»llllML 

tkiMLbulilua. 



N'n dlMct MporUtlDS. 

BulUuB, hidH. wd 
MBCllnU csppfT. 

BulUon, bite, kBd 

tdiDian. 
Biillioi. hidei. 



■•what marc than oae tliinl of lb« wUoJo comincrce is 
be in Uie liaixlx i>f Uia Eni;ti4l>. nlx^ut one thinl be- 
ts the Nonb AnicricaUH lud tVench, anj ih.c tv 
.T 1» thu otliox £uro{)nui Knd ABHirinui ndii»us. 

AKAttO,] 

f«««iiOPi of Ibc ntpuUic, from I63J tu 1S30, amounted 
iC,BVa Spanuh tli>Uuta: in ISJI only (o I.SUS.OOD, 
1832 t» ]fiji,i33. In ISJ-2 ibcy were vilimutiM at 
i(H> ;. but unto ihv ffu 103-J the irxpuiixo cAcsvdctl 
itinvtf, rimI lliu iiiUTol on tbu biijjUali luan of 
>'*(>/. liM iwt l>e«n ptiiO. The arm; coimittuil in 
/ 3-JW men. bctklcs the militU, wbkh was «iti- 
•I 20.I1DC The na^), whirli rurmcri) coDiul«ii «f 
tab, «JB r«<luovil in t&J'J to tou tuull rv>sel<*. 
rn Fmi(il«o Ptiurti> U>J avcilhro^n tliu «ni|iir« of 
c«t in Pvtu, Ik *«nt Almuftm Ui aubjui,'3|« Chile. 
pvol loM of DMn, AlmuKiu. pa^ini; over Ike AnOo* 
nuch Itw doBCrt «f AtMAmn, cntcrvd lh« northvm 
IW wUhout TeMtUuvea, tbcte diatricl* havine piv- 
' licMi dependent on Iho Peruvian empire. Bill far- 
—•>■ > - n«t tlw mora anrlik* triliM. «ntl made no 
Hi* Hiccuwr, Vnldiria, atlvbncod lo lh« 
i.rt.-.i ttu) tuwn or SantiAxo in iS41. For 
the SiiAiriirdfL tnoil lo ulabliih their 
■ ' ■ '■>, but wiib»ul iiMinikncnl tuecM*: ftnil 
I Uwv w«te ol)!i|[ed to Bbanilon llial country, vith the 
Ion of VaUiviti, Oiuctio, und a few uniiJl ionrediiM on 
nlu ot th« BiobioL 
Ilr«t <liaiurbanc«t londm); lo it snpniion Trom the 
.k ibMniiiion oeeurrcd in \B\(>, and went on increuing 
I ChdenoA vefc defeatol in IBI4 M Kuncucui. b^ the 
bc«neral Owria, In 11417 Sin Martin enterod Chile 
n Krmy frma Lu PUin, and libemted the country by 
Itlaa of Chacttbueo ()3th Februnry, 1917) and Haypu 
ipnl. I^IB>. Th« new giTVcmmeni hu a repiiUtcftn 
tba Pronni'm. hoirover. do not cnmiitute wpvau 
tntliaTe a i-enml IrinKlnlurv uid •XKUtiv*. Tha 
It* power U in tli« ImixHof a nuprene diroctor. The 
pt MsoinpoBed of a Eenotf, ooitaiiiing oTtwenly men- 
I Um uuiMt. and of n liouso of i9])rvMBtatii-e^ to 
Kd«|ial)r u Mtnt for etvry 16.000 auul*. Sine* thv 
iduMntaf ihe eoBAtiuilion. the conHici of the poliliul 
I hu b*Mi nearly ooatinnouf. and tho rauniry bu 
il'4Hi*«d ftntn tfi is change llxiso ailvaiitoiie* trhidi 
.»^eipal«d. (Metiiit; Miers; Mrven; Jtftm um dtf 
I lUO — St; Poe\ijng, Rtiie in Ckih. Peru. UHftitnf 
hHUoMMfrane m lfti7~Ti.) 



Cin'l.(.\D (TMtn \•\lSc^ i« (or ralhor wai) vwl tft'tS^ 
ti IhuUkuiid eoiiki'oulivu riiinihiir*. Thtiii rrani t I^ lUUi) 
fiirms the (Inl chiliad, from luoi lo «(I00 tlw ti.'C0it<1, and »> 
on, 

CllIIJNA. 3 Renin of te«tareoui molluskfi. fiepur.itci) by 
Mr. Gray from AurKuta. nxvi ino1udin|5 .iu/n'tt/a D'lm- 
ItiaKii of Ijimunik. nud >luri(-ai/a ^UMa'ifi^ of Lkkwu. 
Locality, South America, in R-etU'WUIer itr«aiiu, with moqit 
of the hahiiii nf tho Limtiftp. 

CHH.I.IKS. (U*PkiciM.] 

CIIILUNGWORTH. WILtlAM. van tho son of WO- 
liam Chillingndnh. inayoi' ofOxfgrd.where hu wut iHirti in 
Ociiikr. Kuj;. Ill 1 111 I* he wm a nrholJir. and in IS'JS a fel- 
low, of Triiuty College ill that Univei>ily. ■SoniermiMUsnii;- 
moirs of him wo pnMerved by Anih. Wood (,!Mc»i. Oxun. 
r. '20). who says ' h« would ofl«n vaik. in ih« colk');^ ti"^^*^' 
mid liitjMite with any tcholor he met, pUrpOMlv to riavililalo 
and Dijlie the wsy of vrangHng eoranion with liiiit, v\w:\\ 
vii It rashian nscd iu thoAc dnyi, ripai-ially amonu t)ie dii^ 
putiiig tlH'('Kii;iiiU. or ibuw who »ei tliiMiiMlrei .ipart pur- 
|)0)ii.-ly fur diviniiy.' Tht cnmiiDrativt: merlltof ilir Bnjjlikh 
Olid Roiniih cliurchn were at that time a auhji!ci of Kcutoua 
and inccisant dispniaiion smutig tho uiiivenity itadancn; 
and iftvcinl Wrncd JfnuitH .iiicrueitcd in iiiatung dittin- 
tiuiihoit pniM^I) te^ ainuiiK tho Ptoiciiaiit clergy uid nobitiiy. 
Cbiliuguurlli. hoiiit; an able diapuianl. vm singled out hv 
the fatuous J»uLi Fuhur, alias Johannes Pcncfis(Biittotk. 
Soc Jtsu), by vbotn ho wii» miivincvd of tht noi?i.>ut(y for 
an iuEBlIilile livinz ' Rule of Fuith.* On ibii lie «i oncv 
adopted ib« Calholio aystem. wrote out hit tcaioiif fijr ah- 
jvitug PmicftiAiilbin, and joined (he Jcsuilo in tliuic ooUugo 
at Douny. 

AfUir tlte Upso of a few months, the argumcnli oddreucd 
to him by hi* godfutlicr, Dr. Loud, then bishop of Lon<]on. 
indiieml liim to ubaiidon Catliolicisni, and ho rolunkcd to 
Oxford in I63I, where he puuud iibout four yean in rrcoit- 
sidKrioe the Protestant tenom. Tho great wurk of Daille 
on the Fathers, which tlicn Snl appeared, is said to h&ie 
finally detoriciiood him. 

In I ii.ii he pubtijikvd hii ' Rolisiau of Prolestaata, a soJc 
way to Sulvacion.' Itonciied gtoat attention, and piu4i.il 
tbiougl) two cdiiiona in less than flro raoaiht. Fur an ac- 
eiiiintof ihe circumslanro* which occatinncd this work, nod 
fvr a list of tlie puhlicMtions cuunuctod with the cunttoversy, 
tee Kippis'a Biog. Brit.,\fA. hi., p. S II . The principle ufChil- 
lingworthis.tbatthe volume of UiTinc Scriptures, McertAinctl 
tohenLich tiy thcunlitinry rules of hiiturical aiidcriLn'ul inves- 
tigation, in lo be constdecid the sole ButhoTit\ ofCbritliAiu. 
to the utter enclusion of cccloiiattualtrsUiliou. Hi> luldnets 
in usacrttni; tho priucipleof prit ute judifittviit wasuppiM^'das 
tuueb l>T the Puritans as by tiiu C«tbalic4 ; and while the 
Joiuit Knott, alias Matthias WdjoQ iIiibi\</Jh, Patrum Six. 
JftM.'p, lb&), raiitundcd that hu 'd?ttioytd the nature gf 
faith by rvMiIvin;: it into reason,' Dr. Cliu) nell * prnjud llial 
God would give bim n«w light to dvny hia carnal rvawn.and 
tubmtt lu failh,' These were two oflbc most delcntiBcd pf 
Chill in gwovtb's antagonists. Chsynell was oue of the as* 
aemhly of di^ines «h>\ in 1 646. won s«nc to convirt tbo Uui- 
\wrttty of Ox^nl. <Suo .Vidtunimtr .Voon, or Luaafu Bam- 
pant.'btmx a Character qf MmttrChfynfil, lC4S-)CliilliTig- 
worth in ihorriean time, unable to reason his Aonioeuce ittto 
an approrsi of the 39 Article*, refoscd to Bc««pt any prefer- 
ment in the church. His long lettar on the sohjiict to I^. 
Sheldon (afterwards niehbiihopof Canterbury), a inoit ia- 
tervsting doctiRienI, is Krvuii in hit Life, by DeaMnucoux, 
)>. 66, and in KipjMs's Aio^. Brtl. Nothing can bo ilnugcr 
than tho expresiions of refusal to iubiciibe with nwotal mer> 
vatiofi. ' If I subscribe,' aays ChiUingwarlli. * 1 subsenbo 
tny own damnation— if 1 will not juggle with ny eoniei&aeo 
atul pluy with Ged Almighty 1 munt forbeo/^lo >ay tho 
dih Commaiidnient appertains toCbristians is IUls»— tlio 
damninf; snttcncei in Athonuaiut's erc«d ar» moat false, 
and ia a high degree prusumptuniu— 1 aiu drmly and iu- 
nun'ably rvsolved that if I oan tart no prefcruient with- 
out nbaeripboD. 1 neitfavr c«n nor will ba«<i :iuy.' How- 
ever, in a very short linie ho was compU-iely «'n»uaded by 
tho av|piiM«s of Drs. Shablon and tam). tbat newo auL 
uano ar* lbs real ot^wi orwbtctiptioai. not bdiot or BMaat 
— « doeinne held by Archbishop SamMft and maay other 
eninent divines. AcworllngK he ararptod tbe cbancolkr- 
ahip of Ralubitry with iho [ifebend of Bnxworth, Nortb- 
aniptonthir«,anii«Md; and in thesubscrptMn-bpokof Sats- 
bury cathedral an locgrdwd the words, ' Ego Gulklmua 



k.411. 



CTHE PENN\ CVCLOP.fiDIA.] 



Vou^VU^-lL 



C U 1 



titi 



C H I 



Chillingironh, omaibiu bi»«a ariieulii, ct linKulit in iUdcm 
eonunlts<vot«afl, ct ex sniino, subMrilo; ct c^tiMnium 
mouiu iUileiD pr«t>co, Jut. 2l)lb, ID3S.* Chillingwortli, id 
lii'in, Tat doput^ by tho clia(>t«r of Sklisbury u Uieir prtx- 
tor ta thu CoDTocotion in London. Ho wiu aUoehO'l vot^ 
lealautly to the rojal paiir, aiidwnio a troaiiio (unpuU- 
liiili«d) on 'The UalawMnvM or r«aUlii)(;tlio lawful Pnnoe, 
nltboug;!) most im[Viou8, tyrat^uical. and idolatrous.' 1it'\n(( 
prcHUt in tbo utiny oTCUarios I. at lb« wan crGlouc'ilcr, 
XugUBl, IG13, bo Hctcd nx oD^uccr, aad dcrifcd thfi con- 
BtTuctioa of «ngin«», in iuiUittan of tbo RotBUt ttittidian 
cuf piuMt.iaaAii^Mihv rot«)I« and take tlie city by storm. 
Uxving MKimpani«d tbo king's fbrcM unil«r Lord Hopton 
to Arundel c^nllr, ho wa; tben: with bis Gomrndot takvit 

firiioncr by the inrliimont army under Sir WtUiam Wol- 
i;f ; nud fillini; ill ho waa lheDc« conveyed to (lio Bishop'i 
paliiac At Chichrttrr. whnto Tio died and wu Luried in Jan. 
11141. In hiH epitaph (Gt-til. ifiig.,XQ\. \\iv., p. 63"), on tlw 
mural monument iti thai cathi^lrBl, belt styled ' Propugna- 
tw irivictiiMinnis Krclca^ Anclicanai.' A siaguLajr mmiw 
ocf^iirrcd at hiit funeral. Pr. Gho)ti«ll, then roetor of Pot- 
worlh. appeared at the grave, nitti the work or Chilling- 
irorth iReiig. ofPnUtLi in fais hand, and artcr an admo- 
nitory or%lii>ii on tho dangttous tondiriicy of itti nlianalism, 
beUunffit into the gtav«, exclaiming, 'Get thee gone, thou 
ttiirwd Ixxik, which hatt seduced to nmny preeious souU 
— KOl tbco i^no, tliau corrupt rotten book, earth to mrth, ditst 
todutit. go rtit Willi iby aiitlior !* Ho afturvardt publitbcd 
'CbilliiigwurDii Nuviwima, or lliv SiekUL-wte, Heresy, Dcalli 
npd Burinl oT Wra. C, mili n profane oatcchiim collected 
OUl of his works, by Y. Cli«yii«ll. Foil. MeH. Cij1I.Ox..':644 
nnd 1 71i. In this sini^lar production thi> abj<^ct of tlto au- 
thor' it on mityi* J eorod at as ' tlii« wan of rvasiiii wliuKu lic-ftd uat 
ssfUll uf a:nipI«<aKilsa» oreni^incx.' ButthDcharaoierand 
alHljIics of Chkllingn'orlh Imve licc-n Kiv3.ily uitd juiily ex,- 
trjUi-'I by manv ul uur ino&t dislinjiuit^Wl Miiturs. ' Tbe in- 
(0(11 jiartk hid Cliillingwunh.' t^iiys Dr. Tillulkun, 'Is the ^ry 
ff bin ago and nation.' 'irvou would liBveyourwntureaton 
»cll.' says Locke (on Edueat.), 'I«t bim read Cliillinc- 
woilli ;' igaiu (cit Slu/ig). • For nttninliii; rijfbt tcaNoniug 1 
IKopa^e tbe constant rebllnx of C'tiiUia);uarili i for this ptir- 
pnw lio deserves to lie ruBii o«t-r and o\cr again.' Aoib. 
Wofl njE thai, 'haviiijr Bpcni all his youibiiidifiputaliun, 
lui WIU a inmsl Kuhtle uud 'luick diiipiiliitil. and woutd olU:n 
put tbe kiii){'s nrafi-skiir tu u pu»h.' Iluhlioi oiisoivcs that 
' be was tiko a lusty fl^hiiuK fullow driv-tij; bis eutnnlps be- 
forv him, and oflen giving his own parly uruait back blows.' 
' TliiMO,' says Moshiiiiu, * v ho deMra to kiiuw tbo ducltiact 
of Ihtf Church uf Kiijtland. must ruad L-ypcdally Chil- 
ling worth's odminLle uuuk. The Religion ur Proiestanis.' 
Gdilwn oUeTTos that Chilling worth most ably main- 
tains the piinciplv tliat Uh protoilaot't solu jud(j« is 
the DJbde. and iit solo inturjnvler, priialu judijuurnl. 
Dr. Keid ronsiden him ' the bott reatoner and iDWt acute 
loficianofliis agu;' but Aiitli. Wood's opinion i« not uut- 
done by any, Tor be declares Uiat * CbiUin^iwoTib hail aucli 
"xtraordinary clear reason that if tbe great Tuik or the 
I>utiJ could bo com-erted. he was able to do il." ' Uis great 
exctfllency ounsiitod,' says Dr. Bailow, ' in his ucijuired kgic, 
the tyllugiKuis or Amlatl* and Crakeotborn lia\in)c betin a 
pnncl|)al part of ht« siudiut.' Tim r«-3ull of this pcuQcvency 
in ' wrangling' is slated by his tiiiuipuu friend Lord CI a- 
rcniIoD. who soyi (.Hut. RebsU.) that •ChillanH«ortb h«d 
Qoolracled nucb an iirosoluIiiMi and habit of doublitiu, that 
at last bo wm confldent ur notliinij.' This fact is adduced 
by Du){ald Stewart {Philoi. lol. II. p. 279) as an insianre 
of llie luiuuu* offiicls at tbu tcholasuc logic It is said by 
Clarendon that ' Cliillingwurth uas a man of link sia- 
turc,' and tliat it was * an ai^v in whieli many great and 
woDdcrftil men were of tbi.i sue.' The ititti and oett cl. of 
7ht Beiig. nf Protnl. is tliat in foL. I7il. with icnnuns, 
&c. and u lifu of llu! auttior by Dr. Birch. An tdiliun of 
Cliil ling worth's vtiuW «urk^ iiax boon TL-mntly publihlied in 
I ^'d.,Svo. Porcvidei.ce tliatCliilh»|(wuiih wiunuiaTiinila- 
rian, sv* Whiukcr n ' Uiiglu of Anaoisra.' p. iSi. 43'J. A 
DOBijiktv li>t ofhu niiiovllHiieousGoolroverual works is {[ii«li 
in Kippis'a Bii.^. Brtl.. tol.iii., p. bia, and iu Ibe L^/e ijf 
ChiiUnsmrl/i, li> Du* Maiieaui, Sto., I"21. 

CnU.OK. an i!.lai:d tituaiedoii tiie wufstern coaiiL of S>juth 
Amvrica. bctw««n4i''.is'and 43°.'VS.bt., oud TJ'JO' and 
74';ti)' \X. loD['. It is tliu mof't iiuitborn of that actiM of 
larger and tmallcr iaUndK which akirt the western ia>aal of 
Stiutii AsKKii frora Cipo Hoes uonbirudt. Ii ii diTided 



from the MOtiDcathy avido strkit,okllod tbe GBlfof Anmi, 
and Bt ita noribcm oxtromity bv tbo much narrowor sliaii 
ofChsMO. It catonds from north to south about 140 duIc*, 
oiul from eoaC to west sixty, when widest ; but iU caflMn 
ciKUt being deeply indented, the average width probably 
doc« not oueed forty miles. This gives an nrca of -jsm 
gqunro miles. It U iliororura iwarly 900 equur* miU* 
Isrgor than Corsica, nliout 1000 w]uare mile* les* tban 
Vorkthira, or about donblu the area of l>fiVonsbiTU. Die 
whole bland Is one mass of rock, which in no part rites 
to D groat beigbt. and is covered with earth aiul elmhcd witi 
wooii, cbiotty iMnsiating of a spMies of battard oodar, nn 
durable, and alTotding exeelli»it timber, which is exported 
in tjreat ouantitiei to Chile and Peru. In th« island iiaeV 
it is Used for building Toi>»cls. Tho northpni and eaaUni 
cocists, which aro much indented, have many eseoUeiil hu- 
boan, among which the heat are ChoAoo, S. Corius, Dal- 
cohue, and Castro, in nil of which vessels of any siie ni^ 
anchor with tbo greatest safety. On tho wext const is the 
Lagoon of Cuou, which is upwards of twenty milas in 
length, and eonnected with the kco. TlMUt^h frott and 
Bjiow are liardly known, tlie climate of the islarkd is ehdif. 
The air U 10 damp that fogs o<cui almost daily during ifct 
miaysoason, which losttt ten meotbs; }<>t ilio diniau it 
healthy. Tbo dumcstie animals are cattle, bot^t^o, sbiM|^ 
and swine. SoracIiidM aro exported, and also nearly 8DM 
hatna annually, of excellent uualiiy. Thmo with about 
SGD,QOO plonks con«tiluta all the arlklcs that ore M-til out 
Sumotimt's grain ia oxjiortcd. The Kiil beinpt tif ck<.-«Uaal 
quality pnidueei neh crops of wbeol and barley, andgrtat 
auaaiities of potatoes. A good deal of butter is made, but it 
(loea not yot lorta an article of commonw. Fisli, as well as 
uyiitertf nnd other tholltlsli, aru very abundant, and in Boma 
pans an the ehicf SixtA uf the inhabiianls. 

Tlio inUriar of the eouniry is not known, the inhabitants 
living all along tho sea tttiore, or only at a litllo distaoce 
I'rom iL Tbu northern and eastern evaals am suttlod by Ka> 
ropcans, but at the southern exUvmity only Induuis in Kinall 
niunben arc found. The peopio are iiiappcarunco uturif like 
nortborn Europeans tlinn Spaniards, btnng ulhl(>tie and ro- 
bust, nnd bariug a lair coinploxion and light tlaaon Uair- 
The principal ia«iu aie S. Cnrlus. tin the strait uf Cboraii. 
a snialt town u'illi about '2000 mhahilauis, and CastiVs 
which is eomovrbat larger. Tho Gulf of Am-v I < <ii!.u:ti n 
great number of smaller islands, ur whieh i> iwu 

are inbabiiod. Tlieiuust remarkable am <ju^ i i i.-ny, 

Calbuco, and Llaii-tuL On Lemuy viory good puaclwa ai« 
mado from the wool of tlu) country. 

All iliosu islauds form tuitciher the CbiUiE uchitwlag^ 
Tliey ccjiisiitulu the moot -ouilivrii of llie piotuKiu ol C3iile. 
Tbi> province includes also the small rmiress of MauUjiv 
nbich is Ktluuted an llie mainland itoiir the wostul^anlnnH 
of tho Ktrail of Chocau, and i» ibo inukl wulliem £.tin>pMn 
settlemeut lu Amuries. 

Tbo provinpo of Chiloe contained in 1632 apopnUtim of 
43.38'^, and .^1 schools, in uiijch I'i7i Uiys received insirur- 
tion. [I seudi ltin.M rvprv^ouiali^vs and two seaslore to 
tbe congress. (Poeppjgs Trm^ in CAiVi, iVni. ^,iii 
GenDQii.) 

CHIIXI'GN.-VTnA. scronliiig to Latreille. n foiniljt of 
inMCt« uf tlio urdiT uf Mt/ri'Jtifflu. Teehnical nlianictwre t— 
Body generally lyhiuliK-al. and cxmsisimg of numerous 
crustaccous rings or segmenls ; tlie head is furnisbed Kitli 
two xfaort ^evcn-jointe'l aiitcnmi-, and two mandibles ; tbi 
bufpy subslancw of tbu iiiamlibLe* iloox nut cuuiiuue uuin- 
terrunlcdty from tbu base to ihe apux. but is divided in tW 
middle, so that the upper pan is. as it were, hinged lo tbe 
lowvr by a lough meiiibrnno : they are eovvred above by 
the Ibrw part of tlie head, which fomis a kind of nppwr 
lip, and beoeaih by an undLT lip ; this lost part is divided 
eitemnlly into four portions by Uirce suturas ; the two cen- 
tral purtious am narrouet thaa the outer ones, and spring 
from a plate uf a tie:uii-iri:iilai slupo ; llu apux uf tliv under- 
lip is funusbnl uilhsuVeral largw tuberolos. Tbe lint sec- 
meat of tho body, or that ueit tho bead, is f«ujldcrabTy 
larger than the following sej^euis. The legs are shuil. 
very Dumerous, aiid terminated by a simj>1ii huuk ; tbo au- 
tenor segmenU of Ibti body ant. wme of them, un|trtivided 
with Ivgs. and uihar> haiv a smi^le pair each ; the remam- 
ing sejjcnents (with the rxctplion of the two oc Utroo laslj, 
•:om>iieuciag fWm tbe fourth, lilib, or aisih from llie licail. 
on) owb fuinisliod with twu paini uf legs. 

Tlu sexual ofguu c£ llw waLo uu feitualfld bdiui4 tba 



C H I 



G7 



C H I 



■tffealli ^tr of legi, uid Ibow'oT^be fnaalo belnnil tli«u- 
cond {Mur. 

1^ nspimorj otUco bts situated oa the slcnia] pan of 
each Mirmeiit<Mr the body ; tfaejr RRniminicatointenialiy witb 
t dviitita urioa of poeaoiatio mcs vhirh extend the vholo 
knclh <^>f tho bor))-. Mid ftma which ibe traoliefll liranRlKm 
•imnir. aiid Rprrart ovn- theolber oniuit; ilteie saa arv nol 
manecled wiih eadi other, ss is usnaUjr ibe esse, by a prin- 
ctpal Iraclwa. 

A Mfies of pom on each sida of the bodjr bavc bcr n mit- 
taken for l>i« siinnUa.lHit th«iron flees xivc \Ynl, to an ant] 
bil«ld MCfMloii wlticlt iiai a Tnry di>a)treeable odour, and 
probably sen n ait a raeuu of dri'vDca. 

The chtlofcoaOisi crawl slowly and upcar (4 glide over 
Ute trrutind : and when loocticd ilicy will roll thenuclves up 
91>inilly. Thvy feed upon dcrayini animal and veKetabw 
aabsianecs. and oocutUute tlio Kenua lulds of Ltnoent. 

CIIILOMANAS. [Phttoioabia.I 
C f 1 1 IXV I'ODA, aceardlne lo T jiinrille, a family of inacrU 
of tlie iirder MyniMMila. Thb fumily i» synonyniona with 
■ho nnlrr SypSDntba. L«flofa, and ihc t;cniif Scolopondro of 
UnniriK. The chirartcn orr — Rntrnnn thirk of (he bnsr, 
anil (^dually Krowtnic aU-mlfr tnwardx the ap«x, comiKncl 
of fa>urtc«ti or more joints ; thi? mouth «in»iala of Lwomon' 
dAloa, which oro fbrnlahinl wuh a p«dpifonn ]iracc«. and 
pTorUlcA at ibr !t\K\ wiib niitnrToiis little dent inula Lions : 
novoHn)^ tli«»a in iin itpfvrrhp and nn under lip : tlie latter 
is nwniwocd of four dliimct potlttms. of which ihc two ouier 
]«ruiire thelargusl. and iranstcnely joimod : uUne ihis 
part (liewini; the bond fh>in bDiMiDth) are two pnlju, which 
iwemUa lejpi in l>cine iftrminaivd by a pointed daw : rnvtr- 
iiqr thb nnderlip, (hor« in ii AMond lip, an organ fumiithnl 
with two bteral processes, (rarh of which it lotroinnloil by a 
Urce hcot daw, which n said In be pcifuraicd b«neulh by n 
half! lhroui;b which ii puiHimtKi^ liiiuid it. ejected. 

The body n dtM>rffiKd, cMnpnM.'d of numerous scf^ents, 
" >b arp c«TiTCd above and beneath with ptnlc? of n honty 
anrv, anil ouch aosment is j^nerally furninhud with a 
r at hft ; the litat pair an tlnown back. I'he sntval 
are ptaocd at llie poaterbr exiremity of the body. 
I ergani ofmpiration oaosiHt wholly or partly of tubolar 
inebev. The niiijmain are plwed on tlic Bidc» of tho 
i»odr. 
lawe Inacfila are camivorouA, and crawl altout by ni^ht. 
. td" them arc T^ry activi.' In their luovcmciila, nnd vonic 
■ pbosuhoric light. Thcyeonecnl (hcmwivrs iind>;r 
'*,iii'l r.illentrcci. awl are nil found in rotten woo^l. In 
•me of the npeciui t:mw lo an iinm<rn!>.' aixe 
■e of the f^nu^ SroTopendra, ftt it U now re- 
owinf; to their vcDoraoos bite, Bra much 
, ,.! inhn'iitpnts rf ihow (Hirtj. 
tl ' ' ' known hy Ibe name of ccntipcdta 

rotopE:«tKiA.} 
tS UL MJltKHS, A p-irliiiiinr (!■,'; IiIl'S land 
iRhamxhirc !• loimti Vy '.'.i-.- t.ruin] i-l li.L I'liiltcm 
FortRnrU these InlU ahuuiidcd iii tiinlwr, CijFcnally 
bewcti. Udd nffi/pled eboltcr to numtfotis banditti. To put 
ihc—-'—" -tid to \<m*'-' ''"■ "*"»Sitanl» of the neigh- 
U- ftvjtn llici: It, iin oflle«r wa» ap- 

|i.., , 'lir- ff 111 cwnrd of the Cliiltem 

llu n'tiiin, by the Society 

Lf I I •!!.} Tho' duties haTo 

ioagaiireTWi"*.i|. t'ul iln: r.^mnul nflJeo i* rcKiinftl to mtto 
a parlieular purf-.'iii.'. A i.iviub^r of tbc IIoiiK of Com- 
tMn>, not uiany i':*p(.ct disqualiftwl.cantiol rw'gn his seat. 
A iB-tnt^r tli'.rrfirr wh™ wi*bei to ra«i»tl, aeeomplithos 
' Ibe slcwanlkhip of tho Cbiltern 
hi;!d to be a phco of honour and 
in- III-' trt. w!i viTntM the wut. Tlii4 nominal place 
(ift of the chniic<;Il)r fif the cKcbe^uor. 

. ., . f ,. ....■,.. ,;r,.-,,,, (ichis allied to 

■it 



■itn.K.] 

r-lil. tho 



o Pyroln 

•I, a inull 

r.rta of the 

a North America, 



of Ltnnieui, coryrnhoic- 
w-ic-tll- :.lsiil, f'.rnraor* in '-■ 
!iiT ;,d ia .\«i-i, ni!'; 

la 1 J of which ils vir!i;M hnvo U'cn 

iMkgkiiiiwu, Tire Iftkvi* po»«rw Jmrof;:' proptitie* joined 
to atoni^ powr. ord tlif» imparl -trj'n.;th nntl ^nmrott to 
the ctont ■ ■■■■ the action cV v 

' ri'diiciii nii<l ' ' 



tannin, resin, and an acrid extraetife. The laita li &! flnt 
BWMt, aftenrards bitter. Their tonic and diuretie proporliea 
mndcr them Taloable remedial aeenu in dropeies. eapcdalljr 
Much an follow scute diaeaaoi. Tbey hare nbo boon Rives 
adTaatajteouily in tDtennittcnt, and even typhu*. rover. 
Dr. Chapman nsonbrs a disphorrtir power lo them. In- 
fnoian, ilcooction, and exUert are ibe lomu in which tbey 
hnie been K>*'en: decoction ia prelbrable, of which Bone 
ounoea may bo tti<^n repeatedly during tint day. (See 
7Vim«. (v/ Afyiiro-CMniTg. Socittif, rol, v.) 

CinMAV- [HAi:»-niLT.] 

CHIMRORiVZO. a louunlaln mala, rortninfr nno of ike 
tilRhcr summits of tho Andes. It Is sltuntud lieinccn 1° 
and 2" S, Int. and between TJ' ami w" W. lonjc., in the 
republic of ScQador. neiiHy at an mual distaooo fitom the 
town* of Quito and Guayaquil. Ilfson theireMem of the 
two parallel ranges, whidi here coMtitiite tbc hi|;he!t par- 
lion of tho whojo chain. Its ioannit. as duiurmini^d by 
Humboldt, rifcs nearly 31,600 feot aborolhe lerel of the 
•ea. The »nnw>line in ilm DctehlNNirliood of the equator 
beiiiK about I A. 730 feet, the aumiiiit of the mountain it 
5B30 feci, or more than ono-fourth of its height elcratcd 
ahow it. Sin re the visit of tbc French mRlhematidans to Peru 
to meaiure o deKrec of tlur meridian, Chimborozo hai been 
contidered the liijrbeiti Kuinmit in America, and gonwally 
on the globe. But towaid.i tbc clo-W of the last century it 
wat asccrlained that »om« of the svmmica of the Himalaya 
mountains roM^ lo a grcnlcr height: and within Ibe last 
ten yeiiri it ban bem provtil thai the hieheHt portion of 
tho Andes does not lie near the equator, but between M° 
and t ' S. lal., whrrc nt len^l fuiir summits rise hii*hcr tban 
Chimhorar-c) .- the liii^hcAt of ibeni, the Nevado di Sorato, Kwa 
to ii.'iiv fcol, or nearly 40D0 feet h!];ber than CbimliornEO. 
(Humboldt; Pontlana. in LnaJon GeitgrapMciU Joumat, 
vol. T.) 

CHIMES, a net of hclk tuiind to the modern rauiica) 
scale, and Mruch by hammers neiod on by a pinned cylinder 
or barrel, which ruvolrcs by means of cluck-work. Tho 
term is nim applied to tho mu»ie. the tunc, produced by 
mecliatiical means from tbc bcltii in a steeple, tower, or 
com m till clock. 

C'hiiDCi differ Arom Carillons (a« the last wxird is com- 
monly iin<]crMo»l in England), itioamueh as Ihc bells of tho 
rumierure acrted on by cltirkwork, thoie of Iho latterly 
key* «truek by the hind. Bui the French npp'y the term 
parilftn to the tunc [>lnvcd,Biid. generally, to the scries uf 
bi'lb, whether ^oundul by maehiiii-ry or by hand ; tlioiii;b 
lliu most accurale writers dialiui^uiih the latter kind as te 
amifon i) Matter, Tbc ciriUofti iJ flaci^r cotupnsc three 
octaves of bclU, sounded by nicani of keys, similar to tlM)< 
nediUof an org; an, which the petCinaer stnkca furcibl) with 
iiands clenched and sideways, Uic little (luj^crH lieiuit jfuanled 
by a (hick covcriiii^of Iriitber. These lie;[edi;arilli>iiK are 
foQud ill raotiy towns of Ilulland and the tS*thvrland:t. At 
Ghent lbi:y are rcroarkablu; but the best specimen is at 
Amsterdam, where the curtV/uricur (M.Potliofi', formerly ao 
orinnist iii that eity) uwd lo display on extraordinary cooi- 
mund of the initrumcnl, on wbi^b bo oxeeiitod pi(.i.-oi in 
Ihrci! parts — llw hnao l>y means of p«daU— with a rapidity 
rsrelr exri^«<lBl by judicious performen on the orcan, 

CfllMNP-Y. FHrtTBi;.] 

CH1MNKY-SWKHI>KR, n pcf«on whoso Irado it U lo 
eleopM? fiMiI chimneys (Wim icat Tho n<-ltt>l iwcopora are 
boy«."/i)Tmerly of wry lender nf;e, v/ha ar* taught to eliiiib 
the llues, nnd who, froin thn eitieltie^ often nrviliMid up^iU 
ihotn by thiiir nt»<teT«, hove, f^r the Imt bslf century, %,'• 
como oMecta of particular ci>r<' with Ihc legislature. The, 
flr«t and chief act by whi^^ii nMnUaliao* eoaovnilag than 
wvre erfrvreed was the 38ih G>?o. III., e. ■tS. It hai l)««n 
•inee followed by Act 4 & 3 Will. IV., for the b«ttet reipt' 
tatloaof Cliimney-swecpers and Uicir Anprcntice*. and lor 
the aaftr Construction of Chimneys and riuc*. paaaed 2}lh 
July, I83il. Frooi that dute no child v}k» ii under (en 

?iar» of ago nan be apprentievd to a <bimiv«y-iiwoc])tfr. 
he law is M tender with regard to thpsn generally friend- 
less children, that it ha^ :ip:ir.:rir''.l a imrtinibr firm of 
indenture for th4'm. Ah :<-^«nt 

eenlury, a nuinbor of pul>: iin 

oflbnn^ eonsiJembte preniiiiLi. to jnj c.:\c: a::^ njuld Litveut 
a mctbcd af cleansing chimneys by mccbanieal means, so 
ns to supersede tho nceedliy of Himhing-hoyi. Variouj 
inventions woiw in conacnucncc produced, of which ihe moat 



c^m 



136 



C^J^rt 



■ ftnf of ^B'tnflihio OM a bru*h. «>mel»«1ltiw lnb««rli»c1i 
nsten into ef^h t^bcr br mcsii« of brus wckoti. ami n 
o«rd (of conncvlin; the whofc twclhcr. The unsWilfut van 
o^.t^e mikchuK, iKiwerer, uiii t)t« atitt(|Ualed and pvculbt 
'Coustruciion of » e^■'•t nitn)' of Ili<? oliiiniioya of the mctn}- 
)whi, liafo j)rcv«nt«d tbo uniToteftl iKkipiMn of whnt had 
rccctrvl th« aij^ifl^anl aj*p«1Ulimt '>f ' tbe In^t t'liimii«y- 
«#eirper.' Tilt lh« |iM»ini; of Ihi* t««t Act, the tittle cliim- 
■Ti«y-s»r«^|»w n»c<l lo Bnnounc« his iixation •« he travcnied 
4ft* Alic«u of I»n Jon b\- «r\'ing ' Stnsep.' 

■ CHIHONA'NTHU&, a'japaiws* jj«nii* «f CbI jcantha- 
'M«ts pUnU, whiKo ftpnoi^ or v&ricticx arc ealleil in ttut 
gapAem JuMn atUpii-e. Thtf ar« dcciduooa )>lftnts, wiili 
«pfwul« i>at«-7reen, aharp-pintiyl, rather rou«li h>av«>i, of 
«n oTHlff-UnRMiblt! flifun-. AWil llie *nd or NavDinkiir 
ibtte (iill rmtn the buriiua, in-l nri.- iuivmhUx) b^' ihe flowKf*. 
vbitli uppMr at ChrisintaB-limei iipun Ilio naked brhncIlM. 
Thny rontiEt or on inferior e«lyx. f^^niod of & «in*id«nibto 
nutntx'r of mutidiili kralv-like veiml*. tlia ouUimioxt ol nbiuli 
»re pale brawn, the inBMinoW Mwi-ti-fliniMrwit. with iwmi! 
tio)^ af ycllonr. Tlic ptaH ara ivllowish ntnUi liMi-es, 
■taind wiib «1iiico1aI« u»i toins, uinl mirniuiitliui; a sinnll 
DUiBliL>r of clBUMnA. The fruit ii « bni^lit brown leatliury 
nlyx-lub«, i<ticla«ing thrao or four obloni; bright-brown 
]ioli«h«il nuU. Thoro i* j>nibably cu> ]i1itnt inura dulicuiuUy 
fra^niit tbua Ihii. the oransti and viuict no^t exei^ttad: 
tho plant is quile hsnly if pntlvcteil a Uulo by a vail or by 
palinet,' Tbnjd varii'Licn Rro kiiourL in tb« tjanlom; tbo 
euiQiDiMn kind wall iiniill |iidL-y<.-l]«w llow«n : Ihe giaJiiIt- 
/lor OM mill 1b(vc biikflil-yehni* llovreri: and nnothtrr niib 
llowen membiinK tluiHj of ih« flr«l, oxd-pt in imnv i*er]r 
much «mullpr. Tint Imt n not uorlh ciiliiv.ilinsr • 1>'>tb thv 
ftwRKV ahould bo tuuoA in every ([Aiilen. hdwuter «ni»U: 
tMiihini! rnn li« nore cloi;nnl as toom oruanient« ihan 
hanOiftd oflhrir round lluwcrs [il»ce<L on httlo pgrcvhtiii 
Wiwi. 

CllIMPiANZBB, th« name by. which one of ihtMe 
fornu which >p|>roat:h iit^onal In tnnn is most t;i>neraliy 
known. The term hiut heva ii>]»lii-il tu thi! ^itnia Sutifriit 
of LlnDvui, the orienf^l ouinf, but louloeisM are mow 
n^rcoil in il» proper D.pplif,ittijn to tliu fttnc/t or /i/rican 
Oritax or Pygmy. (TrughUfle* ni^^r *if GcnlTmy, Siinm 
Tro^l-idyUa of BlumenluichJ Limimu* |iluL'«d ihc furiin 
undrr ihc pctm V - ■ -'i rVc ^iicciflc nama Troglwtyfft. 
next to Wimrj iz. iis wo liavc Men abo>c, 

thoAatalic omii. .;.. ..: .ijir.- but lie Boerasto huvu 

ri)nruiiii<lrd the t^o 6|)('oo of uriin;{s, which differ veri' con- 
aiilt-mbly ; for lio rerun lo |Ii<- Aiziirv pron by BooiiuB 
nhkh «iv4 iiiti-tiilc'l (at chu AAiUicnn<lTVllii!f;i><si.iiuiitiiiK 
PUuy, tholhifi'lin^ of Klhiojiia r.i iu nabiuil. lut witU hh 
•la\ii, Ambovnki, Xcnirtlc, nml MuiidI Ophir in MaUcro. 
Tlwt the Chimp injH-i', tlva^i utuih of i1» unpin iant ion 
btMr» n ■•tnkin .' i . ihiit of man, is Mjviifltiil 

fif»in him by n f Rccunito invcstii^uriunt of 

lai'lem annl ' < . pnn-n Tjuon, Cuquct. 

niumonbach. ' ', m\'\ Owcn, lin^-o sot ttut 

•ttittlioo nt nil. -. ■ ^' Vim-ont iitrofln^lcd bard 

<ti rotuin man ixiiA i! i<i'>crt> of ihi-^inr tiyy- 

hhci<'>il fiimily. Ui?1iij, .., ;- , lu the rtr^ifHmoiits of tile 
liKt-nauied xonlu'j^ist, it trill bv nA>H'h«ary to npjirixc thi> 
rvadi-r lK»t, to iKiy nolliins of thw differvncc of or^nimtion 
in olhor yn'ttoftbo li'tdy and foot, thv hM.-l'boit# {ntcitlci*) 
^^^ r>f iiiikn rttn'^ n«l pfiiJL'i'l backwurtUi »o far in proportion a« 
^^K Ihu of ihi- !^lnin)>ntixi<4, and lA«-r«nM noiei thii a« an ia- 
^^^P Gtlliblo huiiifKa (•luuuotann.ie ; 'ex ealre heminoni.' Bory 
^^^ no Si, Vin^fltU, and thow who supitoil the thoorj* of gmduni 

■ ili't^lopmciit of aiiiinal form. cnilAvour to show that (he 
H pOMliun iif llw (^'ut tiK^ upon vhicli it* convvraion into an 
H o^[KHDh1« iiT^n. or thumb, and the conncquent Irnnittuula- 
H lion of tht' foot into n hnnil, prim-ipatly dopenrlo, is a rha- 
H nctMT lubji-i-'t to niiiiUili-aliini ; and, nftor n somvwlml Hircop- 
H ins; aMiimiKion. th.iL it i* iho onlv ditTurFiice of on^tni^iliitn 
H b^wi<cn lh« iimn({> and man. pa'mt<i the whole strength of 
H his nririimpnt ;kg;iintl iIk vaiuu a* n luolozirid cliaru-tor; 
H sm), by a rather ictiognMlo {irun-M of fciuuinn)^ r^tJiavoum 
H to Kiipport hia views by pvins lui iniLiDce whiro mnii, 

■ nndn- certain rir'-iim«l»n''i4,obUiiiw ■ prchpnsilo powt-r of 
H foot. Calling in aid tliv Itftimen of ilm bnili-K nf Atiui* 
H lame, he exnibits them as tfann^ acqiiircd u powur of uji- 
H |w«ini;ihf ^rcat tM to the otiivrs, s facidly supposwl ti 

^^H 'i'~n arrived . 'it ' ' -'imdiinal hsbils in "btnin- 

^^H livint,'. \n le ream it Hint mtrift nut. 

^^^ ,jj-« -7> fhnKa itli v™,(.,^ '»u^po6ins ih^i ('\tonl|,(>r 



mnliAn of fhe ckhH Im to be suScton^ inetMsed bv< 
utoiit iMibils of chiobiiil;. or h\ connexion «ilb n rMnetqulal 
delWt oTthi" iip|»or extn-roitioa, j-ol it doe* «i-.l npifonr l)i»i 
tbo Of eaifn, or tho other bontiii of the foot, bavi- lust an} ffl 
ChoM proportioni which 90 unomnp;ly dtpfir'.""-' ■■■■■• Cm™ 
the ape." M- Hory, boiwwr, in hi* wabm .i-vId 

lowor the arro^n(H! which moltM man un<Ai-;i:.; : u^itt 
iiiie with ajw3i and monlcc}-^. U earned bo Ihr a^ 10 ipve vmi 
to thi* nnVvo (fUMtion. ' Kn eftet. quatre mnin« n« law- 
draienl oltca pas mioiix qtte d«ux commn fl* inirn* iktfar 
IVctihilitb?' ' In fact, nT« not fnuf handi of more value 
than two oa elfmunt* of pirfevtibililv!' Now le* u hnt 
at this fallacy, fur a follai-y it in. "t^im iniKbl bo n Imk 
and ft v«*v Utile iifirr all, in t)ic (|ui>ry. if an) rnu- of tbr 
four ImiiUN uf thL* Quudrumtvu. or alt uftliHiii pni ti>)(i<Uict. 
approached th-- Imml of mtn 11s nn iristniim-tit 'if aMjin.— 
an inKlrumont wliiTn.'by, thuugb \v.itn ihi.* iiiu»t licl|iU«f il 
anilftalh :i!i(l Hitbuut dutliin? or any natural protawtioii. lie 
hns maile himself master of idt. nnd i-iimpulh'd l!if Jfp*- 
rtntly Tntiiit inipriietiunbli! notund prndiU-'Ltoiui 10 minVirt 
not only lo his wmU^ but to hi« ino>,i lusunoua itnagim- 
duns. IjA any one who is at all convcrvant uiib annnd 
iti«rbiinin« loo^ at the hand of a chiinpimw, nnd campus 
il with till ovn; nr M ;iny one obutritt tlin ctuinfMunn 
usiug bL-t apulou} fur a thumb, and thvn cast liis qjet oa 
|l)c merest hudman at hia woik, and b« will miou to; 
vhera the ftdvanla^'e Iiii4, And this it. nut all. * Tu |>iie 
duo fbrce to thift pru}Hi!>itiun.' ita>'i Owen ui hb vxrtMnat 
wiper * On the O«teolo!jy of the Chimpauiw anil Onw 
Ulan.' ' ttii: I'nur hands iif the apt; oiit;ht li> \tv imkficndelil 
uf any t>hutv in >latiuniity auppuit or pMj^ivutiiii ; ii»w. 11 « 
kCDJTcJy fiMCMiiiy lo obsorvL', thHt tlic ptTl'i.-cli«i i'f Itie 
bunds of iiiAii n-,^ulDt, in a m-ul minxurv, IVou the tsoe um 
ho is enabled lu iimke of thcin in coiuciiuraXTe uf lite urea* 
njiLiliun of ihf lower members as pxclueivr in<iinim«ul> fw 
llk^t»inil^: and mu^ini; the hodv. It has, hovever, be«a 
siiiIKentud that l\\t haitax (thumn) of tbo oran^ miuhl tc- 
Huiio iiicn-osL-d lentrlh nnd slren;(lh durinc ihi- tfliirts n/ 
nucncw^ivc ;*encntiiins to miiinlAiii the iTcr-t poMliuii; bttt 
if ;ri! liKik IV linU further inin the mutottiy of tiw vnaes 
a dillii-tdiy pa-M-nL^ iinelf unfnrcscen by I^niurrk. T^u 
musclo rdllctl ytcj'or iongut poliicis pfd/4 lemiinutcs, in the 
humiin subiift, in a icingU icndon, and ilu force is ctmcen- 
inlcd tin ihi! ircat. tou. the prim-IiKil pciint of maatium ia 
raidiRi; ttic body wymn the beil. In ihe iirdnt;. huwevBL Ibe 
anatoi(i)iis luiificle Ivtiuinalcs in ihrcf icndoots vhici arc 
iiinerlvd wpar.ilch und uxi'lit-ivcly in thu tlin^u jnUiUe loeit 
oliriuuoly to ciiubli: thcec In ui^ovp with ^catcr ftirc- thi' 
bou;(liaof1re«s &c. It it ivicly uKiiis too uiwk ftirc- 
•juirc at ttf believe Ihul, in tlic ooutm <>f limv. umlci^ ks] 
circuntatunce*, iIk-k" llirw l«tiduu»s}ioiild bc^xnc ccft^-h- 
dntcrd intu unc nnd tluit one become implanted laloA Uie, 
to which nimi; of the Ibrcc eepM-atv t«iid«ii« iv«v bvKitu>l' 
Inched. Tho niyolo;n' uf iht orani^s, l-i Which 1 tmy '^(lai- 
nAcr cndcivvrtiir lo dirvct ni'iro bllc<t<ir>n IImii it hut \v\ 
receded, ntt'<ji(t« miniy or^^nciicrut* cjuiUc viiiiiu»«cniLlt 
ngnimi ibc |i»v%ihilily of llii-ir Iriiiatnul-ili'in ■■■■• 
race of bwni^,' Kr.-ri Ihc •imc nulliir w 

l<>wfnct numnviry i-umpaiiioii of the eAuupiiu 

tilan n-ith onch'oilicr, nnd with nan. 

Tho r/iimrxritiee dilfor* o^loototpcnlly from llu' 
bt liavinif tno cranium flutter and lurihtilor ii. 
tbo race, a, In having the supniediajry n I 
vriopod, nnd in thtr nbRL^n'^c of (ho inlerpnriclul ood 4«f(iilil 
eretiri. .1. In the junction uf Ibc temporal wilhfbc fh^Hl 
boncjL 4. In the creater prap^irtionut breadth of Ibt- infrr- 
orbiial Gpace. 5. In tho mort-> ccutral po-iilion nnd lt«s 
obliifVa jduiio of llw oreifital f om«n. 6. tii hitvin^ bul 
one anli'riur ecimljind I'liraiiii'ii on each sidf. whilt* lh« 
orang I1.14 tno. 7. In bavin;; {^nemlly but 4IM.)»)b>irlulal 
fomnten uii inudi kuIo. while the c««ng hua llvo^ or m<«V 
6. Ill the pcrtislenee of Ihc cnnio] suluri<^ A. lu lit* 
vnrlipr ohlitei«ti:>n of t^ inaAdlft-bnleniiiixBii^* iuLiikk 
I ti. lu till- xnialltfr proporliocud aizo at th« in^fo artd ca- 
nine leeih. and ei)iiM<(]ticni EDiollfr duveloptnmt of ih* 
jin-B. osjiociilly i>f the mtenuiixillary bunca^ II. In lh« 
nmnllar pm port ion al siic of the ci^nii-el, anil biTgiT imipur- 
imnal iiri' of thr lumber vcdebim. I i. In tha lubhtinml 
doTs.d veiiclir^a c<inv«|Hindin;,^ In llto additi»nill {i^ir of ribs 
1:1. In thf more complMc c<>iitpo«i(iuii urilMi Bl«Tnuni 
which run'trij^ of a »iii^l<' mid not double ne-i ' ' -. nt 
in ihc nmntr. N- f" 'be (^Timlw Mjuinid en- . i.i- 

victe, which in the oran|(i*n««rl( -firaiKhl. i.i. ii imlir* 



~ 'frl'cf 

ihlF^J I. 



i 



fsefSKmui (vmMi of 6m uv/mla, utd (Iir in«ra htoral 

^MC^of th« i^lc-noid onily. 16. In iho U-»i |>r..pi>rlioii4l 

UMjIlh unA ([nwtct knnh of Ihv f ac^rum. 1 7. In tlic leu 

^^^NTtMlikl btntfltkeflhe iJiWm, luid groatcr oxpaoMon nf 

^HRkAium. 19, Inilw pompaniiivcsltortnoiwof lh« upper 

trxtrvfiiiiiiM, mere r»p«cully uf tha fun>-uia tuid bund. 19, 

' In tW iioti-rlivNnn of lliu pisifbrtn boos of tlw vrifU io. 

In Iht* nvalet praportional ?«ti^h of the Jemttr »wi lihin, 

; Kn<l the Ikm profKirlional lirui^th of lh« TimI. 31. In Uie 

■^fttiMtMi <it K }i>iim'vtfu.vi ftTfjf, and «i>naeiincnt dopreuiun 

-m Ihc head of llic/cwrMr. ?i. Id tbo i;rvalcf pnporlioDal 

♦Jn (if ih* tarwua a* oomgnrd with Ihe pAa/angtv of the 

■>M». :r-1. [n tkAvini; cuaBkiDtl}^ twu pAiUanget in th« Aa/- 

ki-M s^mil t->»«ith R nuil.vihiIo tlw nttf^uni ftAai/mx nad 

n>i3 nn> rjflnn witniin;; kn tl)« hallux uf iltc cnng, espocinUf 

la !'-■■' ■ 'ri-riule, 

T' ■--'rappiwiiin»Ie* more OMiriy lo lh« human 

Wnirdiri- i;! t:inw (I^niklioM whic)) Mw numbered A, i,i, 7, 
«, 9. te, IJ. 13, 17, 18, l*!, SK, 31, *J, ■2.'J. 
" T>n» Ijfnttg liaa I nrarer r™pn>bUi>re ia Man- t. In 
the juniMiiin rtf tltft mhcnoiil wilti Iho pamUl bone*. 
jLJb harinff 1-2 (Mint M hh*. 3. In live Tona t>( th« tat- 
HJMt-P4{M^'iullv in iH pvnier bivtullh. 
^^Hir. i>«<'Ti ttinl) ob<«rvM, tlisi ii i* n mojlt of the pre- 
k^ eomnrnwHi, «li»i tb«* f.'Motfutnii^ ntic;ht lo nuk 
Move the Orofg in q dMccndin^ mtiim, anil not below it 
in ihc Rffiii' Ammal «f Cuvier. I,innvU!i, lu wc have 
keMi, (^vfi ih4> Cfitrnpanr*^ (hat ^ipwiority of rank, but 
■irml 0* muH) on ih«^ <ilhf'r m'Io hy pU^inf it nniler ihv 
kt-BUS H'mto. frtr both ilic Chimffini/'e and Orang, nreoH- 
wi|F tn Owen, ^iSur iii ftnurlura bom the lioni*n ^ukjrvt. 
1. In ihc .f)i>/r»i'r, <t ililiTvul bffwi-trii tbi- i^a/nf/iri nmi 
IfteiMm til rh(! npytit jaw, mhI b«lw<H*n tbu fHtfulati niiil 




Ndfi^mGM of l1i» lover jaw. 9. In th« j;T«ft(«r 
nf llii' inlcrrmuxiUon b'JiiON inibcaloil in tlivu^ljlt b)' Uie 
dtslonco of tbv /inimma iVimvi Troni Utc inttAiva teetb. 
both «r whicit diflV'iviKvs rMult Iroiik Ibu |cn:al<n' prapaT' 
UotwI ileKelvfitiicnt and dilTvrciit funu» of Ibc OMiBtAifi 
snd indaan. Ttirac. u ihi- author ob«<rvoa, aro diffennoM 
of {[omtric %-aluv. 3. In the moro bwkwiird ponlton awl 
oU>({u« (ilnno of lb« oc«tpit«l JwamMt, 4. \a Iho anialltt 
proportional wiu of tbo oc«i)ttal rondyloe. S. In tbo larger 
pr(i[>i>Ttiofinl Kttt^ at llto i-fTtroiiii boni.>«. £. In tJw tiruato' 
prnpnrtiunal d<^^x-lo|>nM-nt of the j«wt. 7. In the Hdliion 
of tbo nivil bono, wliHrh ih rarvly ibvidtil in (lie tncml 
line, white in //on tbo niual bon<« Ml m rarely cwttolidalnl 
into ono. M. 1)1 ibi! |wv4en«« of llir ant-aiiditM^ (iromn of 
tbo letnpoRd bonv, and th« ubMticc of the tna»twiil and 
stvloid TirocoaM*. !>. In Iho abtwiKO of tbu Fri'ccH ofUn 
t^rataa, cMoA friiln gain. Hi. In rh^ ftbunrnwiLndcctn- 
paralivoiri-ukncMof ibr liunliar r<.i(icnof ilii-K)'inul«t4iuitta. 
«hi«b i* al*o rorap(wo4 of four inoloud ol' flvu VKirhrtr. 
11, In iho naiTOwnow nrnl propt.rliotint Imi'th of tbc >o- 
erttm. 1-2. In tho flalnMn ot the tlin, nnil iho larttcr 
iW\-<!lDpm<.-nt and oiitw-iird eiir^aHin.' e\ xina i*rh>ti. |;j, |n 
the potition of flic p*lTt» in r«tfllion lo the dtiniv. 14. la 
th« UntTT pmpnrtinnnl ilcvvliipnK^Rl ol' |||« i'bL-»|, 16. Id 
the KnTntcT U-nuth of tlie upiK-r fxifoniltict. ir>. lit the 
widiT inlt^rvnl belwecn Ibt- uina and r<tUnu. I r. In tlw 
»havin4's« sail wonknoi^ of iIm< thumb, and narrowuv.to a/ 
tlin linnd in rnlnlion to itfl h-nutli. IN. In Iho ebimncMt of 
the lower exfrnniUe*. 19. In ih« t^rmUT fir«p«ninnal 
l«ni^i and nanownMi of the fiioi. to. In iltt- nninll sixu 
of \\ie ot niffit. '.'I. In lti« vhortnpsA and uppanblo ooa- 
dilinn nrthf AaJlur. 

■ TIh'w di(rcn.>npc».' «ddi Mt. Ow«n, " mult froni ori^nat 
farmaiKin. and am nut Imbk' to bo wonkimod in any mnlcrMt 
di.*2nv. vithcr on thu <iiio hand by a deirnidation of iht 
human jjioi'twi. or. oh llio olbcr luiid, I'y Ilie biijlM-*! culU- 
vatiun of wbii'b iba anLhropoid dpti are EUtoe[rUkki.' 



ASa. 



[SicMaa vtCblnpuwr, tnm Owvo 3 




[Skrlplvuuroiiiic titan, fh-aOvta] 

In rnUowmn «nt thi> okioolugiMl comparison it >>('<-uniea 
niH-eHary, for the nuifii.iniv ot liw i-tuilent, to giv\' a ^kot<■ll 
uf the crAfiinI devo!o)iiiiui>l in nian, bnd in Llio aiiiliinpl>lid 



u 



e n 1 



70 



CHI 



; m ttwt ho nay Have und« hia «^ lti« MRttontirc 



IWtOlUlolopWl nUBMI ^kUlL} 







The fellnnnj; fanmiB^ir|i it lo'mmh 
ihinx ^c cotiM pretiMit to the r«*d(t', thai w pvc h 

■ Oriatn uiodifiMliMw in th* form «f the bnToan peiat 
l).iv« b««n ab««n'«d to ■MMnpuiy the diffunint form* nf Ihe 
■Tt-onium vhkh ebanctehze tne differmt rii«e« ormnnluiiil; 
but tfacn i» naUuns iii tlM> fima of the pefvit ot tbo Amtn- 
li«l or Nccnifhicti tcmlt to ilimini^ th« wide liiatu> thai 
sefanha ibo bitntmoiit from the auadmitatxMi* type of 
sinietiirc in iv;;iiid to thi* )Minorm«iik«l«toii. Obecm- 
tion hiu nM yrt shown tliat ih^ pelvta of the Orattg, ta a 
ntatv of raptixity, nndci^OM any ahan^ a]>])roxitiuituig it 
towufdB the pecMluLT t'orrh which the («me part pr^wntcin 
the humnn nubjoet. Th^ idea that th« iliac boii«« wvold 
become cxptLinlcfl and curved forwards, from the pvewtm 
uf llic aiipt-ntKURibtrit visrfm, r«naM)uent on bnbitiul 
att«nipU nl ]n-D(^v«Mon on ih^ lowor oxtromities, k ucr^ 
8[jeciiliitive. TboM fcntum of tha cratiita of ibft Orangt 
which »tftiii|i thi' chimicti^ nf the imtiniuil bcuto eoimC 
strongly upon their frnrni?, nr«-, liowovtrr. of a kiod, uid tht 
rwult of a law onKinully impTcaMMl upoa the spedts, whi(& 
c»luiot be euppOM d to bo modili«d xmAtx any circuin^uioe% 
or during any lopw of (imo; IVir whnt «xtomtU itiHn«ac« 
opcntintc upon And aroond \\» unimnl can po«sibl} modiiy 
in il» offsprinjt the ft'mis, or allor lb« »»», of the dcfply- 
i!».-ited KiTins of ihe pcTioancnt tt-Mhf TT*^ exist lt«nm 
tho flDimnl is born : »n\ liH hini iRi|iio^'e \a* thinking faru]- 
Wt* u h(i mny, they inu«l, in nbodicnM to an irr««i>4Jbk 
law, \mxt lhroii|{h tlio p1iu>c« cf ihi-ir dt-vdopou.tit, and to* 
«!«)«> ihLW rvtii^irknblc dtnnc^a in lh» uaxillaTy portion 
of the nkiill ivIiiiTh pec !■' tliA ndulf Or/ing* o rnnro b^'MW 
form nnd pKjHTJwion of head tluin man;r of llic.> tnrrt^of 
timf^ [irrsent. It t» true that in the human ^ubjvci ilie 
'•ramiiin lurii-j in it» rrlativp pri-iportijins to ihc f*cv in 
different Iribe-s, aceordincf to the dei^rc* of Hvilii'ation atiil 
eiTebml ilovelopment vhieh ihoy ailain : end tknt in the 
more debased *lIiiopian rimaiiM. and Papuans tho akUl 
nakCH M>in» iipiiroxiiuation to the quadrtimanotu propW- 
lioti«: but in uwm on^r^ nairell n.i when the frnntum ii 
diitorled bj urtifieial raeanK or tiy eoiiffonilsl malfdrniitifm, 
t1 B alwii^.i uci-om panic) by a form or the jnws, an^l \n a 
ditpffiiti'vn and pronortiona of llic Irolh, which nlTonl in- 
fuilinti and impewatile f^enerie <hiitinf1ion« bvtvcvti iUtn 
and the Ape. Tfo pUes ihi* pr«»po«Hlon in the most unn- 
cvptjonabi* lic^ht, I hnvo »ole<tc>l xh'^rranttim uf a htiuiiOi 
iiliol, in whom natiJiv may bn wtid to Imve yHtftmacA for n» 
thft ex])fnni«nt of nTrc-ttini; the devvlopmi'iit of th# bnte 
almoslcKaeilvnt tbi'twewhirh it olUins in iheCAimT"'-"" 
and vhem tliu intt'UeetHal fei.'tillies wwv wan-.-K 
dpiclopod: yet no anotomist Houhl Ijei-itate in 
refrrriri'j this rranium lo l!iu' hiiiiisn sjieeie*- A 'I 
eomporijon wilh this ivanitini of tlio Chimpanzte or ' ■ 
«bows thni all ihme ehimrtcr« nn< rrUjinnl tii \\w iiImiI^j 
ukull n-hich miigtitiite Ih<- rlifll-K-niiul f<-uluit')i of tbu hunviL 
siruelufo. Tlw! eraiiiu! caviiy exltiuls dun-na-ards bduw the 
U'Tel of the gk>llold trlieiilatur}' surr^iot'ti. Tli» uasnl bon<s 
arc two in niinibcr. uml i>mmiinfit. Tlio jawu an<l i. il 
exhibit the htmanoat rhrinicttr- \r- slnmidy ai. in III ei . i 
elovoted of the human tail-. T\it^ citrpidafi do nol pr jnt 
bi?yond lltt' «'nli;s;miiis lix'lii, :in'l coitsj-iiuctilly (b.-ir wu no 
inlcrT'ipticiis in the tk-ntal wrns ok iit iho Oniu^i. vbah' 
they an? ticiiiwwI t» lod{re the dnjifo portion ale (.-ruuTUtJ 
the i-anifiH teeli.' 

M. GoofTroj" Sl.mioin' rliiracii'ii^ml the Mib;cuniu IVo- 
pU'ii,:. - fnun injinmun; CfiintjMinzeei ; and as Mr. Owmi'b 
II < uiTO made Uf«n the skdcton of an adtitt bt- 

<l 1 h« hai txintiy|»tnilty altera) i1>c mcHilotdral cha- 

nictcfB givi* liy Gvofrnij. »c fi>!low \tr. Onvn'f> d«hnlti< 

Sub^nus TRoaLODTTRa- 

Dmloi prmuJii tbo xamc u in tlii human MdJttI ; rit* 

iiic4»on -p eanlnoi r> bicuHpid^ -i nwhus -. (MJ]. 

liwLh ■jmroxiinato in tSnir prt^ortionatc a>z« Pnuh 

nwly than iboMi of the Oraiig to Ibu human toeth; hut 
thoy 'manifesl in their re'-atlttj po-ition lb*- nbaeocp of tlx? 
cbarai-lcr. whieh. jiiili (nif aiuimalou* f\<»iition— rb;u fif 
tlio fo«a ^'friii* anij.iothrritim — Lh peculiar, ainulu; main- 
uiilirs to niui ; vijL. unbroken jircximily i 

MuBjU' Ions, trunntlvd anlvnurt; ; slrone wmrillatj' 
ridze^, behind wbi'h tliu foicbeod recinW liinc^f back 
warilx; no craDinl ridges. 

fiuHai engU 3^, excluding the Rupn«3tarj' » 




m 



A:: 

1' -o/ri&r; liotmofilw-rtsniniiiuiiiungleraw. 

jii~ :....u^ licluW lliu luiCL'-juillL 

Act vtil)! ; Uilhix rxteuduij to the kcodJ jaint of iliu 

CaMinei Inrw. ovcqiBatoa^ emcli otber ; llic o^ced lutlsnl 
in iuU-oolii of lite Qiipmiui teeth. 

lulrrtnuxillutt/ tonra anciiyloeMsl tO tbu nilt&iUajio 
duriit;c I'l*^ Itrjt oc tliTiduDUb ilrntiiion. 

txamole. The Chimf>aue*f, llladt Oraim. or Pj/guiy 
iDngtodfitet ntVcr of GRuOiruy. &wn<i 'JVo'IuiIj/Im of 
nutwnbvTb). Ifi ilk; yuuujf aOta llw uunuu liw Icco 



n 

Jr.ii 



Tlio fiilloviiii; In tkon tin pen of Dr. 
"j1 ; lUt'J ftititi inmnt* cxumJiWlimi of (be 
"^^i^il(1l ol the nnlai of the Zuolupm' 

^ '.ii.-ji 1 \'. i'#l*ui:k. LiiiiuDU. wu can wucu fu[ ile 

L"' L,_,,. I!,, li-.|i'o AjK'riineit n-** u yuu^^ IviHulc, 
Kbout tfiirly niche* bif h, uad wiu biuuii^ht bouu: by Ck|rtaii] 
Pn\7ip. 'Till! >kiii anjieiRtof d \vlliwi%U-irbili- culuiLir, oiitl 
I Hilfi long block liair on the front ; but it 
i.i.rc Iwirr lichuuL Tho boir on Ibv ImmmI 
V r.iiJit.r tltui, and in tliickcot oa the furcbi-wd, vilicro it 
iilioul nil inch dI»ivv tb« «sbttal pivroM ol' tlio I'nMibil 
uul. I ' lilUa lJ[u.'k^«'u^Ifl, faii* <lu^n) before 

I okiT^Mi 1^1? cbculu. Ilvrv thv litiir 

IM;:uT< iHM DirllC) Uit^: Lut tbut oit llio o»i{iut 
■bora lUt iaeb in ivii.-rli. Tlicfv me u f>:v »tiir buck 
ob fti« «yot>rov>, uul u tcjnty cjcLtib. A fw 
boirn Jro M-iiiri-rwi ■.•ii tbi: lijn, t.-ii|ii>riiilK iHi ibo 
I1ic rt-*) of ihc tiKv 19 nukeil, iiii4 han whituh 
il ftkiiL '11teii> U wanwl)- any Iwii on the itcck, 
inc'ntthi! naf^ U bceMuei imiicwhat biub}* 
Thc> abclniiioii tnitenily uuked, Th4> huir un 
of Iho h<-iu1, uiiA Iho «Iioi>> tnmk, fronl of tho 
hnrk of lh« Int^i, nnd upi>cr part of Lhc 
milieu it iliroficd doimvikHH, while that on 
' ' tbigh nnd fore uns ia i»iiit«rl upvnnls. 
!. rcnfiw>:nl(^ in iSr'eon'* ipiro. The longMl 
ji.ai itt iii« cfbikUr-tL Th«rd H noneoa Ibe fingen or 
of either extremitv. Tba «us ne rentrkoMjr pio- 
Ibm and tukod. Searing a eonodonbto nwunUanii* 
lo tho hnnuiB, though bnAdernI the top. The 
of th* procoM ahnve ihe eye* U very conapnouoiw, 
not lic«n «iifl1nenlly luarki^d in any enjo^tini^ or 
frhk-h ha>i faMvn iindiT my obMir^Tiliiin. Tim naut 
fUl, nr m()iL>r oppotn only n* n wnnklu of the akin, 
■light dofmuion akng Hi*cfn(n.'. Tho noslrils aro 
■, unil open ii|iu-ard^ whirh would ho incunvpiiient 
unimnl uttuilly u«uin<' Ihw «nwt putturc. The |ifo- 
of the jnvi, it i."Eiv<ctive, anil Ebougb taoob ten so 
tbfi linlMon. yet thii profile of Iha tit» u cunearo. 
be renMrkcil ho«pvrr tlwi (be iimjeclion of tho 
,ws iMrii--ituri.ll ill Iho fint and aeGoad Agores of 
■•ranil [iliite. The muuth is widi^ tbo lipa rathor 
ituip <if that n^^innli-in uT iho ctlgw which 
b 1(1 thv unfirt-wiun af ihv liuiiuii counienanee. 
r tfmul of th« abouMer« ia diuinctly marked, but the 
vlilth of the kwer port ofthDchesiiiproportiaiullrgrvnter, 
" rii noinpHed to tho U[i|xt. iliaii in man. Ftwt iha 
tih, inti ilcinxttor of tho ahilmnen itecreaMl npidly to 
_ . «hi-nt ihi- iininud ia iieculiorly slendflr; n eiicuiii* 
In whirh it ap|>nmohi>9 tbs nthrc Simim. Tbe p«ltb 
b>iig and nunnw, Qtv>th<-r ;i|iiin)Vimutian to the reat 
tbe eraus. With rrr^rl ii» Hit hmba. the chief dif- 
uetwi'cn our iipi'ciraun and Dr. Tywn'^ flifurn ron- 
the c'\r«sive len^h of the aniu, Mhirh in this 
' — - ' ^mlnw thk^ kiu-^-K, hy tlie wbulo lea^tb of 
r the nn;ft?n. wlinh .ire abore thieo laclica 
1 ..^ iuime ohaer^-jtivin appiin to alinatt ovvty 
or this aninul which I have whui. Tho pn>|nrtiana 
wnrk of Caiiipa-r aprn^rih nvarrsX, in tbe prcMnt in- 
I, in tht* pimiciilur. Tbe hand ditliTt from ihr human 
hl»(n» tliP th^Titl) bj fur tho smnlh-tt of ibc '^■^Kj^ 
rly n lund aiiH-nil'.'d (o atatviUL The 
; ly IN vor^- Ion;.;, [lowcrftil. and capable 
■niikm. The le^ uv cvriainly fumiahi?'! with 
ihcy RcarrHf' rcsembtr Ibit bunian in furin, )>«■ 
': <:i*l fit tyfiiiil thirknoas ncariy to the 
ml i« er«ct. tho ktUMS appow con- 
. I' csso with the Qibrr Simt<e, and it 
'iiorc apart than man.' 
.p.K»— ^■■(('uf^. AibMulheDOlypirtoftlio 



wmU known to be tho rcsi<I«iu:e of the Chi mpanzec, whicb. 
il ib»uUl ln! iiuicirilnn-cl, ht* been ccinfiriiii.'d, an Ciiriur 
iibnuau^i. by ultiiiKit ull /uuliiicivu. lliu k|H-riiiit;t] ilctcribMl 
by Dr.lWtl »\ih procmcd iii iIil- iaic uf Priticta^ lu ihv kuI. 
of GiiincB. from a nnlliu iruiliT, wba hud ciuriud it iLilhut 
frum lUii 1innk> iif till! fijli>ii>ii. Tlk! inditiiliul cxIiibilHl 
io the En^ittan Hull. PiccanUlly. in Itt.ll.biidbi-rn obiaiuetl 
by a Uudiii); \'esscl on lhc rivL-r Gambia, and that u\bibilcd 
at thu gnnten of itic Z'MiIuj^ii-al Sorifty vas broiigbl frum 
tliu Giiiiihio nnui. Cu>ii.-r invcs Gujitui utid Cunfcu u its 
lix-ulitii-s. Tbe niitiiect of Mi. Oueii's paper ma shot by u 
Burupvan at Sierra uxine. 

UaiitU. Tliv habits tif tlio Cbiiupiiuwo in n stale of 
nuturc ^irL'bui inipL'rJKL'ily kiiiiwn. Cuvii-r ituti^ thai llw 
CbiiQiHLiiiti^ Xne in ctimii^ cuiiatiuct tlit:ni.s>ilv<« htiis uf 
luuviai, urm thmDM-lvi-s uitb Bticks iiiid sloiic_->, unj emiiliw 
IboiW WMipuri* tit drive iiioii iiiiil ibv ilcphimi IVutit tlii-ir 
dwcUiiitis. Hv ubt» tv'iiuilA thu ftnrj ui' tlicir pursuit uf tliu 
negreim.-* nnd corrjing ihcm uff inti> lUt; woud.-. Tlii» rt-;-rrt 




thiu )>|<cc'iv> altaiiis tliL- buii{lii iif II\u ur Bi\ fuvt ; thai it ia ii 
funnidabltt uiiti^tuniat to tlit- vk-pluiil ; luid llial >«tvr>)l of 
Ihvui »iU not Kiuplu lu attack lliv liun and other bt-oslA of 
|irc)'. uitb cluhi and itviio. It U duik;{i.'ivus f^ir svtilury iit- 
dimliula \» trdvul tliruUjjh lliv uumU baiiiitiil lit I be >ruiii;. 
and uuiau«o) ncro related to Cu|-tiuu Puyne uf uu);i\i i^irU 
)i«in;j carrifl off by iliii' ttiiiui«1, hIh^ hiw »juiL-tiuiL:> 
oicjpxil h> bitnuin §M-ii>ty after luiini.' It.-h f^r yciurii 
ddaiiii^ii liy ibcir ravi^honi in ii fti^liil'ijj TIk'm: 

reparii confiiiii tliL' nnrrniivft. of ihd . . , vlu 

have uftcii 1' mtiuii, wi'l 'i 

Uavp Leon >■' . uiDelaJiti*JI>, 

men nhe hiiv.; livuil iu -al-iIui-ii .Vlni^' 

In a &tato of eaptt%itv il^ iaii!in<.-r> luiva been tbe tbvnio 
of ninny n lalt, nr.i' 'iLiimtion ; and •> inoU of ibu 

individu.-iL: di!k<-r< \ ■! vory v>u>ir, t-onjui-turo buf 

been busy u to tin.- pii'.-n •■- ihi.' uniiml iniftbt niukc if it* 
ciiiicMioii wcrt! continued to ihu iiduli fttalt-. ' Did ur it., its' 
my* Mr. Owvn in his paper obovu r*-t^ -- ' ' ■ ' m f.tvour of 
tbe Dntbri>]Mnxiq>hausckurarl('r nl - liuvu hn-n 

derived ftv>m iibsorvnlion iJ" il'- ■ .f soim;; 

uranin; but llii^ie runnot bu i< ■ .'.! 

ihe ttulun; of the ailidl!>. liin' .i ).■ 

■lot-ilily andfjenlle miiiUKiri uf the jiiiiiK i' 
way Io an umonchabU' ll^^(^l,^^■v I'nrl vm r i « 

in ihu ndutt ; at Il-jmI • i H 

anorwnii& abuw. the d i 
n.**cnibUnro in iln ' . 

Caploin Pnvnu i- 
whieh formed lhL-!..iLiMii mi m 
aniaul cams c>n boanl.'fii)i< ( 
with MDM of the uilonK hm .: .. 
ofanger, toathvrs wiilKnil any npj 
however benuim; rumili^r niih (hv 
to whoni it iic\'cr wua rcmncited. 
mwn \n» brought nil dix-k. il «~.i« 
would )D>n>und niul cmUrai^e varh perbfii. vbilu U tiUi-n-il 
lotid yelU. and thou scat itwlf among ibciu to share thu 
repasL* Il tooMMiiiiv* expn-»al itn e»;i;rt by a harkinL; 
nouie Uke a Aa^i at uibtn it would tty hkc a rn)«.ml 
thild and wnitrb ilnclf mu«t tcheiocntly. Wbc^ii L^ny 
ravDiirilu ii)nn«l wat |drcn to it. »«'(K:tini.-at* more rsjii-vi.illy, 
it cxpntvad iti MlisDictiini by « »i>iinil like ' bf ni,' xi a 
^ve loao. Tbo variety of il* ton^-s kcoixi lu bnii- biMit 
htnoll. Itra JMOvd and chucrfVLl in uanti Lilitudm, but 
laUi;iK>r canieunasitleftthv Iprhdaoiw; slidonap|>n>uHi.:i:: 
iiumhoiea, it toanifrilul u doairc fijr a wurin cuit-riutr. u'l^l 
viovHA roll itavlf innfully np Ida bUnket when il nunt m 
rt-si. It ^-ncrally im''.^>'--^d on ail foiuv, and Ca|>t>iin 
Payne [lorticulariv !nl it ncTt-i pUncd ihu piihna 

of thcDandi<ofil.-< vircunliw on ibn uround, botj 

cksing ita Bala, mtoil ui ibd knucUea. Tliii mixic uf prv- 
groMton noticed by IVsoa waa conltnucd to I>r. Tnnll b) » 
yttuii^ naval offiecr woo hud been for a r»i)si(b;i.ii]Ic time 
employed in the rivew of M-Ovrn Afriu*. i.nd bad uppcr- 
tunltM.-* of ob««rviug tliu habits uf thi» ijiKvio. Oaplain 
Payne's uniuul did a<iC wxiu fond of ibc trcci jHwtun.*. 
which it rarely affccivd, ibout^h it could run nimbly en 
tyru feet fur a abun tlwtaii<:c. I u ihia cue il appeared Io 
aiil tho iao4ioD of iU Ic^ ly giupiog tbo tbiniswitfi iU 



inanncn uf tbo aninuil 

1' "ipur. "WhrnHiii- 

i>-. 'it khoiik himdii 

1..., i ,. .(. , ....I , 



Wilt.' II y 

. r,in«laiii 



i 



CH 1 



n 



c « I 



Jpiuh. I( hu) gmt vtmi^h in f tte luof flasen of iti ■»■ 
jjl^iOT extra nut V : rorttiruuJil otitn vwin^ fiy tlivm eii s 
ra|M >tpwnrd» of uu hour wiiliDiit inlcniiwiiuti. Wliiii tlral 
prlK-iirui). it W3& BO itiit^k))' euvcrvJ vilh haii, (tiat \he skin 
ut ititt tniuk nnil limlMt wok K^wuly viHl)U% until the loii|[ 
black, hair vm blown noiile. It ate rumbt) uven- w>n nf ve- 
uutablu foiid ; but at flist did uut ajiptiir lu reli^b Uenit, 
tiiiitigh it NSoiDcd to bive plcu»un< iti iiirLins: ttiv l»^- 
bonc uf a Aiwl. At tliat tinw it ihd ncd rclul) wiiiu, liui 
nf^if Kdiils Rcemt'd to Like it, tliuuf^U il never ruuld endure 
iinli-nl Hpirils. 1( unco btob a bultic uf nint.', vUkh il uti> 
corked with it* tuctit, itiiJ biii^.m ui drink. It xhnntMl u 
prcdJlLTttiut fur ttjffce; und wes iiiiniudi-mtulv (uud of »»wl 
urtirluuf fbwL II louiicd to feal itself with > apuoii, lu 
drink mil uf a gliiai^ aiul tthuwcd a i;ciicnil diitiKwliiiu lo 
iiniUiti.- tlie orliuiH iif iiivii. It iraR attracted \iy brticlil 
nHttals. Mcmi'd to take ii jifide in cluiltint;. end utteii put a 
oBcki:)) lut mi it> b»d. It wu dirly >ii ii» hiitiits hiiiI 
iwvtr VOA kiuv'ii til wiiitli iiM'ir It wu.n urraiil nf firunriii.i ; 
aad oD tlw vbule 4ii)itriin.il u timid uiiiniiiL It livut) wiib 
UupUun Payne wveiitison n-ccka. Ibu of which witre sjiciil 
in Cark anit LivwriKwI. At lliu funm-r pLite it wna v.\- 
bibitod fix tli« beuolti uf llio Mup-kitclu-ii fur ■ fuw duyit, 
but •eoiaa In bavg been (hvrv ncijicrtoil. On votiiiu^ to 
Liverpool it bnguinhfd a fi-vr i\u\*, imuinuil iMHivily, wu» 
OpprviMd in vtn breathinii, anil died with e(}U\uluvg aiuUi)ti4 
of the Umbfc Such ia Ur. Tniill'a accutiiit. 

Wo abo rulVr to the ulMenatiutu un tliu httbitai &o., ot » 
mido cbiinpanMit (Trcvr/mfvfmr Nijfir, (>vuCf.), ihvn liviiit; 
III the mcuQiccrif of th« ZooloRii^al Sucieti of Lucidon, hy 
Mr. Brviknp, whiuh vnm r««d at u mwtui-^ on Ihv i'tli 
ofCktobur, lii35*. 

The aiiiiukl tbut wst the tubjiTl of Mi. Brodvfijk'ii rts 
miirlui di«d ia tb« *pring of the folUiwinE year; and irii the 
Ktlt of April, lt»'W, Mr. Owen dvtailvd tliv ntcirbid a|>iwnir' 
Mem ubMrr«d on it* diui>eti«n * 




'Tio^lMjin mr*!,; 
Ittrfun.' wv [xini-ludL- tUiK iirlii-le, it ina> be noeeasaty to 
titni «t lite (irvbilili! Iiei^hl of tho adult ehimpaniiw. Tlic 
tulivo-ii>f Gabajn.36Ui-twvfti-on. i n formed C>|i lain Payii<! 
that tho K|>wrim ultaiiii-d the helQ;ht vT five or »ix fl.i>l. 
Bill ' 1 i'Aniiiiiil Biography.' sjya, * AUeinand, t.Si' 

Uiiti 1 uf niituralUiiior*. Iiirl rvr<ii\wl iniiny vipiH 

and uiiviu'MriDry occoaiiU ^l^•pcliiltl{ an aniiiual of l\a 
lupd, and vu iiiduLiMl to write to Mr. May. a rapiain iii tho 



HI 1^ 



Dutch ntval lemem tUlioaod at ^muuo. Tbit f^nt 
foiiuil Liin osiii-ily f^iiDilu III uiH* which hu had br 
fyuiti Guiiic-^ L-K(?L>iil lu Hue. Il«wm la-arlj liti> IVi 
a h^lf hiifb. aud \<<ry bliun^ and powerl'uL Mr. Mui 
Men bini ukk' lip biK inu-iuc, ;i aluut ninn, bv the loti 
and fliiiK him I'ram huii llir u tiiu^eur Iwu; aiiu oiu> ilaf (v 
EeiXL>d a tuldivr. «hu h:ipiM.>nea la piuc eorelcwl)' iif xr t\\* 
Uce to which he wil« churned, and. if hi* iiuuit*r Imd not 
b«cii preiufut. he vnuld ui'tiudly have uriivd ibu man imd 
the irut].' It 19 1'onbi.T iitalud that the afte uf tlii* unimaL 
whxLt Kir, May «nrv il, *:i» about lirmiy-otie yean. Ia tbr 
fullitwinjt ynar it ditnl, but wnx *aid tu havi; ing?ea »w l la 
heiiflii diiriiiK ihe iuicrtnl. The mother uf tltat exhibii«l 
in ihii mraanvrii' of llic Zwilogirut Society wua repotad h 
tiavi-»liKid I'l'iir fui-l xix iiiflM^ in hn^hl : hill Mr. Oma 
■;ivM thri'f foul ten iucliu!! an tlie length uf iht- body la 
Ihi; uduh rhiniitunEci.' (bkelclon), I'rom ihc vertrx to '' 
biiac of ibc oj cii/rit. uttA fuur fcrt lia tllR huiKht of 
adutt 1)1 the end uf hbi Mth^unLTiR rharacicr. 

(JIllNt'V ii ait c>Lle»stvc country in Kostein Asia. 
luliiii! the pi'in<-isul puriion of the Chinne cintun.-. It ii 
Mltiaiinl uii tliv hurdtini of lli« PaciAr, and e\ii-u<l» ftom 
211" N. iat., or, if the island uf Hainan is included, from ir 
tvi\' N. tat., mid if the IriKl of land jmiforiiiiK oa th« 
luirth-wvvl. ttiwiirdsi ihu centre uf Aula be adt]«d. to 4I>^ N. 
tdt. lu eiiMerai>»Iruiiiity, whiuG il kuden on Curra, is cut 
l<y 124" E. lon^., and its wcetsm< wWrc i( burden on iIm 
Uiriuun uinirutL-, by a° £. km^-.; but if the projecting tract 
be addod, it r«urhc» tu bi" £. lun^. IIa gTv«lcst lun^lk 
I'rt'iD ih« huil>uur uf Aiiiuy, ii[t|)i.'!iiii-* Ibi- uUml uf KunnoMi 
tuki-n m a noilh-uc^slvni diicctmn tu llw furthnt uttrciBilj 
of Ihc projcctm); tract, can hui<ll\ CM (horl. of tvv9 mil* 
ir, iiowevcr, lbit> latter Inici ie t'\ctud<.'*l, ih« length of 
Cliiiia tVocn the Peninsula opiiosilo iba island uf Haiiun to 
till.- ^'Tcat wbH due nvrlh vf Prkinit ia ab«ut I4<'t> uuks : ilt 
broiiilth vtthea bvtween !I00 luid 1301) iailt» If ii» avorap 
lonelh i* lakon nt 1' tW^ervHof lat., w abuul llt)4iDflH, 
and its a%«raK< broadlh at ih«»an)« nuiuLcr of uiiW Um 
ar«'a <if Cliitia in l,^9'J,4UD bijiiiirr miln, u cvuipylaliM 
which doM not dilTer imi«h fmnt lliil uTSirQeorKC SttKUi< 
ton, who aaaicns tu it l,e97.S'Jl' Htium- iiul««, at mi am 
mote thun eleien limM i>* lart(o as that of Uk Brit^ 
Nliiiidn. TIm norih.wi'siom iiroj^eiiii): iraol ia not iuclikM 
ui Uotli rnh'idattniit. 

China w niin'ouiidi^d bv M»unti'in* dc))('iiil^at up<ni it; «x< 
iippt at iu b>uiii.v.'oMi>rii and imuiIikd xidv, wln-rv it tmHn* 
un tli<< RimiDu nini'in', Ihr kingdom nrSutu, and that <f 
C<iol an China, of whicb the lu^t otilv Hc-i-iim lu |m Doani- 
iially dojiL'iiilcnt un Cliina. On ibc- we«t of it «vtirtHl TiM 
and Ihe cnnntry of Kli(i-lih(i.n'>r, or Chln|^lIl■i. The |if*- 
jt-'rlinif iriiet in tniKlU uurriitmdrd bv KaMrvn TurkiMbiii 
luiL'ly rall(>il Grlind Turt iha. tti\>l by Mxiiutdia. Mnncdiis 
(HVupifK al»> ibo i»7TiiU'"ii pari i»f iK noitlii^rn ! . 
fv\a in llif pMrviLii- miiii, uhirtcil iHbiiitildiii ! 
or CIiins.Kiiit; a.nd by t'(ti<-a. liiiviutpru - 
by tin- Pncifir. whiib fmnih a liepp po'.r I ■ 
and L'tiriTU. iiillt.>d ibi- I|i)siii*i>'I-1;ii nr VnlUi.'. >.,., 
■iiiiiiL's tho nairif of Tun-,;-Hiii iir Ka*.cni Si-o. hiii 
Oinii Dtid iho island of t'urnicMt, and Ihii uf Nnn-Uav'Cr 
So(i[h(-ri Kru, lii'iULi'M Korniiaiii and ilaiiun. 

}\i eiiu«t bciiif^ ahuur 21.)') milm, ilu'rv i^ nnH n^ nUn 
nf iMdst foievfty 53:( npiair ntilnti. Whnv ' '.n 

nn Civcfi itK iniwt ia huh and IkiUI. and full ' ' u. 

This wail raniinuc^i n lurth M<hniiil*ilii> Hi^i; ,(p. 

lun^ or ubout no miles. It in followed ht :. -a, 

which in idimI planw iv mi low that it ■ i^ ' ,t a 

ihori di>tanre (roni (he ahitre : ihii ro.n- itin 

tnnemiost eorncrof the buyi.f Lea'Mir .■ 1l« 

to thr iiri|;bKmrhn<iil of ibe Similv <<t \|i .i> i nii 

the entmnre iif ll>c buy of lV-.I»i lir li I... ,.; i|>> 

Pcninfiibi of Chan'inng is inckf, and niiiiii.l. liold, Imt 
not hii;h, cxrc|>t in afrwiilnros. Il cxtci-ilsi-ufi' TUi'Kiraits 
of Mcau-Ha 10 Cape MMiiiriner, and hrnee to ly N. hU, 
ahnut 25<.l miles. The alKiruB, *$ br ai tlx- Chiiiuin Ulands 
(30° 30* N, tai.), arc loir aiid nndy, hkdecd in ntanv pliic«t 
rrry xwarapy, and rMrnd rrnm 4-.:0 to 4S« inilek Krum llie 
Chuaan Nand* lo ilir laiy ofCsniciii ihproM Itror-kj.lwtil. 
and hi^h, «^T«pl in tlic reccrees of the nuiuemiu bjr» and 
harbours. At some plaits il ri'H'e lo a ronsiilcruKli' lu-ioiu. 
and ixbcvdci lined with nuuieniun rlilTs atiil rork^ Mt-t*. 
in all itar^tunt uf *b«ut H-0 luilr*. I'lu- wr-rt--: ■ - ui 

tho bay of Canton, fur about Ao ml'lo^ an- . a 

gr«at QumWi gflow tuiAy Klaads, Frota tit<. 1-. v. i^«ti- 

' < t 






^taa l« the pcninuita of T^n-ehMu, uhosA- 120 mfle«. (b» 
i'tvibM fi aaain nh-LT an«l hol«!. htit il »Co«« ool ftppmr lo Iw 
lurb. Tti» >h»n-» at llio wmuMila itatiir ar« ■lioiit IWI 
/mJlM Isng, UBily, n»l. aM low; tlw (etnainder oTtho coast 
i«f Ohrm. whkb u wiMlinl l<y UwOuirofTonkin (■brml 100 
'.'ntlaft), buot vdl known. 

I A ct>n>wl«nblB piflian of Clntu is eonvni wilb monn- 
■ laitUL Itswmti'm hoiindwry I'xivivl* to iIk- cliJiinH which 
fonslilate ibo viwioni **ltie o(\im high (a)<lt!-!aii>l of Rulern 
IJiak [AaiA *^n Bavan Khara] : but only the moat Dutem 
nf thaw nn^fj) lint wiihiti ihn bnuntUry uf Chin». It owy 
Ab vaiukleml ubc^lnning in itio inMinoullioriitiPoil oftlw 
MaitU'lM-iiui^, botwtton 10l''an(l 103 E. loiii;., nnxl as 
ntvnilin^ 1icnc« in a N.N.R. ilircriion, «iil tunniiMlioz 
.111 llic Kn^i iiorthorn tivnj of the Hoatig-ho. 1>eiwe«n lor 
.M>d 1 1 1' K. ton^' This inouat«in-mi|^ vhich is called 
Kuc-linu iSiiowniimi;). ur Yung-ling, cAntainftK conntlot- 
feblc niiinbrr of siiownifipi-xl sutaiii|t& The snowy moun- 
I (aim on: nuiocroai between 34° kimI Si"* N. lat^ knd nioni 
l«qnKUilly bvlwwn 3:^ aotl 'J4'. Bui even »oHlh of ttie 
WTV«t Bouljiom bvtid of ili« YftDK-l*«-kiitii(, anil at * «liort | 
Hjfcilaiioc frota it^ Innks, iir# »oiq« inuw-covcn**.! sunt- . 
Vi<-^ wlwnoe Ritlor H^htly condmlw. tliat llw nvcr 
Weak* throiii{h ibtf >ou(hem portion of tbc raii^"' Tlio fuur 
I M«un1»i(i-<'haint>, whk'h trav«»« China from wed to cmI, 
(•MY bo conM'lrrod iu> aV>^t» of tbifl ranji;o, 8outh of tlic 
itntMy riMHtnUiina, which are ntuatrd on the «nuih of Ifao 
.MM band of the Yan^-t*c-kian*:, is iIm> hilly tahlo land of ' 
[ VttQnan- Jtiiof iwitailanblo uxtcnt, ntMl nt a great ?leva- 
} Ima abova the Ma, if we nayjadi^ fWim tla icrnipfrntiim in 
I inmiaar. Frotn llw oa»l«ni edife of ihifi tahk'-Un'l Iwo 
'moynutn-ranE;'* lirinfh off, iHr Yulmt^nnil Ihi! Nnn lin^. 
I i'ha Yu liiiji;, tbu «r»i uMittwrn i>f ihe^e tuni;!-*. IitiukIiuk 
" air frfMD llw table land in ■i-i' N. lal. and tOT E. long^ 
wid nm* marly cant lu tlie nvijibbonrliotHl of ihu bay ol ' 
Uuitan, ^^-idiiii; the rii«t Ta Si-kiaiiQ froin ihe sea. It ^ 
ioas niM tecmlo ipproucli thpiihnrrsnfiiM> cvaiiiany point, 
nor l« tilt to n ifn-al Iwight. Tlii! Nan-ling (or miuIIktii 
tanip*) wlii''h pMtuituUte iliL' iniiM (!iTenM\'o mounuia- 
t»*I«v iQ China. ^^l^vllM off from Iho norlhnn pd^ii of 
tb* (aMo-land of Vnn-iian, wlivra the unuwy muimluiiu aro i 
■tmM 1S6' N. bl. and Iil3 K. Iun(.),nnd runaeaMwardi, | 
■mhu aWDt I io mil?* to lh« notth of Canton a# lar m , 
1 1^ Belong. ; it tlien ini'lintii to ihr nnrth-wt, in which di- 
nstiaa it coalinuei with t atiKht b«iid lo tlw vest to its tcr- 
Blmllon on the bcb nimr tin- harbour of Nins-po, oppnwic 
At ktna^ of Chician. ftevuml miminits of tRM rann rise 
■bon tbc inow-linc, wnt of 1 111' E. tonj;., wberc also it 
nl*nda lo a if rvat ridlb. An iiboripnnl tiafinn, ihe Mioa- 
iMcre ^uuBtai■)l^l their iiidrpL-tirJi-iii-^ in ib EuOieaMa. 
IrviKt'i wbichK-|iiirule3l1i« Vang-tM-kiaagfrom its 
f the Viit>n-ki«ntc. and rxtcii'it nuith-caat to the 
of Clnna, tn aJwi rwid to cotitaiu some aummiU which 
riw above lli« inow-lin«. £a«t of 110* no toow-coppvl 
nowtteinx ocvur, ll>oui;h soma rao to a gtcal etevatiou ; 
but er«a bnc tlt« jao)^ pnacrrca it» Ucep and ru((|{cd 
afaaradtn'. tia numcroua brancbos. nmnins toward*' (he 
Fannaa Strait and the Tunii-Hai, are alto tteop and 
', but lho«e I'Xlonduis iwrihward or* of incon»iAer- 
~«1vvatio(i. Tlircc ntounisin-pOMea are known to tra- 
llie Nanliiiv. Tlio mot fKqucniiHl is to t)M north 
nion. wbcra tba rango ia <«llod Mct-lini; (tbo ehaia of 
tba wiUl i-liitii-traM, aMordlnf; to KUproth), and henoe the 
fWB it rwlloti Mel>Unff pau. B^ thia paM ffood* nic tnn«- 
pdftad Ihttu Caataa uilo the intcrint of Chtnu. Oood^ 
ar* broui^l in boMa on th» hrer Po-klanv lo the town of 
NatH'Mift-fbo- Belweee tUs town nnd that of Nen^n- 
U»» iho fau wtwta gOO<U aiv rarriedoii tbebaduofmen. 
lut about 'H nilea over rorkv mountaimt. Thin is Ihe only 
fts<^ bel««eiiCanUin and Prkinif;, where n» wuti!r font- 
ttanleatloD eu*U; for at Naii-uaii-fiM the goods an agaiii 
lh1|ifiii and dciMand tlw Kan-kian; and afterwards Ihe 
Yan|^tM»-kJana till Ih^'v outno to the pvt. anal. The «le- 
mtan oflho Hct-liiiKmomitain-paMisc«iinatiHl by Staun- 
ton tu be 9401) feet above lbs ks. The second paw wbirh 
a known owiiia n«r J8* N. lat. ntid IIS'K lung-lH^wwii 
Kicn-itiug-fix) on the <»at and Kiantrhan^ foo on ttic wi:*t 
of Um rwoffo, and itim^^hthr niountaiiGi arc vciryiitccpaiid 
nuned U a much frw|uented ; )H,I>M portem arc ™nti- 
niSuy eeaplojMl r<u tbc trauiwn offcooiU. Tlic thiid road. 
wUab is a little tWrllKr oorlfi, onnitmii the town uf Ki«n- 
viat-loo with the town of Kiti-tcheoa-fbo, which lies on Iho 
nSof tbe taD|^. Tbuu^b difioult la pass it b cauch. ut«l. 




The two atber TiUHinlain-miffM, tlrt Tana-TJA]^ anit (f» 
Pc-lin(i, nre immodiatdj' raonactedwUh the Yon-linir, Iho 

Tajia-liit^br>n(ThiiH;n(rM>uti)i>r33*N.laLandP»-ling'ab4irt 
n , Th»* T-ii-a-Iiiiij rm» ininh of «a«l neorlr in a atraMii 
tine, and [enaioBtes near lir K. lont^. northMi«t of fna 
town of Koot-icbenu-fon. It dividot ilw- valley' of thA Han- 
Uangftom that of the Yang-tae-kianij, iind riiwBto a irnat 
lieicnt: aeTOial of its tammit!) ex«t«tl the Hiuw-litto, na, tor 
invRinnn, the Kiankii 8ti3ii. wttli which il tcnuinatoa. The 
Pc-tins. wliich ntna nearly narallel to tliu TapQ<liM, mm- 
ratt?s the valleyof tbe IIon<kian^ Cram that of tlw Honi-ho, 
orWci'ho, anulBuCTitof the Htwini^-lin, and (-on»er|uenlly tlw 
two grenl riTer-ayalem* of China (Vi'inonc anvlbcr. Ii poittt- 
nucs in its cnstorn dircotiun to 11 J' E. lon^., nnd iIuh piir- 
ti»n nfOii; ran|^ is hi;;li, m^gnd, anil atecn. At 1 13 it de- 
cline* to ilie aouth-cut, diminisbini; eotiindcrnMy iit cleia« 
lion and r»^t^!d»cs&. Ilivin^nttoincfl S/'M. Int. it lurna 
arniii to tilt- fn.it, and anon aulistilm into a rhaiu of hill^ 
which tcnninaten on (lu; wvatcin ahonts of the lake Tftion- 
boo. a C'jnsidcnblo distanoe nut of Nanking. Tbe 
wcAtem nut this nuive contains Mveral anowy munntaiiti* 
ibeuKh rewor than Ino Tapa-lin^. The obstacles opposed 
by tAcao |a-n clMins lo tlie ouminunicatton bctwovn the 
pvovinces vbicb tItL7 ttai'cwo have bwii owrcoine by an 
artillcial road, much more extensive than those whidi Ira- 
rcnc the Alpn. Scanning nl lliv anlK-nt capital of Si- 
neaii fao on the Iran ks of tbu Uoa^ho it ruon in th« valley 
ofthnl rivcf weal pa«t Fong-taian^t-fiio la n ptD«o mined 
Pteo-ki-hianB;. Near tliia place bc^ns Dve mountain-read 
wliit-b t» »oiidiictcd ovflT di«tp rlcft< by lonp; bridjj^ and it 
nn«n deep eat ihroui^h )ii(;h mauntBin.t. It then deaecndt 
fi-<ito the Pc-Iinc; tn tUn valley of iho llan-knint;, which il 
croHMii nboul '2i> miles uwMt of tbe lawn of Uaiii^-tchontf^ 
foo. Il tbcn traveriMtlieTnpB-lini;. nn the Houlh of wfaicn 
il tcmiiiintm on one of tliu braiinhW of ibe Kinlin^-kians 
at Tchno-liou, mirib of Kian-tcbeou-foo. TIba uliAcnd 
tnouiilain-road is Eioid to b« -I'^O lis or nearly iifl mil^a 
lon^. ti<i coiiliniiation IratU tlin>u^h a leM mouiilainouit 
counm.lnivcnteslha Iovd uf Piia-kiiig-r>w,aad lerminatn 
at the anlient capitnT of Tehinit-tu-fo", 

T)ic«- rtii|^>« tMverae ilint oatt of GLitna nliii'h tiM Huiilh 
iif ibc Uimii^-hu. Buteven inewcalem, and pnia poriion 
of tliooountriisniriiiof thai rinr walinoa rnlir«ly «i>-«Ted 
with bi:;h and riiL-viMl nwuntains. T)icm< uxiuiilain'* betunx 
partly to tlie norlbcm portxin of iho Yun-ling. which ^oins 
Ihc jloeng-lio at ilH ^^eat bend, and lartly are TamiAca- 
li'ins of the Inahan, a ran^c which extcods ruiiidthc bond 
of the river oinhc west and north, and wlwsamcls cntti 
China belweon ttiat band and ibc ttfwn of Pukitt(C »> Kvcnl 
ridEtsi, 

The whoJe surtco •>( C'"'' '•>'— *•<■ AMiM into Uto 
ni"unlainoiis (xjunTry, Ibc hill' .ndlh* tcrewl ploin, 

The mouatainous coontry en;. , . innn- i?i:iii half of 

iho whoU* and the mcridiuii r-f I!'- !'!(cd its 

ea»lcni booifWy, but t« iho noflli '-j it ex- 

tends us fmos ll-f. An this liuncnso lra«i .-f ««i"Iry ii 
covered by rqo*nl«l«» and vnUci*. The tnonnlatiia ara 
commonly t>H> ttatcvand ru^^d to admit mueb cultivailun, 
but 3 gt**ii pMt of iheni is coiofvd with hii(h trefa, Tu* 
«*r^U ibc north llicy aft! moalty haro, but rooLiiu inmunsa 
bcylsofooiil. The ntllcvf are often nftrrow. but bciii^ a*. 
tercd by nunierouii mreama, ibeil fiirtile soil ntaintaino a 
niimeiOtts jiupuUiliun. TItu ^ii«re1 drocriptiuii. linwctcr, 
applinMOpeTlr. inallitsWIcnt. onlv to the dlstricU north 
itt \hf Tana-lii'i^ and suutb of the Nun-ling, ta in Ihiao 
l)«tu<^n tnesc two nnces the mountain* are leas at«ep, und 
their «ldc« are commonly cultivated lo a considcfablc hfinliU 
The valleys, too. am mueh wider, and the Icvrl land -■Kune- 
liraM oxiends to pluina of conaidcmbia width, a%, foe ii^ 
stance. Ihe plain of Tchinjr^O-foo, which ia pcibiiM 20 milea 
in everydircciion- 

AmonK the inonntainoiis di.nUictB must l>e included tba 
tract of land which lie* lietwceo the Nan-lint; and the sea ; 
but, with ilw! nxreption of tbe immediate niii^blwrbo-jd 
of the range, it rather rraemWen tbc counliio* between the 
Nan-ling and Tapa-lina; than those Ikribcr nortb, ita vallttfa 
being geticrally wide, and tomelimca expHndmjt into ptoini. 
a.■^ fur uutancc^ the pbio of Ckuiton. A connderabio tw- 
tion of Iho ridoaof tbe mountain* it also fl' "t etlllivafloB. 
if thn trnel Is addwd lo the otbw nioonuinoui counHy, il 
may be said, thai latbor m«o than two-ihirrls of the tVf 
fcooofChinaareofthiicharacter ^^ 

The hilly country lies to the enil of 111* E.lORg-, ■« 



« 



I 

i 



4 



[THE FENNY CYCLOPADIA.A 



Nou*^rSV<-^ 




CHI 74 CHI 

betnren this meridian and the «ftem p&rt of the Nan- 1 from Pt\inq. Tliat portion of tlie caniA vhicb Ites iontli 
linr, and exTend? nonh to the faank^ of llie Yanz-i^e-kian:*. ' <>f ihc HoanVlio was made in the lerenth century, or aooa 
Thehilb-ifi'iuah in manvplacK steer, senenill} rise with atltr. tut ifie more nonheni part in the tbineenth, by 
« in-nrle aMvnt": and. a^ they do noi attain a zna\ eltvaiion, KuI<U: Kh^n and hif fUccc>«oK, vhen the Tartar dy-runj 
thei-- sA'* a.-e rultivatcl, and plao'cl wiih rice on the ter- hnd reLinivctl the imperial residence from Nanking to 
nice **'*em. The:r tip* are "'overcd with P-Tc-I ir«~. jrne- Pck:iij. 

rally ol the p:ne kimi. whi'_h are c-arcljliy p'.anred, ' The The lenility of its joil and the advantages re^ultin? from 
levcljheiweeu the hill* a.c sorr.etimes iiarruwe'l into val- : the .iitcrnal navi::a[iiin afforded hjtbe GrvnC Canal and iti 
Iw. :t5 "ih'r plifw ;hey etpe.nd into plains. They hive ! r.utue ous l-ranchei have rendered this plain tlie most 
?ene'allv aburi'lan''e of vaier in their riv^i^. and there are populuus «pot liii the earth. According tu the rciuuB of 
some hkeft. of vh:rh the i3r_*e=i are ihe Tun^j-tin^ ni-ar the ' 1S13. the province* whieb it coniprtse^ contained a popn- 
rnnrtumee ff the Vuen-kip.r.j with rhe Yanj-tsc-k-.atU'. and laiion vf ITT mdhniis, namely. Pe-lthe-Ii -1-i, Cbanlims 
the Po-yan;. not fir f.o :i "Ji? m^iuth cf the Kaii-kiu:ij. 29. Hunin iJ, Aii-hoei, or Ntn'ti-hai. 3-*, Kiane-^u 37, and 
Tlie :5r«»ti-»t p-jrion ai the Ti:ifa?e is in a vcrj' hi.-b stale Che-kiaii^ CB. Here then, "as Riller ob7e^^t;.s lives a 
of rT:>::vation. . inipulaiion mo >. than tvo-thinls of the whole pojiulation of 

The sreai p]n:n occ-^pio* the T'.'>r;h-eavcm part of China, ' Europe. To prutc"-! thii rieh plain the Great Wall vu 
It ex'ead* in length 7i,i"mil«r^ from 'CL-Grest Wall, mrih of erct-trd, which k)u-Ii«e» China on ihc northern boundary, 
Pekinz. ti) the c.niluen'o of the r.: t-.-s Var.^'-tse-kimii and and extend; over mk>untainB and rivers for about I JirO 
Kan-k:3n; OO'N.Iai.i. Tiie Yar^r-'-^e-kianj naj bi- cnn- milc«. Tlii- sreai work was con^iruded rather more than 
fidered as it* ioiJthembo.iii'Liri-. aii'.irdo-s^n 31 N_-ar.-kiiij, ifi'i'jears ^inL■e. or about ii'u years hefure ibe Christian 
when<re to the sea it ia fgrraed by a l;r.f- drawn t'rii:;i X.-an- ver.i. i.y the first univtrsal monarch of China, as a defence 
kini to the sea, tbrou:;b Han2't':'he<i'j-f.M. TSie Wf-tem asr.iin-; the nomadie tribes of Tartars, who have never 
bo'jiidary-'iine may be marktrl by a ].ne dr^.wn from Kiny- ' re.isi-J to infest the country to itie » utli, as 1. ng as it hu 
lch'*.'i-foo, af.-oTi situated on the Yan2-t'-e-k:an_'. to Iloai- . been subjeit to a separate dominion. The main suboanre 
kir^'-foo, on the Hoanj-ho. ar.d her.'re to the Great Wall, ' of the wall is earth or rubbish, retained on each side bra 




rhich occupies the peninsula of tbit namo, iu nldih varies | is an extensive "stockade of wooden piles, enclosing the 
betwpcn 150 and -sO mi!e^. If we s;:ppj*e the ave.-aie country of Mouxden, and which in some European mapa 
brsadth to be SOP miles thL< portion cf the plain covers au j has been erruneously represented as a continuaiion of tu 
area of '7i>,0O0 square miles. Between ?'•' and 3-i' \. lat. | solid barrier. The lutal heisht of the wall, as observed bj 
the plain enlarzes, and in the parallel •.■f the Hoin^-bo it i an eiiKincer officer in Lord Macartney** embasir, is 20 fee!, 
extecds more than SOO rai'.es east and wesi. I; zrovi still ; on a fibsis of stipne projectini; i feel under thebrirk-^work; 
wider to the south, and reaches nearly jn.t miles 'inland jn and about the same in heijhi. The thickness of the whole 




The whol* plain, r-^ntaininz 310,000 sfiuare miles, is seven the parapet of the wall, beins only Is inches, justifies the 
time^ as I^rze as that of Loobanly, with which it may be , c nolusion that it was not iutendcd to resist cannon ; and it 
r'j^ired in many respect*. j appears certain that the lise of lire-arms is rompaiativelj 

The n^-nbem part of the plain has a d.-y sandy siil, im- : mc"Scrn in China, however antient thu invention of gun- 
premale-I in many parts with saline matter, and de:-tilule ; powdiT. 

of TTees, but it produ-res millet and wheat in abundan<:e, | Numerous rivers drain and water China, but by &r the 
So-ihof 35' N.lit. the whole tract aloni the coast is very low | greater number tlow into the Moa>-g-ho and Yanbtse- 
and nvirnpy, beini ywrtly ctvero"! ^ilh' numerous lakes and i.i\sa, which are amon^ the creates! rivers of the elobe. 
lazur.e?. and i^ilerseetcd by numerous i^aier-courses. both ' Amonzthe rivers whichtlonotbeli'niltothesvstenucflhcae 
sift:!:'-ia! and naninl. It prrfu-v* a treat tiuanlity of rice, j two great rivers, two require iiotA-e here, tie Pei-boaud 
F.irh^.- ii.i^nd th-; soil is inore lirro and dr)'. and of crcat ; the Ta-si-kianz- The Pei-bo i r White River rises on the 
ferfilily. which is inurtired ly the abundiuce of water j mountains north-west of Pekins, nesrthe Great Wall, and 
drar.n from ;he rivir' and small lakes. It produces rice, . flows in a s«ju:b ■eastern direction to the town of Took- 
c'jiton, wheal, and loSarco. The southern districts bor- ^ tcheou-foo, a fe« miles east of Pekinz, uhere it bewmtt 
der.sz on the banks of the YanK-tso-kianz differ from navigable for lar:.-e river-!' oa;#- C.-T.:mKine in the nuK 
the other in not beinj a .'bt level^ but bavinz a surface direction, it uniu.'s wi;h the Euho, a rauib larger riTw 



.-!;::h;ly ur.dulatins, on which even a rani:e of hills ri^cs, 
■dr ihe eastern priilonialion of the Pe-lini. li ij not, hijw- 
cver. lei* fertile than the other districts. Amonz its most 
vaViiWe branches of asriciiliure is le.i. which Is csten- 



ihan the Pei-ho itself, whi.h rises near the Banks of 
the Hoimr-bo, and running in a nirth-east dirwtion is 
iL-nnectedVith the Great Cjnal a; the ti.wn of Lin-tchin- 
tcheou: the remainler of its course mav be considered as 



S!-.c'.y cultivated on these low hills (between 30" and 31' the conlinuatip.in of the ranid. The tides come up nearlv 
X. lit.) to the jhce where the Eu-ho imvts the Pei-ho. a distance 

T'lie eastern portion of this plain is traversed by Ihe Great of more than tijity miles. Hence to ilw sea the Pei-hu 
or Imperial Canal, which begins on the south at the tuwn ; runs nearly due east, and at iis i::onth has a bar which 
of H a nz- tcheou-foo i Jo' X, lat. I, and extends to the town of i at low tuli-s has nnly two or three t\i t water upon it : but 
Lin-tchin-cheou, where it tVlls into the river Eu-ho or at hizh tides, whieli here rise ilie cr si\ feet, the bar don 
Wei-ho, Its lenztb considtirably exceeds 300 miles in a not prevent the fljt-bot;omeil Chinese junks from enterioK 
Straizbt line, and probably its whole length may be TOO. | the ri\er. There is perhaps no river in the world which 
Some portions of it have been made merely for the purpose i is navigated by so manv ves^U as the Pei-ho, 
of internal navization, but in others the desizn of draininir j The Ta-si-kianz, or ttie river of Canton, rises east of the 
and irrizatine the adjacent country has been connected town of YimnanlliiJ' E. lonz.l. aud ruits tlie first half of 



with it; heiK» it differs widely from all the canals made j its course in a narrow vallev between hijrh tnouiiiains, and 

tt-r, and its [ the other half in a wide, tertile, and well -cultivated one: 



in Europe. Its Veadth is considerably freatu 



■waters are in few places alto^eiber without 'a current. At I towaid.- its mouth it drains the plain of Canton, and ic- 
a few points it is cut throuzb rocks ; it often iraversei lakes ceives the Pe-kianj. The geueral direction of its nurse is 
and swamps of considerable extent, runninz on an artificial from we:>t to east, and it seems to be navieatcd to a coii- 
deration, sometimes 20 feet above the sur&ce of the Cuun- siderahle di>tancc 

try. Its flood-gates, bridges, th« vessels which navizate it, | OinmU.— In regard to the climate of China, a distin* 

and 

■Tigabla rivers Yanz-tse-kianz and Kan-kianz on the ! of the year: asvcUasthelowareraceof the tdermomoter in 



•C H I 



73 



CH I 



x»tun of Peliiiu; U only ii" of PnhronHctt. while that of 
I4ftplMa63', But u tbi; thcrrooiaL-lvr ot Uk Ounc*« tupi- 
Ulsinkjtaucli lower dunnK 'h>3 v"^'' Uiaii lU Naplca, suin 
uimnMc it risos tocuuwtiKt iusber. Tti« intn u« MJd to bt: 
frocealot Uirco or four montn* tOKetlicr.frttKi Dccciabiirto 
March ; vluli-. danng iliu hut «DU«aty Lp Svptuisber, ISIC, 
A keat of WtwMn 9(fi uul 100° wu axDoheouud iu tltc 
•bad*. li i>wti-ll known (hstNoplve ana otbcr coaDteivH 
in th« extremg toutli of Euri>p» «(« ttraiu^ra b> wacit 
« degM* Iff lODg-<x>iitiiiucU cultL atxl tuu iivl uf^n vuttcd 
bj tucli licttU. £uroiH', ubwjniB Uumbuldt, may Iw eoii- 
kiilurcd aJlogctbci vt uto w»Uiii port of a K^cot coDLincui, 
U)4 tlivtvluiv tabject to ail (liv inllacaco ir!uch cautcs the 
^tittfia »idc8 of eootiiienU to b« warmer Uiui tko vusUrn ; 
&nd at ttio (Aint timoniAio toiupt^rite, vr Uiea fubject to 
•xc«s3c« af both hwt amt cold, but pnliciptUv tUo latt«r. 
TW tu4>an artpusl loinp^raturv ofCuiitou and Httcoo, whicJi 
li« niraily unAoT lh« tropir, is wlat commonly prevails in 
the SOU) |>anllel; and it u curpruiiiK to coDtrMt llinr 
nM«4>rologicul avetaoes with ibo^o uf Calcutta, uhich 
flaAiia vory noarlr in Um aainft latitudo *. TIia total fiiU oJ' 
^sinvariea ^r«atlj'from one year toanothor; Ihoararaw 
uuaJ quontilv ie abgut 70 incbM, but it baa been knorfn 
rcacli 00 iDc^iWM and upwanU. Variation is aho«lwd iii 
inltfrvsi from Nowmbar to Vcbruary, nut Ins by the 
than by ilifl ooldncn of the atnioapbaro : the thr«c 
tor niuntttt bcin^ biowa BomBtuiua to BLa|we with 
jKarouly a drop of roiji. Tli» uarlh-cact moiuoan, vhich 
jpDOUuencas at Canton and iu th« ad^amMrtaeaa to the aoulh- 
mid and eutw-ard in Stptentber. blotra ationg«at from 
PemmliL-r to F<-briiary, um iM^iiia to yiold to tlw opposite 
inouooa in MarcU or AprO. About that pdrioJ tlu> 
acnUtaurly vind« r»mo charged with the raowtnie wliirh 
liigy hatD ao()uirucl iii llmii pana^ otat thn iu<s through 
ttannlatiludcf ; Biul tluit nwlilurc u. kuittlinly voiuJciued 
!ii[n l1iii:k fgs aa it comi-s iu cualact »ith tlie cnsM of 
I .ui-Jili;i» brvn w<jli--d dimu Iu a Iww tvmpirrattin.' 

I iiig-vMiiliiiuM iiurl licrly winds. Tbe latent hMtl 

t«u wal M ihK r^pid di^llaiion of this aicacn into ilviid, 
^lUXB toi- suddvu (ulvanc<;of tttnipcralura whii;h lakex 
about March ; anil il» ■.■fleet ts immcdiak'ly per- 
ihlc tit tlue kitinulus )(iT«n, bj (his union of warnilh 
ik motaturo, lo \-t-Mtalioa of oil kinds. With iho uro* 
vo incrcasruf ileal and evaporation commim-u Ihoie 
whifh lend m gmtly totnilittialr tlw effects of ilui suo's 
in liupiral dinates. In the month of May the &U of 
luu liirn known to exceed inrniy inches. Imm; morf 
D a fnunh of all tho year, oiid tlii-t krep* down thi- ina- 
mLurv 111 itii.- muderatc a^frairu uf aboul 73", vhxU: in 
ilculln tliort' lb no porli»u uf llu; year mom dreaded tlun 
At lfiit;th ibu incnwniiif^altitiidu iif tlu.' mil), sbicb 
n juat «crtii»l at Uuiloa nbuut ibe KoUtici-, uwl tin: 
lUiLtl lu-at of the earth, briii^ on the burning 
of Jul)'i Aufi;U9it. aixl 8cpt«nibcr. which arv thct 
I oppTcvti^a ood exbuuatui^ uf lh« nludo }'far. TIk- 
lo rarvfiirtiDD of tfaa atmospfacfv now b<n(ina tu 
cate (M onn of ttm cvumv tcndiBR to tliv production of 
terrible hnrricaiiiM, iir niihn « wind, oaJled typhootu, 
hioh arc jiu<tly dr«adcd bv tho iohnbitaatB of the oouiJi of 
I'Il... \..j\ wbtcb ohivAv dcvaslato the coasts of Hainiit, 
I tetrad much to the itorlb of CuitoB. Tlw 
L iccuiuiitanccs to bo obacivod coucvminft thesv 
~ arv, tboatota of lb« baxuroulvr previgiu to and 
V Btvnn. the ialluoiico of th« moon, and tlie 
n which I)k->* pn;vsil. Tlic bvooulcr Ails 
. uwji) hours, ofWa a whole day brfbrs Iha com- 
^ouauhiat, tbc mercury somvlimc* desccndinK nearly to 
|7 tnslMsdurini; tiuTptofjnwa of the gale; wbiU iu rainff 
I wf subiiMlutioci. Another aifo of th» ap- 
^ < .1 i« Uis long and hcary swcU which roUs m 

Ofva >'".< •■r< i'uud), without BDyapparanI cause, for siMor 
tmm lwli>rv iba hurricane begins; but which may p«r- 
lapa be explaiiiod by to much cf this usual prossure of the 
•CBosf hue (equal to iwu iaehM, or a fifUMmth part of the 
naiwarial «olumn) bcini; remorod froin the lunace of the 
sralvr ; a «nutasliutc« whi«h may lili«wiso )nrlly vcmunt 
Ibr the owrvliDlBiinfi; «riuirbtcii are to ntuchdntaiWdby b1u(m 
'\e t)-plioon«. In addition to tho proj^Msticfl 
■Ir^ - . tha atorms are prooeded by « thick muddy 

■ppwttfatHW uf tbs attaoapherv, and a show of unusual 4i»- 
■llsitft smiing the aea-IinrL They soldon last ftH-ty-eigUt 

• tathaaMMtf lf%a(all of iMeDMarMl M CaaH^m udilulT 



hours, and their duration is comraonly oooAned t« twan^ 
four, or li.-4». 

A'altirnU HUiory. — As regards tha nataral bislorr of 
China, tbcro it nu subject un which Europu is )e» indebted 
to tho Romisb muAioiiaiics. The Josuila, while eiBployied in 
ouantrucliu^ Ibvir v\CL-l!lciit man of the emptra;, which of 
ciiuTM rw|uin:d [h;il thvy slwulil liaTcfrwuceeB lo erary 
part, lost an opportunity, v Inch inuy pDrbsps miSKt mam 
iicour, for invntigatiikg and <l«scribui)( ila tioturJ pfonac- 
li;>UB. The oluditnt of xuglug}, boUny. and ininorslDf^y, it 
inu»l huwL'vcr bv obsvrvud, «*or« thvu for short of thoir tue- 
!WDt btalo of udvuncciDcat Womust here u>nAmi ourselvea 
tu aKcnvral st&temout of tliu most rRiDnrfcabla [>roduct)iMia 
of Ciuiiuiu the animal, r^KoUihl^ and uiinerol kitiKdcrnui. «.« 
ihty havo been miulo known to us by latwr tuBowchca ; ob- 
Bor>'inii;. ihut in a countr}' wImk knicrior is so Uttlu aMJue- 
fcil)l« tuEurupvuus.thore must In; a great dcid that lomaiiu 
to bo kiKiwn and di)s«ribod. Tho aniioaU, as wvU n« vcge- 
t«U«* «>!' Cliiiiit, bulonjf principally to Pm tcoiporatv £oiio; 
since tho low arcraec of the thennometi-r (oliich, us tux 
koiith as Canton, is TitUo ohoro IV), and tbo cold wtutorv. 
am unfriondty to tha oxistoneo of numeruuii (ropictd trilm 
which are found in (uirecspoDdiiij^ Itititudc* of ladtu. 
Ajiiinals being, for obviou* reasoot, moro goiierally diffused 
mer ouniiiiviits tlian plants, it foU'^ws tlmt cbo number ol' 
cDttee in whitih tlw zoological productions of China Itavu 
bcwu found pocoliar to tl^t country ur« rare in comparLSOo 
ft'ilb |Im< botanii»l ones. Tho larger and moro furoc^iuua 
dL':iGripiti>iiK of Gornirorous ([uadriipixU arc not conunon 
in a country lo wcU pconl«d and culiivatt*!. In the for«stH 
of VuniiLjri, to tlie saulli-n«et, the Bt^nKal ti^risHOtd to 
cxiit. and tlio luiiinol tic well known In tliu Cliiiii'«o ; but al 
Clinton, HO nt-arly tn Cite lalilude of Cakutia. il u qutio a 
Ntraii^r. Liuiut aru alinoftt a Itibuloua nnimal with ili«m. 
The woods of the south ul)»und ui ■ liuiiill but (ii^rco ia- 
KiTiption of wild col. wbicb li faitvited iu caf^cs fitr tlw 
tablv. Tlio domestic dai;af Cliina is unifontdy on« varit^ly, 
about llie wuo uf u muuontW niaiiifJ. uf « p:ilc }'i'Uuu aud 
occssioiiall) a black colour, anil a ooaniP brutily luiir im tlv 
bark; slinrp upriuiht ears and peakod head, not unliko* 
lox.'x. V ith a tail r.urlcil cititt tbi; tump. Itcsn sni common 
in Iho hilly wiiudL'd |iarts uf Cbausy, wu>t uJ' Pukiuj;, Of 
tlie coBiuioD ruiuiuaiii aiuuials. tim CliiDctu pufLtu&« tinural 
varietiiiN of <l(;or, piirliculorly a spotted kiad kept abuui 
their rvaidcuces. OerbiUon dcacrdica a sproea of miMope 
4dwu(iding on the borders of MoiiKul TarUrr. but railed 
by Iho Cbiuose AtMng-»inK, 'yoUow goU.* The alicup of 
China are tlie larg»-taiLed Itiad ; and. os the peu[de nv*af 
UN' milk, cows aie ruio and of a pucuiliarly wusU kind. 
Tliv liitf&Vu used ui pliiiiiching is (um %'>:r)' swulh wilh a 
skin of slaui rulour, tliinly r<n«rcd with hairi. Drome- 
danif are much usi-'d as boosts of burthen Wwccii Fi'Liiq; 
andTarlarji but in Cliiim Proper the rc-Lwiu Mhtch cuiun 
Uuoui labour tvauppLaul uveryotlier haw pruvwiud tbvir 
hcinf^ adopted. Chinese Iioism ore not nuatcraus^ and of 
a iioor Mid stunted bived, buiii|{ vurjr ill fed and kvpi. 
Asai» and inuiea are cointooa iu tlic north nf liic ciupu-v 
the miUn aru generally of a ^oud aijK. and aaiil tu bear 
a higher prico than horsci* w being capaUo of laoro 
labour on uam food. Of pMhyilmiwloas sn>"<'>- •>-- -Itr- 
uaeettii pis of Cluna '** wvH known in En^l .is 

boon frv«lr introduced intu nur furUk*ysiilti. 1 1 i ' "ttt 

taay bo found in tbc balf-iccluimcd i»uDir>i.-* i>u Uk 
ttaatcrn botdars, but not m Central Chimi, oof on tbc oast 
ooMt, where tiUoco and population have ccaelied llioir 
pfwent Iwtglit. Of tho other wild piw!lqrrl«n»«if<ns (r'l>tf. 
ttio eiepbaul m nut at prasent an inhabitant of i ' -.» 

It be in Yun-nfin, nor m bo used fvi pur]>- .vr 

wacfi or war. The oac>homMl rhinoceros i> I<.itii'i tji ihe 
wresu of the oxireme west and aoulh. Uf rad(>nt aniniahi, 
tht} nummou rat atiaina to an unuswal siSA and is well 
known to be eaten by the lowest ordeta of the Chineac:. 
Hr. Grav baa deseribod a icUrino animal diseenretod by Mr. 
Rvoma, being nenrly allied to tha taaffibao rat af SuBwin, 
as a now pinua, ' in luulb and itensml ajppcurance; nioat 
nearly allied to tjkilar, from wiucb U diUN in its tail of 
moderalu Icnqtb, its ospoved oyea and aan. and the Ston 
eannlex cbaraMor of its molar teeth.' 

Tlie ornitiMila^ of China is diabiifpuabadbvacaiosplNi* 
did rarieltes of Bnllioaceoua birds, as tlie |iDld and ahvr 
pbeasnntB. lo which has been lutoty added the JitwtfM 
phmuant, ttie bneoM toil-fiMtbers of whioh apnraaeb the 
eitraurdmary diinirnniMii eCaU feet. Anothar duaei^diqn 

LS 



I 



n 



Cll I 



HB 



I ' 



^^ 



U nUed tha vudailion phessani. fram > ItMiiitfAil rnom- 
bi;k()a of r«*pIonilunl fviillmr* uliicb U disalaj'ed or con- 
fra<)led UMtdittit u [lie aiiiiu&l ta oQ'iictPd. Chuia sboiinds 
In vAil foil) of ftll kincte, ami particularly in imincnM [Iitfka 
,ot gWiWi cb&arvablo diiritia wiiiUit n«^r Cuntan. TIil- 
yugn-yang. a lunl of tnltiniltd i>luinai^, has bi>t<n i-aU«'l llie 
' mauaftfin dneV,' ami is TemnrtmblL* for tin- ntltf'hinetit 
between llic ma.\v und femalr-. Thu fiKliiiig nirvrtranu i^m- 
pluj-otl (III Itie lihiilUiw takes of llie cnuntrjr iu caplufiog 
Hull, lus l>««ti il<»«iilMd at a brnnn jwlirsn with wliite 
IhrosI; IhhIv vliiluli h»i)(atli. »)K>tl«(] villi lirowii; txi] 
rouiidoil; iridtii bUio. aud bill yellow. Amonif ibe miHool- 
taneaUK biids of China may bo rnumimtod quails wbLcli uro 
ufteii mined 1(1 flgbt ; tbit ooiiiiiitjii ringtltne; ofwhicb Krent 
liiiinliurt brtwd in tliu wnudit alioul Cuutun ; aod ibi- pccu- 
tiurcruw oftbccouiitry.nicckcdwitli whilu nb«ul lh<' ni-rk. 
Of teptilua, it i» rcmarkAble Itiut tlti: luri^Ml kiiiiU cif 
laiiriaiUh ax tbe rrucudile and oIllgMuf, are ucikiiown cson 
n» Ibt' south 01 Canton, probably in consequence of the vui 
t>i>iiiilnlu>n and tniffir that vxitts «ii lliu rivim. Gttat 
imtnlioniof (lie »mall liiard tribe* are vtntlilo durmii; ihu 
bill months, ^mo of itieiu iiifrstini: Ireea and iilirubs, while 
oilteni inhabit halm in r»c^kJl ut old vulU. Sovartd frekh- 
WBluf tortouHM bitve bueu la»lv sent home, R»d two now 

Si:iicratir batjBchians, or ibu lr(»^ kiiiil. uru deociibcd by 
Ir. Qrav. Nutwii)i»l«iiditit; iU hiluatLon umdvt tho trt^iiic. 
Canton m littlo inri>(lvd by llie vviioiuouf kinds ut'scrpenlii: 
tile spccivs must dreaded i» a »iu«Uwb hIviiiIui inoke, 
bolw«oi) two uihI ibr«« hoi in hrit^li, eaUvd by tU* Cbinvst.' 
' i\ut b)A<-k and wbilv,' fron V«ui{; •uiTOUtKled ^u bnid 
Iti tail with -jllcrnati.- rinin uf tbow colount 

Of dshv*, a Ureu (vlltrcti«n of Chia«M uwcimmt has 
bCcn lodgfxl by Mr. Kocvee in thr Bri[i»b MiiMum. Tliu 
ipildcn ttrp is one of iIm niMt diilin^itsliod kuids, and 
hoA Iniig t>«en bn-d in Euroi>p from the un^inal spceiinrns 
which wcK cutribd hy ibr thitfb lirat to Java and thcnrc 
li> Holland. Of edibl« sea Hah, lh« best kinds near Canton 
nra a sort of rurk-nod, and a Hat fish eulUid 'I'tatg-i/u by 
the Cbiiiesc, and *|ioiurn.-i' by Rumijoans. Solos are ^(oo^ 
and pleiiliful. but iho ftsb niaiit valu4^d by iikIitu epinures 
\» lliu slurgvon. 

Amoti^ uiseeta, the locust (wmmils great ravngcs nei>a- 
■ionally in ptLftieuLar disiriots, and rcwardi nre givvn for 
it! dexlruetioti. Sumo nf tlm mati puisoiiouK tribes, as 
■earpions, ar« not met with at Canton: but Ibo centipede, 
whirb till- OiineKc call by rKiielly tli« untu name of pif-tso. 
' hundred feel,' ik cutiiiiiun. \ mo'iiiklruus i-iiulrr han boen 
seen, inliabiting Ireea. and altaiiiin);; m a aiie and stieoKib 
that enable it to dorour small birdii t'ntaii^led in its weus. 
I>r. Abel nutines the Searahtrut tnnitmiit. tlic i'trambyx 
/arinoms, and tlie niule-enekel uf a largu aixe. At a 
mountain lylnt^ eastward of Canton, colltm Lofow-sban. 
there are butterflies of a jiigiiiitic sijw and vory brilluinl 
euloura, a selection of wltich are wni uiiniiulU tu Peking. 
Ttie pE-lS-slmo. or wa:t-(i«<e, affords noiiriibnient to an 
inaeel w1ii<'rh is supposed tu belun^ tu the Cucrus Irilic, but 
wtiich lus never \cl been oarrcclly nacgriainod. 

At llic hend at Chiiii»e boiiitiy mav proiwrly bo phued 
tho tea-|))ant. Ttie Npccituetn friira litii bbi-k and |rnwn 
tea countries differ slightly in ilui leaf, iho latter beiNi^a 
thiniMrT leaf, rnthcr lighter in colour, and luuger in shape, 
tlmt tlio uditr; though the Chinenc llieianrlvvs acknow- 
lod^t that oitUci bluuk or t;recn tea luuv bo prupaivd from 
«nv ti-ii-ptanl. The Ctimdhii bears tlw Sam* aame in 
China w'ilb tlio te-U'vhrub. oiid {josteMe* most of its botani- 
L-al ('hirne(i?ri ; they m fwt eoniALlulv two ifieuera \ery 
dotely allied. The Lauru' riuafjufra, one of the mnitc ru- 
markal4o |>roduction* uf China as well us Japan, is a lln« 
timbuisiiwe, {;rowiii(( in Ihn soiithorn prnvincea (o the 
hoicht of flft}- fect^ From the seed* of tUv Vrtumilm 
eonata tho Chinasv extract a vami*k fdr boau, and for the 
ooarter impUmentn of domotlic uso. Tho Rne japdin 
varoi^, huwmcr, h obtained from tho Tiif-tMno, at lackor- 
shruba, a spfcics of Jihiu, from whieh the vornijib diMili 
like gum. The ChincM |>rn«ur« their tallow from the 
Crolfm t*bi/i»ym, the >«ed of winch, im toon as K is ripe, 
opens and dtndes into tliree puti, diaoovermg as many 
kernels vithin thu capsule, raeh attadied by a aeparote 
foot-stalk, and covered wiih thevagutobURBuaofasnowv 
whitenass. Tlie plant Oom which the jiUiy substance vul- 
garly ealled 'ric»-pa|wr' is prwpsnd, smus tQ be a lu^u- 
minout sjieeies urruwiitg in matahaa. and bund in some 
put) of ladia. Thu jujuaxe pieces pujehawd iii CUijia ar« 







obtained Aropi ()u) stem. «'hieh,.not being abofp an U'ChjR 
two in diuMtn. it Cut in a ciwutar' manner, and ilie e'^ 
dur in Ibis manmr IStDw) oni nnd lUtieTicil.' Tlie 
or China roof of eomueroe.Mimmtfiilyknoan as a iu 
maybaacvn gyewinf; iwar Canton. That rotuiibte i] 
rine rhuharti is eullivatnd tn the northwuril. ili iW 
and mountaiiiiHia ]iniviii(* of Sbensv- The Chine**; rt 
an inferior cinnamon, a grown in Kuflng-sy, and la'j 
expoNrd in European »hips. 

AiDoiiK ilu! indiit remurkible fruhs of China »rt 'iNni 
distinct siMcies of oranc;e, aa different as one sort of fHiIl 
ran be ffoi» anothpr of t)M> sume eenus. Thv ltr«t U tk( 
'China orange' of Kuropii; the si^cnnd it of ■ ■ '■<< 

oolour, but very swuet, and with a highly a. J; 

tliu third, and perhapa best »oit, has a dee {i rnm- 
whun ripe, quite detached fmm ibefmtl. the biln-v < 
are almost lotite. and surrountled Mttb a kiild of i. 
of fibres. Another diiscri{tion of alrut, of Iti 

kind, by tho excrriiw of Mme bortitidtural inf^i i ., 

made to run entirely into rtnd. lb* vh'ilc lenninaiing a^ 
tho Iwiitl iti Inn^ narrow proc«MMi like lingers, whcuwTi 
hoaubtainetl ilieappellution at VHthnvi, 'lite bund of tv.' 
AjDoiiEt the peculiar fiuilt uf China, the Lii^fit ha^ litvr 
iiaiursliivd in Bengal. .Xnother of the l)liiiuo«r] 
catle^ Z.O'>«jf-yrn, or ' drnjEon's eye,' i* inuttt nniu: 
has a smoother skin. The Loquat is a fiU' 
wfU ripcnvd) of the yffajndit kind. The H ■ 
railed at Canton, bun been compared to d 
wbioli it n^acinljloi only in site; il* fruit, v : 
bundles onagootltucd trc«, has a ytrllow i,»,.,. ,.,^4 
a rethM' acid pulp tlwit surrounds twu or ihrw s^vfi 
eroen colour. At the head oif cultivated nowvr~ ihi. Cli 
place thi> yelumla'um, in r'umideration of 1 . .jLj 

and utility. The seed*, in fnrm and siic like " ' iili-' 

out its cup, resMohlo nul« in flavour: the ruft» atv tlitvd 
and eaten as fruit. ABotlier hii;h1v ccfcctaed H»wt>r is il* 
Ol*a/rof;rii»f,*nwi\ to lhe«Ki*e of kurupc, and rcmorkaUs 
for ihe line seuiii of its blononiH. Tho famous hfouf-tS», 
or Tree-peony, nourishes only in the north of the em]>ir«- 
A ftowvr mtii-h rullivated is the CHrvMitkemum InJimft, 
valued fur the variety and richnms of its eoloars, and no« 
ei>mmoii in this country. Tlic Citoo-tAn ( Chi grant has >R- 
conspictiust is uted in seentinir the tea thai bear^ ila niiA*. 

The «netv of siirfncn ihriiu^h tho wide c-\ienl of lb* 
empire Bfforai a riL-b fund of minrnls and nx'lnU. Tbera 
can exist no doubt of Ihe ahundanl supplj of eoal ihrnn^h- 
out China, nor uf its {reiiprsl use. which we Ond from Msr-u 
Polo wtta known tu Them before ila adopitun inKurope. 
Lime they |KMae«s in all ils rambiiuiioni:. The dark gr<y 
marble used at Carilun i» ''ii.irw, and unsuscepnble of a SMe 
pobsh ; the shops eoniam large quantities of striated 
sy-psuin or ilubastcr. At lti« head ofminemU Mw Chinew 
plncc their tnmoiiM yu stniic. which is nephrite, or jade. As 
ttie cimiitrv ubouuds in the primitive rocks, it iscootP- 

rcntlv rir^ in metals. Gold is iiMsined in tht? lutho stare 
m ihc ;<andK of ilie rivers in Vuii-nln. near thi- frontiern 
of the BunucM) country, well known for its rirbnri* in that 
motnl; in Yun-n&n also ftih«r mines arc worki^ Ordi 
eopper comes from Yun-nun and Kuoi-chow. and an 
once of malachite, or gnen rumipr-orr, is obtained ii' ^ 

great lake in Hou-kufing;. The fnraou!) filf-IuniE. or^bllV 
(vpper, whirh lakes n polish not unlike silver, comes ftviu 
Yun-nin:aoansiderabteiiuuntitvofquicksilTer is obtained 
in Kuoi-chow; and thero is a rich mine of luivnaguB at 
cine in Uoo-pE. 

G'lvemntml- — ^The piveninicnt ofChina is m principle an' 
abaaluUi duspoliiun, end the xucecieinn depends on the wilj 
and Homination of the reigning enipcrur. TIm) auillorily ttt 
a father oivr his fntni])* ii well known to be the excmphir 
or type ofpolitival c«lu in llw ruunlry. It ts the nhJert of 
the first rf tho ' Four Boohs' of Cenftirius ti> inrulcaie, 
that from the knowledge nnd gavcrmnent of oncaetf miifl 
pro4-oe<L the proper ocunam]r and govcnimcnt of a ffni'.It; 
and froei tho go\<cromcnt of a hintly, that of a - 
and of a ktiH;4l»m. Tho cmporor is talM the I 
tho orapit«; »hu vicerin- of llio province orrr wlu^h ki. 
pre«idoa; mimI lh« ntsiMiaj-iii, or niagi«lxDle, of the cjIJ 
wbieh he t^ovcTn*; and Ihe father of evejy ftmily ,( tfc« 
abwtluto ruler of his own iMUSohoht. ' !%«)« 18 W' jf 
thuig moro rvmarkalde.' observiM Mr. Davix, "in i\H^ f 
ritual, and in tiHir cnmiiul code, llnm Hie exact ^ral- 
M which is siudiuuUj k«pt up between tha ri^lsUoii^ in 
which nerv person stand* lo mi own parent, Abd tolto 



a 111 »u»t 

ifdiiufl^ 

nefiijH 



1* ■ "-^ 



fc¥\ 



■I,' 



.hi. 'I 



eakpCTDr, For snatUr oScawt a«sinHt botl) he nnScrx 

Mni'Ur ron'^^'iocuU ; anil ul Utu ilraUi ut l>oUi ho uwiu-iiB 

I -> and nie» ihc mubv pniiod Hii*biv»ii: buiI 

iiusiljr tnc »ani« [wwoi owt lii» prawn. Thiw 

i <i ii]i to cAU(>lK)di«tici:le»cn) ithtuti(ia.witli<nttj 

iT proving 2 quiet subjccl at lo-asi. * Such inslitu- 

i.vii- .^rUiul} do iwt-(lctMit«lbwcxuUu««uriuudilili«rty; 

liuf if i>c^LM'nil ol)«dintc« utd uaivanwl wdar b« tfas aol* 

• il.i... I. in ric-ff, tlin- u^c on <b» p«rt of Ibt gtn'cnuir* 

..Dwlcd)^- ul'fiumiui i)[kliue,i»(l wiadMplativii ufUtt 

111 tlio nud.' Tlw euipetar ia head of tlie atalc rvlt- 

K>an.BDil, u Ki^h-pricit of U)c ciupiro, can ajunc, willi kia 

tttllBi.-Hia.lv rvpJnw^UUvch tacnUcv in Xhn t;^i-'[nii)«iit 

|«t)l}>k-». No liivrardiv u nuuiiUitiml at Uwi public «X- 

petUic, nor onv pric^lhoml •tlAcIwd to Ili« CoHluciun ur tt&to 

ri'I/k^.in, M line wn-ercifi) and lua grvat t>fri<H-r» |icrr<>nn 

'li:^i jii.rl. Thu Iw M'^nto t»liKui«u urtlpn ur Fu t Uu<lt>a) 

. a, wliicb lun only u>W&i««l, ItiJ itut laitRioiniKl, 

J .ivcinmunl. dL'rivi.- uippurt ('niiitk fiutn tbeir oud 

io-i<>>. >>r frqal >ulunUn prmitu cuiitrdiulKXiB. 

; With wtpwt |u liws tnarJikiK^ry (if ciiil f^ntoraincnt, tl»<* 

enjMror'* pnttf ip>l tniTu>b*rii torra tUt ' intiinor coiuinl- 

''tiarnbur,' aiul (li^ vhit-t eouncilluni ar« four in uutnticr, 

lv.> T.irlitn >utl Iwo Clitnt-w; lln fnrtncr ■!«*;* lukin|; 

■.ux. BiJliw ihtao are • nuuibut of wmmom, who 

< ' ehiet cuuiiFi) of Klale. The lutiy wlietino thtae 

' n uw gencralty •ductud, u tbe llaii-liii, a 

111 rullu^-, i>T Nal^iuil liulitulii. Ttuf <kliuU 

r ,-u-,- rouiirut biutnewara ilt>tnbuteil aniung; hIk iMarda 

■ 't inbaniiK viz. I- The bwid ul civil ii|>puiii[invttt. whtrJi 

uk irf (be coudiurt atid aiuattiuinuion ol' tU 

u) boud of r^veiiUM, whivh rvgalaUn 



ait iA>V«l4 Llk^. 



J. T}w Uianl >il nlo* and <«reinunm: 




BRjliUr) board; i. Tlte Mijimui! t/ilmiul oi t:ri- 
IjllfiMiiclioii ; 6. The buard ol public warka. A wry 
e .^lilca v( l)ir KaM'itimrtii Ik ubw^nublo tn tljc 
t-nif'n, br ottim of miiaurw, tbu tuetubL-n uf whit-li 
^)'Ut! VuiIh>. Thurii Mia two )iri^«)d»iiljf. a 
Jluitcti-, aiid Um> mctabcm ruHMul ui all. of 
abuU tuiiy vt fiilv, (Mnrc^i) uf »luiiii ara teat ta turuiiu 
pVto at lilf eni^uw, a* laipennl itii>i».^.(ura. oi pcrtiapi, 
uon* pruperl) spuaWuig, i>|)ui«. liy l'.«; iiiitivnt uualum uf 
tijo cuipiic, Ilii:; >ri< pnidwged U> iitckcdi any riTinun> 

KiDH tit tbi: Hivi^t'NX^it witbxui dantcec 11^ luainf ibeir 
1 Irut Ibcj' ari: Titquirtilly tlcyradLiI if llicir uuvicv ia 
sdwvuntUc. TIm; piuvkiiL-ua arc pluuitil (unlor titu principal 
cktUftc, «tllM--r, xiiijtlif. of a riH»-> tii^ii, or gutcniur, ur tiro 
pijumwea lu)(t;(bi-t iir<i tuadv subject tu a TM>u»ic-to, or 
Kcnsrw, Kovorooi, wliu biUi a l''iHj-)uon nitdi-r hiiti titr 
each blnm provimu. Caiikin and ils ailjuinin]c pnAiiMw 
arv tof^attui MtbJM:! b> lliu 1'miuu^-io. ciiimiiunly culb:d by 
Eiinipran.1 llir ^ itiToy. In culOi Bcpaiatu province there 
w .< I inid jiulgr and o truunuicr, tliH laltcr hiivin); 

uiii ^.»i(v uf tivil huiU, but hut spt-eiul bu^ini^^n 

b tlic L'itur^i: of ilu) tuititurial r«vrnuc. With this. Iki 
Dnt uf all di.'fjav* titu civil anil tniliUry itxt'itiiM?* of hia 
.1I «l>alu\ur >urplu» ri'iuuinn is ruinitti-d by 
I., ill advL-i ur 111 pruduc«. Tlic tulol Hucplua 
" '"■' iriiiiillvd to tlw cupilul i» ubouC II or 
.' iiuiiually, wbkb liii* M'ry <^r(Dn«uualy 
. L.ij whulu ruvciiuc of ibt viiipin;. Tim 
cilwa and ilihtriTitt of vw^b prvvitin: in iho 
rauks uC Foo, Cbt>»', and Hii'ii. arc under tlio cliuri^i- 
cf'tliv^r rrnpL-clitv inaK »l r'li.-*, wlio tuki- tliuir ranb and 
t:i\xm froEu tilt: i:itioit tlivj Kuv4rii> Xb« tolal number t/t 
•.n lbr«u)fli China 11 oti»i»t«<l at N.tfUU. At 
. iviunt Hiul injLKtrttiiico uf th« £ur»p«an fr*da 
bi- iv the ap<]vu>l uppuiultnvnt uf ibi' II.i«kuiIt], 

«r < 'II t>f ■lusioiDs mlleii by Kiiropuaiiii Uoppti, 

«hi.> riiiiKa lis tliird in lb« tirovini-c, but ha* no Ivrriloriul 

Cikdictwii bcyiid tix Icwle. No individual 111 Clinia aan 
i a inaKi»trai.-y ui hit own pravmM ; and tavh public 
olQocr U vluMiffi'd abuul onm la tbrc'i: yriira, to prcwiit 

riwinj; cvmuoiioiu vitl) Ibuid under hu> gmornmvnt. 
Mti, m brot^r< "I any uthvr it'iy rioar relation, cfirinDt 
bold offico un^ler a uurr«ftptiu(llng rclalivo. TIm \ikriuua 
dr^reot iif L-ivil M)d raililary uWrLHi ar<> portly dinlinipiiblwd 
by ll»e ojlour «f tliij ball wlrnth ib«y tti^r at ibc npci: ar 
Mint 4if tbvir Ctiiiicat capn. Thi'tH.' *t* red, light blii«, 
aailt Uu«, onstal, whiiA-«tAno, and gdl. Ra<.-li ball ia 
BccATOpanicd ^ ila n>rr«»pot)ibnK hailt^t.', vlneh 1* a pie<s! 
of aijk e»broi^-ry, abciut a fwil i^iuaru, with the repre- 
NttlMiMk «f 9. bind,' or Other d«vi9o, ou Mm bruu^t and Vack 




I HO 

of tbi; rctemonsil Itoliit: loctrt her will 1 n i^lWor'ii6J'^- 
laev of «cr> large baaiU, duirh tA ihi; wnial. "'-' 

The whole aiaouM of mililary ihniW'fhQnt llw cmpilr^. 
including tJic indiliu of oath lAistrirt, hai been Ciiirniiltnl at 
JOti.UOU. uf which Uw laritva! purtimi an; llxi^ to their 
naliTc diMricta, and «uttivati< the land, ur tr;]Ian' winii) 
»ihi?rpiir»uit. Tlw whole arc iindcr (be dircciiun 1/ ilu- 
luilitary trtbunul. or biMud, ut IVkiiii;. Tbc trunly Tiirt&r 
troops oTtt isnfjvd under the ci^bl atanilanU, eaub at ihrm 
compriaiiiK IttiDVO men, and cnikiDK a tt/tal nf ^u.ooo fur 
u aU■ndtll^ amy. Vtry fow wouninj soWirrs w\rc seen by 
citbar of our ambauiM, and wbaterNur may tic tlivir urtuul 
amount, they arc aid ta be tioarly all Tartars. A gtnut 
di9'crcBcc Hn.-ui* to «\i>l bflwmii Ihc pay cP Tarlnrs ntiit 
Uluiii-ia. OiHf of llw furiucr, bciiu^ a foot-tnrfdicr, rLivit't'il 
about ftvc-pcno: n day, with an allowance of ricv : uiii' uf 
llw latter, only fourp«no«, willioul tlte ri«w. 'Hk jiVili- 
otpul arui» of )b« ravulry ar* bovr» aixl itrrows Uic bnw 
bcinK of elaatic wood and hnni aomlilocl, irith u biriut uf 
villt. Their awordt arc i^'iicnilly ill iiindc. and Ibv^ir 
nialcblurkt arw c»n8)iUTO>l liy ihont u infiTioT avapnii!, tu 
thi bow and arrow. Sork; ar« prtividi-il ti'illi xliicld», <:</m- 
powd of ralUn* tumt-d tipir-illi- jMUiA a ivuire. , 

The nodoniw of ihtt ciiipvrr'roiid )ii4 ojurt tbrstMiitliuii- 
drAU %«arK pa<i| Ium been reiiiovcd fi^m Nabkiiig ta L't^- 
ki^l^, a city vboM population liiu been vtntctl nf d^uMo 
tlut of London ; but vurioiis rroiwnt ronduec to reiuliv that 
nliii^t'thiT.iinpmbablc. Motwilbilar^iuiir tliR grintt i-Vtuiit <tr 
lhiMkr«a«n«lnMd within (he muIKiIii'I* urL< m ru . 
apaww of ^real estont. Dint it U ibfRirtih. Inbiit.,' tiu 
111' tlio nnu-Ktoric'l buildln|r< iniu run iidernt 1011. tn . 
liow tuuhaniminviive miiiib(-riMn L'siftl uitliiii i(> jr.'.. 1 
A Inrt^p pirtion i>( ilii^ Nurthcrii or Tartnrinn eiij d> uti n- 
pioil by'lbt! «n(-bHiirt' o bicb iMnlaiii* t!i« palan- .ind pW^^- ' 
>uiv ^rouiiibiuf I tie etn|>«rur'. llie ramaiiidf r ii innlrtL 1] ,a''<- 
al iiitenala witbulHrinl or n.'Ugi<jiu buUdiu. 
i>urriiund<Mt liy Iniytt upon rr^un*; attd tliit « .1.. 

Uiu Miuth hat-nuintTeey exteti*ive apaeCT on-upu!il dy iin; 
ni«3uuity-aproadiii|f publii: bitildinn. with ground.'i il'nHivd. 
riicn^ uti-. bcHdrt. lan^ alinelaof Hialer, and gin ' 
vntud In Uie growth oTvuKetablw Ibr ihc ■■ily, V > 
ufCunionandiifmijalitt'tlitri^iiicauri-' I n n 1 .. ' 

milling only ihrwe or lour ruul ptisN.'nLji in: 1 lii- 

principal tborou^hfiinisuf Prkiiig, wiiirv.nNiJ iiMliilvn'iii 
l^alvK. are fiillv uiiu huiidivd furl in widlb. Tbi~'M! iirv uii' . 
paved, pcubidiiy in cunswiucHw of tlic diRiivliv Mi.\ ^-\■ 
i>t<n*e ofpltNMllin^ nlonn in the tbl that Mirr()vii)(i« llic <'i|j. . 
lu rainv wmilier tbc ptim-ipdl v'a)t nn^ siinil l>j bf in a 
dn-adtut tiair, ftuin the want nS proper druJns. mid iii iim- 
MM|ucnri- orilii.-perfi.-iTi Ictvl tif tlie grtmnd ntil ullowiiifr ibe 
Miller ti) run ufT , 

hjfjuia/ioii. — ^Ttie populnlion of ibo (iinpim lias nBtumlly ' 
bfon a subjiecl ol' invviilii;aliiin with tlnHn- prrsoiu bIuj tiid - 
ibu best (ip]H>rlunitiu^ of puiihini; ibc incjuny wilh HUi'ircia. 
A number of natural, aocuil. and )>oliti<-al rniiaci lui dinibt 
combine lo explain l)in vrry dciim: nupuliiliun nbicli llie 
<'»uiilry uii<|utMiiiimlily contains. Tlif advnnlngtiti wliii-U 
L'binu iiomivbm:!) fruni iinluic have bc«n icipiutcil l» tbc '. 
ulnio«l by ita indii»tn<<ii* iiibabitunta ; a^rii;ullurc, iJte 
M)uroe orVood, Imn bi-eii li<>»oiii'>.-il und oneuura^uJ beyond | 
vtvry utiier ))(K;ci«a of indutirv. There it no laoodoir i^ullj- 
vjlion wliatcvur ; tiotbiiii; i» rni«i>d by labour for l!ic foud '>f 
cattle, but all for man, ■inco tlio very «ma|l iiuinU-r of , 
Itorwut, oxon. or atwep mninlain tht-iiiuiK-^n m tUcy voii on ^ j 
paKtnrea unauacMtiblo of cullivaliun; and in no other,, 1 
I'oiintty !■ no much food dmlvc^l fmin the walam. The uoU- ^ 
lical eauHea whirh lend tn «well tb(^ {lopulation uf Ukilia 
are nuin(^rou» and {lowerfii). Among; inoiw arv th« palvrniU i I 
ri^hin, ubidx continue daring life, and roader & noii, uv«a 
in Ihat utor-peopkd eaunirr. an important ao>iui<ttioii. 
l*^)* Iaw4 of tb't empire (fi'unL lili; nametunni e\cr\ lu 11 curi- , i 
ilpmB#dlioiniPidi>, if th« want of another Mon or ^randion A 
render bid* eviHtenrn necRtsuTy lo Iho tiipjMTt of a ]vitren1. ■] 
The other eniira, which render* male ehMdrun no dvMrvble, \' 
id th« «Diilim<'nt regardinc siu^ritlcci at tlie lomba and in , 
tb9t«nip1et of aiiccsiort. In dufhuVt of male children there j 
i« ale^aliMit modoof iidiiption by which th« lino i* priiKk- /] 
luaied and Ibn fiunity prevented IVuni bccomujg inctinul. . 
Kvcn thu li>nd>>ne)' of alntvr}' to (^)iock popiilulinu iii r^ouiv 
temetMl Ly a law whii'h mnkw tlio nviiiep* of ilomusdf nUvo*,' "j 
wIm iEo noiprneiin) Inn-lmndit for their fi'inulea, Ilubli^ la 
proweutiun ; btii llie perpoiutilioii uf (amiliirs doo* not tend 
ni4tv tu tlio deuaily uf ttiu iiu|>uliitiou Uuuv \\ȣ ut&^Aw.i 'v& 



CHI 



•78 



C H I 



vhldi thou hmilim livs and an nuiiiiUined. It is ■ nni- 
Tcrsal Byslom of dublitng an Ibe tnort economical plan, and 
tlm olaun* of kindred being univBrsatlv adniittrd and im- 
furcod, lbL< (jropcTty of fauiil^i?^ u mutlu to muiiiluui liic 
gKaU.>8t nutubur ]M«»iblc. Anulber plUinl raiue in lliu 
otMlad* that esiiU. boib in law atui ptvjudicc, to rmigra- 
titm. Boftides Ibe *taim« in Ibu pciiiU cnde, whiirh pu' 
ninboa thic offencv accoiilim; ' lu the* law ogaiiiM nHuuiuiii- 
cating vilfa rvbvlti aiid uncmkii.' ilm idMiiidoiuneDt of hi^i 
native pbine, and of tbc (ombsof liis luiMston, i* al«a>-s 
abliom-ui to the mind of a Qiinaut. To the aburi.- li»t oT 
caUMUi ivniliiiit In |iri>ilu(-u iIil' cxcvHsivt pajiutiLtion orChiiiu, 
must be luWtd llw uiuiitorniplcd pntoo whirli liu btcn cn- 
jnyeA by tliat countij Bine* the coutpkle ealitblialimctit of 
Uh) MtUH-'bgw dynutf , » period now cunsidcnhly nceeding 
a et'-ntury. 

If iiilcr ilic circumstances Kbova briefly onamentml, then 
islrndillli-ull)' ill admilling iHr cxtnioriltnuy ammint of 

KipkiUiiuii wliicb ha» btien given firuui vitnous auUiorilien. 
iMiUiciic. liun^vcr. HtateillGtltsaccusionallyBo cDntrndirlury 
thul il nkf iiu not nltoccthui t-uj- tn ninui tn tiny mtisflirtory 
KMiU 08 tu tlin M:tual niiiuber. Groaior mado thu jn«)iiiln- 
liuii in 17-13 amount to 1»S or ZDO millions. Tdot* ia 
uotUioK iocrodible in tbi^ coniidvrinK (l^ot tlic area of 
Ciiinu Projwr i* devcnlitora that of m« British I.-Ju.iii'a, 
Uiil oil i-i)iii|iariii^ it witb tlw333 millii^ns of Li^iril JdiK-aH- 
n*'v'» uulluM'.ly. jHst Bftv v«uw dt^rwanb, aii int-iMmsc of 
L-Da»idi!r>i1'l]-|iivrv- than fialf williiii tluit perind »i-euMAx-r>' 
laiKv. Wliun Ihd couhu^ wus t«);«n by Kiouluong, a Uttlu 
bo&e iMti Mecnrlnoj't) (inliw*)'. tliat cnip«rQt issued a 
pruvlammion add/v»«ud to tlio wliole of hit aubjeKta, oallinj; 
on all rniik* And cundittoits of mon to cconomieu lf)i> ^iHs 
oT Wivoii, uiiut by industry to incrtiaso Uio quantity ; r^r, 
alui;ivini{ IIk inctviUK: of n»pulatv>n «nce thi' piTiod vf lliv 
Cifi»<|U>.«t, 1m^ luofajt fiinhuril Willi ili^op r^nfvm i» ibu fuluro, 
wlMiti (be iiutab«r»of ibc |i«optc aliall b^re «\M!«d(id tbo 
tacan* of sub^«nM>. A(^ao)rdiiiff to this h^lieat aulbority 
tiu'-ii, N very groAt innvoMi hnil really taken place ; but vheii 
W4r «tHn« li> tV prit()<>uliu«, Ihcry aeom to ata|;ger all bolief. 
Tbi-empwrorfl-oMon t«wiy, llvat intlu 49thy«arorK£ii^by, 
tha w-'t^ind winimKn of hU fllmil r I nnd uudi-r the old e^tem 
of the poll-t3ix). tBO |MV|.ulttlion iif Ibe euipitc wax rniMl at 
ebniit -J:t,?l J,iiu<i; and that by lb« late consiu, Afrordineto 
Mdirnn tKiuiall iIm pravinre^ it am'iuntud lo 3U7,467,EtlO. 
UnK'idsumo way ran bo fuiind ortccMiiciliuu tiunh an ao- 
nnint with barr pnsmbility, it seems unwintby of tutrimis 
nc«<'p(nni<<;. Riil u'i> inu*l remember Ibnt a ^real portion of 
thu (yHiniry wa:t ai^iually unsuMmd in M\a roi^;!! of Kfinc- 
liy. Tltcwuthoi^paitaaftfaaoniplre JKld nut obaliiiatofy 
Bijrniiiet the Taiiar«, and sttma of tncm wcri? long guvernod 
In indt-iitnilfHt CliiiH-»e mk-rs Tbf'io thon Tiff tlio linio 
ninu bnvi? boon oxriudcil friim u puiimw iif tlif t>ubj«rlt uf 
IbaMani-lmw djnuty. AsiUn we m ml call to Tiund Dial 
tbe nemus m nmurkiible lor its ttnull unmtini umivr K:1ii^'- 
by wns with rrfcn-tiot! to :i pi>n<tiix. and lo iniliiary M'r^ii?^. 
twti iXijucIa which were of all others tbc Ictisl mlrulatiMl, 
during an unteitlod and half-iubdiipil otali* xl' ibe country. 
U» eimne a correct or full return. The Muncbaw wnouest 
h said, by tlio ronibiitcd eCeirtii of war and fliKhl. tu liast- 
rvducod tlx- jHipuUiliiin of China to Ws than half its amount 
unili'r till' Uing rara; but the conquett bas since befn fol- 
ln«>od l>) slmuot unniLaToplad peaoa and proon'riiy during a 
pi-riii'l conkidcFOlity eKc(«ding a oentury. A ccukhk, ttaid, 
on ihc niithonly of a Chinirsr ttntitticel work, to )uive been 
taken in ISli, gw* bt^und llw unmunl given to Lord Ma- 
uarinry, und nmheH itie population reflc|> tlie iiniubvr of 
880. J '^.89 7. Our fiiitb in ibis muM of cour«- be detei^ 
tniitcd I'y 'liP di-Eiw of (Tt-dil tn lie- nttorbcd tn tlw Cbinrao 
CU»i»«. The acfKiutit ia ^toid to lie made up from the returns 
recxised in detit!l ftora L-vcry rillnpc in ihc empire, in wbicli 
the linuacs arc proridcd with wlifll n oiled a muH-pa«, or 
'dour-tables,' uii which om innmbwl all iIh; individuals of a 
fiinitl]'. Tlie ti^du are Iniii^tiuitted thmu^b -wveral clmnnvls 
bcfiire Ihcy reach Pokin)^. and moy ihcrufurcocctDrionally, if 
not always, be liable to falnflcuion by iboM who wish lo 
(latter tbc emperor with thcblecofincrciur. Ttikin^lhearra 
of China at t.JOtl.lMHl «]iiHri' miles, in rniind numbcift, wo 
ehould liavc the Uti-^l f»tiinutc. S4HI inbabiiaols on n aqium 
milr. which is nkorc than England or Holland poMossca. 

llrrvnuet. — ^Ttie rercQiicatn China are d(Ti\-cfl principaUy 
friJintt land-tax. anil the monopoly nf salt, lo wbicn ar« U> Iw 
uddci) KimcthtRt for cuiitums and Iramit-dutiee. At tlie 
Ubiicbuw cotu|QeM B cspitatbn or poU-tax «a» itnpOMdi 



■k 



but tbia wai aoon laken off again : and tlie wrond onpans 
of tbe dynaity ordained that ibc land-tux. vliich uodn Om 
Cliinewbad Eieen taken fiuin Uic culii^Bitors, aliould era- 
atbxT be taken (hm the land-«wnei«. Tlw nubjectof ike 
Ctuneic revenues seems never buFotv tu hitvo bean veir 
clearly understood. Fruro iliu jiruduoe uf taxation ia aw 
province, the tneaurer uf ilint pruvuicc doduole liw d«l 
and mHltarv expenoea, md all eullof s, wlwllwr Pot puUia 
works or otfierwue. leniuiiig tlw aurplu> to P«kiu|j dtha 
in money or kind. This sutflut baa been ibo 
dearly a*tcenaiued, and il Jtaa been very erruaeo 
taken for the groat aaomitof ifae revenue. Tbe di 
ufasceilaining the real mpanaa liaal alleode the 
trmiion of tbc empire atiiNm frflin a oonaidsraU* [ 
the taxi^K U'inic It^oied in commoditios t iu i wd of mamp,m 
joaiu, soil, bilka. oiid stores of diflbrent imrle. A nortiw W 
we ^Iowance« of puUic aemaUi MpccUlly el Ptkuk^ V 
well u of tliti Aiiiicndd of iiaperial rolativee. la iiaul m lb 
Blia]ie of mtiona and HUpplice. Du Ilaide aUtas the leW 
revenue of the eniuire, including the pioviiMeOt al 
ina miltioiix <if tjivU (lU' upvurtU of 60 miUiuiu 

ufMbicJioiiU IStudlioiuttilerbnKerotraniiiutted lo 

The accuracv of the latlar amoiinl aeeo» prulty neatly et^- 
Armed by wimt oppeaivd tii a l^!kiJlg gaMtte of I »>UL A 
Tartar offloer Ihurcin Mttca, * that IM whole reccipta tf 
Pektni; do not e\ci.«d 4U mdlione of ImW, which ia liar H 
ni^Lion*»torliat;:' ei^ain, it appears from aatalawcert MB»' 
leted by Dr. Murritxm. tbut llui eurplus fron lehdm. 
Irannmiiled tu Peking; by two prnrinnii. irai I imHinHll 
tac]», which, lekcn a* on average for eighteen pravilMK 
would icive 4iuiiUi<.<nn: but one or two of Uwqu Stwil) 
m \xf\\ bi'low ibnt ave^^^^ nnd tbo troe lotol DMy lbpf*4e«« 
lie iti iuil1i<in», ns aliovi.'. 

/•utc«. — Wrp<'WL'v>atrKt»1alioneflbeTiirtar-Cbiiweep(4H' 
cade, frum Hit George Kiniinlon, and nf ibw M|i««-inMit «fl^ 
gidittiott a %<er7edT«htaaooufi compnriann wiUi oUwv A^M* 
M-atotns ba« be«n mMle ny on able critic in itw * B4tllh«^ 
Kc\-iew,' ' When [«nyii lie) we turn from tlw rvrnnief 
the Zeni1>.ve*-1a, or the Purenu, to tbe lone uf mimt aiid »l 
businoM of t)ii* C^tncee Milleclian, we seem lo be fumif 
fV«m darhnais to bii;hi; from the driv-nllini^af dMapIt 
theex»rrisi*ef an improved undersianding; and 
and minute iw these lawx ere, in many 
Mttreoly know any European codo ttwl is «l 
and Ko consistent, or lliat is nearly no froe from iiitrkaif. 
hiii;otry, and Action. In everytliiiiir n-lalini( l« poUllvri 
Oi-vdeni or tndiMdu^ iudependenre. it is, indiwd, wiMtf 
AoA-nii* : but for the ttrprewion nf disord«-r. and (he OBdIIi 
coercion of n vast populnlioti. il epjH-uii to us lo ua. te 
eoiicral, Riiiatly mild and rill'-ai-iDua.' If wu e^tuBsl* 
Cbinew Wislnlion by its imult, we shall find il lae 8ir 
Oe<^>ri;e Staunton obeprvm) wlioily ■nrunsi'^ient oilb lla 
b«-p»llifviti i>f a icrv l>ad gii«<eTnnMtiit, or a very i icwus (Uls 
ofhitcielv. Ur. R\lit. who had long 1>een in Puriie toi 
India, pronimnnyl Chitm 'sup«^itr tn Ibo oUm« eoiwUw 
uf AMia. iHith in the art nf giiviTniuviit and tlw gaow' 
osjieel offtocieC)! :' nnd nddK.' ibal tbe taws ai« m»r»|fn^ 
rally known, and more etiuully adrain»l<.>re>l : ibel Ummu a- 
aiiipUifi uf nppn-Hcion. iLCiiuminuii»il mlb uillK:(ion of bar 
bamuKpuninbinent, ufaich offend tbe eye and dMraai llv 
Reeling;* of ihe moKt burned traveDer in oilier AsibIk 
nounlriee. nrv scarn-ly lu be met with iji China: that Ike 
proprrtion wbirh iIkt inirliUing orAor^ bi'ar m tlw ellMr 
dojuea of tbe community appeared to be cntisiiderable ; ibat. 
comjianed with I'urkcy, Pmia. and otiivr pnriH vf Inditi 
an imprviwon wait pnidmvd Irii^lily favourmhlw iq iliBOia*- 
pnralive tiiluatian cf tbe Imner utdcnk' It u a {HiimUr nudliu 
with Ibe Cfaincac, that la violate the law i* tl>e kauwutiae 
in the cmpcTor at In a Kuhjvrt. ' Thu (klainly iMtatalrs 
<ulMer\e<i Mr. Davis) that llicrv are oertain MinctMns wkich 
ibe people in gcncml look «|Mfl as auperior to (ha will ef the 
wtvereii^i himself: ihewaieeotituiupdnillMKr awndUMdv. 
uboMi principle in litumlly, tatua jiopttli tvprrmo iexf and 
bowevce much ibiii priiuiple may at (iinea lie viidaled 
tite preWiUre of a foreign Tartttr dominion, it nevei 
continiiM tu be recognised, and raual doobtleas « 
tuoreur leMinAurni-i.' on the ooiiduetof (lie govrmiBi 

Moni CKiiracttT. ^. — ^The maiai cbamcter of tlu Cfai- 
neae people w • coniEMHind of bad nod good trwtsk whidi, a* 
ueual, may be tfaaad to the inlluenoe uf ibdr puittkai and 
•oeial ayoteoi. The late Dr. Harrison »eenu to Ba>« fbrmad 
a ta.IT cnlimale of a iiniioLi with whom he was beUar 
aoqiuiatod than moat EuiopciiDB. *Id Ouoa <Im 4b- 



purtMOia^^H 

oneeeow^l^ 



ex; and 
edtnuMt 



O H I 



TO 



CHI 



rng. 



k)4btT* is tmck to bUuN. but Mmetbing to learn; 
■onl ioMruclian i* ranked nlxtve phyucaL' The 
uanna M, riiu induMry. trinquiiiUf, and rontonl, 
iiniiHiiilU iirvvuluiiC in tlio bulk of ibe poimlaiioii. 
MutwiibM^iiilini; Ihn power u absolute, tbu ein|>eror biin- 
Mf atnayx oiirlKivouri to proi« that hk oooducl is 
fc Mw l in rraMiii and bcnsvulniuw. Has Imtli of tho nivu- 
IMnt Ituiiig. (iC CDUiM-, » diHtiiicl ufTair. Frun the haRibt 
hich ihev aro brouglii up. the people are iDorv 
wly t(i tiNUiin villi each ullit't lli:iit to resort to Tiolrare. 
uilrann^ecKai CmtUTPtvf llmr rlmnmtcr. u mildnpst. 
I;, iniliuiry. peacealiletieu, uibordiustian, and n- 
far the H[ed. are aecom)Muued by the vice> of inuii- 
ity anil SiIbcIkmkI, nith tlwir MinM<(|UeiMea, mutual dis- 
Hat an<l jealouKv. Lying and dwnl, huing fivTicrally Ihe 
III the )reaa aiiil timid, ba^v alnayt bwn ht-ld niiiong 
diigiac»l\U vUva, while the Cliine«e. at any linic, ili> 
Ihs Mine dogroe of disitrace to demt, aDd least or 
it i* pnoliaad inwunls a Hurnpenn. It would how- 
aa uarauonalile tu ml'tir the rFiararler of ttio uiliolc 
fVoiR Lho nnthvourable aspect in which it appvar* ai 
itnt), a tra^lin^ apannrt, as U form are mlimala of our 
ibI rharMtcr in Kiigland fniin an oxprrionre Kiually 
and duadtanto^coui. It !>■», in Ikct. bann ran- 
n a matter &r aurpriM, that tlie Cliinew ai Caninn 
lio novorve than m dud tliun: Ltipy ati* «i]>II an- 
*llli tbe maxira of their gavemincnl. hr which it 
ilbav* ' In mill haTtariBnt like l>easls, and not Itke natitv 
•tid they an- riiniiniiDlly aupplied hy the local 
vilh every motiri- to U^liuvo tirwards »lrani{epi 
y wero a dca:radcd oider of boinga. Tlitir ninaiict 
|tHuia thcriifbie m different from tlielr conduct 
miuelves. ■ 
In ihf^ir phy»i«nl charactcrislio), tike Chin -c han bocn 
niwil US mtpctior to tnatiy oltwr iVtiinlics. A Ancr 
Mid mon powcrAil ran uF men rti»t iKtwhcte than 
ieiur portera of Canton; and aa Mildi^ tlicy havr 
nd Mmnser and mora efficient than natives uf 
board nt Gtu[liiiti flhipa, but it has iilirsja Wen 
't and tvtpeiiMve to etnpluy llicm. Though Ibc 
•A aDiad to the HanpJa in the jrenersl caat orlltetr 
tin hatsb&r points of llw laltci are sofWnod down 
coiksidcnhly 1 in the thickm^s of the lips Ibe 
tn Mtne defcree appmachea. buitiy no lutana cquahi, 
, nor k that feature at all lo piominent aa in Ibc 
ler; IhrrMKwis Hutivmid, and thenwtrd expanded in tbc 
but not to IlicMiuc extent *a in tlte Atfican: there 
me lank. Mark, and nhtmu]; haii in the ca»« of Ibc 
a» in ijtot of the North American Indiana; llie 
ii)aitr of l\x! v\e<i and eyehttnn, lumcd upwaida at 
'-- — '-r;-iiK;s.'M>d a Corresponding tliiunesa oiiJ 
't-ard. The Chinese too is dislinf^ichcd 

1. ; ; nVsrnce rf hoir from the nvfiK« of the 

In the itnalltifSH of (lie hati'K anfl Iw, and of the 

r the budv. r-iriipOir«d with European*, he lOWmhles 

leralily ■■f A»tnliei(, The frotnr^^ of tlie people in 

hs've perbap* Ichm of tlic hanli niigularttr of the 

nnc* than i<% Peking. Among those who 

tn (If iHimrtle the complciiAn i> fQIIv n Mr 

y it Ihenun haia nowcrrtil tfl'oet 

liortionofamsn upeiscn which 

o\jir.-. ii ni inr hiinim«r »K>r(* hl« loow tro*- 

"ftfii 90 dirtVrant Ifom the remninder. that when 

be Itmkt like the lovn-r half of a European joined on 

r tnoi^t* '>ran ABiatie. Up In the a^fo nf ii«rnfy, 

i\n^ atTt Hfitfi tt^ry jjnod lo.ikini^; but tioon 

N- prominent chw'k-bont'* generally giw a 

'r-aiumas the muDdnefs of youth wears ofi*. 

- of Age the old mm in nio«t caMs bocoine 

.' nhl tremim, If puiailile, attll montio. 

U nuw polttieallj divided into provinecft. of which 

.letld eniircly or'mnly over ilie rratt plain, two 

~ the hilly' diiitriet*, two olhvn the raouniainouA 

ifC the iie«, and the othera the niountalltoui 

:Be interinr. 

trhn-li ettrtidn otnr the piMl northern and Uhk 

^ ■■• •• ■' the plain, but is well eullitaled. and pto- 

-'(tables for Ihc MUiiply of ihu rapilul. lar^c 

.1 Uei and wbMt. In ili'Miuuiiil I'kkino, 

[ the whola empire ; the capilut of llie pro^ inee 

a vert tn^ and populous towu in which 

'tewde*. 

: tompnhoad* 1 put of the plaia tOid the 



Ithei 



O, 



peninsula of Chong-lim^. on which «l isolated mountain- 
ranga rites to a moclemle height. It produen wheM, 
milfel, nnd coltuii. llu rupilnl k Tsi-nnn-foo, a Inr^e and 
populouR town. Liu-lc1iiii-leliemi. at th<< contluenee of the 
eanal with the nver Bu-ho. in the depn^ii of gooilt; which 
are carried from the Miutliem provinces to Peking, nnd a 
very largo plnrd. 

1. Kiutiii-ku, trhieh with (he fullovinff priTrincG ones 
fonne<l that of Kiang'ntTi, comprelii>n'ls llio low and 
««atapy rouniry on both Miles of the Great Cniiiil. Il 
chiefly produce* riiw and piili*, and ha« oslniMVo flshcrlcs. 
ButidesihecHpilal. NAKKiNr.. it eoitlum« iiiauy tnrffo fowna 
ein the banks of the cannl. nmoiii; whii-h Ihe nwai Vcttinrk- 
ahio are Yang-tcheou-foo, uhirhK at a i^hon ihstsnee from 
thti Yaitt^-liMfktang. and cnrrieK on nn artive trndiv ; nnd 
Su-icliuoii-fou, which to an exlenatie vommopre nnites 
great iiidiutry in manufaeiurinfj silk and cotton goods. lis 
principal port is Shang-hse. 

4. Ngnn-lioei or An'-Uoi, oti both )oiJ« of Ihe YanR-tiie- 
kiaiis, praluccn. Ix^Aidex p-iin and rirev •nine ^illt. In ila 
ioutu-easleni (lisCricIf are e:^len.Hire pUntatioiu of tea, and 
also gome mines orcrtUl. ■ilvcr, itntl copper. The capiral ia 
Nfpin-kini^-fijo, on the Viiiii(-t.«H-kinnii. 

6. Ho-nan b ohielly In ihe plain, bill lU wesicni dtirtncis 
ore tra«tT*ed by the Pe-iinj; mountain-rnnge nnil its 
branches. It i» rich in tn'uin and colloii. snil is nuppo^od 
to contain ■nnic iniiiL-Jt In ili itnuth-en*lcrii ilf>tln''lv d-a, is 
cultivated. The capi'.il, Khui-fon^-foo. iii rr>t fur fn>ni ihb 
banks of ihc Iloutig-hu: but the most ponuloitH town an- 
pears lo be lIo-nun-fcMi. on 11 rircr whicli Rilli into the 
Moatw-ho. tn u tiehlv-ciiltivalcd Millcy. 

6. Hoo-pC coreprcficnils pnrt of the unddlntinff portion 
of the plain, and the "idp mIIcjh nf ilic Hiin-kmrt" aiul 
Yang-l«vkiBiin. with some mi)unlainoin difirii-tf. It lien 
in the centre of Chinu. and formerly coiiMiluled. with iho 
more southern pro\into of Iloonan, one pioviiwc called 
Hou-quan^. Its ferlilily is very irrvtil: it* iirofiiicls aro 
grain, ration, mlk, and tea. which Bt^c^l!^i^nI^■^loIl ilKi-.orlli- 
esatcm border. Itii capital, 'Wu'ichang-foo, §itnntcd ciii thn 
Van^-isc-kianK> opposite it-t junction wiili the llnn-kian^ 
in one of the larijtat of the inland to«TH of Oiini. nnd 
carries on an eilcnsivo commerce, Kins-lchcou-fjo. farllitT 
to tbe vtst, likewise on the honks oflbc Yang-lse-kiatig^ 
has aim a Ten- tixtcii»i%c tnidi-. 

7. Che-kianE coniprthciids the sou I li -cast em comer of 
the plaint and the northern portion of the mountairuiiu 
counir)' extending along the wo, Jt produce* more grccii 
tea than other provincesandalsosilk, rice, grain and pulse, 
in abuuilancc. Hi riipitat is Ilans-tchcou-foo. on the biuLv 
of Ihc T>ico-loiig-kia:it:. it the southern tcrmiiiali^in of the 
Cteat Canal, in a very p!cn»iU Kituntion, Acturdinjc to 
Stftunton. itA roi>idation «a« lboui;ht to he not much Ic^ 
than thai of Pekinu, and the niiwivimnoi L'stuualt^l il at 
one radlioii. Notie of tbo houses cveed two i?1oiies in 
height: Iho tttrectft are vicll po\e<l. It has extensive ntanu- 
farture.s of silk and oottoii ffooiU, especially iq fliiucik'd 
bjmI entbroidcrwl ialinn, aiia a »erj' active commerce, as 
well Ijj nK-aus of Ihi? ciiial as hy the river, whi^h U nuvi- 
Bjnblo for large veiu*U up to the town. Tho principal j'ort 
of this province is Ning-po. 

h. Kiftne-n evieiuU u\erlhc cBstcm portion of iho hilly 
country, along the western side onilo Nan-ling mnge, and 
producis in il« « ell-cull n ntcil lalh-ts nni! plHtii,grain, ncv, 
silk, cotton, indii;o, (iml >ujiiif. It bus *omt* [.!'!•■' I'.i-i ,r 
lea. The capital. Nmi-iehanisfOT. on ibu K 1 1 

&r from the place nhoru it liills inio ihe lake 1' - . „, . n 
large town, and earrictt on a great tnulp. In ihe htlly 
coiiiilry whicb hrgiiu at some distance tVuin ihc lake of 
Poj-angon theouf, i£ the borough of Kingtechin^, which 
ii said to contain one million of inhahilanls. who are oc- 
ciipiod exelusiiely in the fahrieatUKi of china-ware, which 
it Doro mode in tho greatest perflKlioiL The number of 
ftirnaees ii saw) to amount >o five hundred. Kan-tchcdu- 
fbo. on the Kun-klnng. not tkr IWd tta xounc and the 
Mei-tiiig Pnut, is a largo town, in which Indian ink atx) 
v'amish aro made on an extensive scale. 

9. Iloc^nan, or the southern part of ihcnnticnl province 
of tlou-iiuaiti;. cnnlliuii the rrm.iiiidet of the hilly cuunlry. 
Ii» pi^Kliiciionii are like those cf KianE". It it «iid to l>o 
rich in minerals. Thti ciipiWil, Tihanncha-foo, on the 
Ileiie-kiang. isa Utyc comniirclal town. Yolchrou too. 
0(1 llic channel connecting the large lake uf Tung-ling 
Willi the Vaiig-iwkiaiig. oIm caities un a very adiiu osiIa. 



:CH 1 



SO 



CH I 



ID. Fo-cian, or F»«Iiiin. extenih over the nmantntnovt 
fiounlry on the sIiotps nt ih^ wm oppmil* Dii! inland hI' For- 
rnota- fltniirurihrnitninilKiirilii^Naivlini^ ranue lioro riiio 
Inn srmi beiglit. but du nni allahi tbi? peqietuiti Know-liitr. 
The nigber parts of wmt.' of ihp iiiouiituin<rirlgm arv bnro; 
oUwn *n ravunfl willi lnv%. bul in lU exieiiMve Bnil fin« 
^'alleys ill the Dmiiini*rciBl produclionf of China an- me\ 
with, (T\c«pt perhaps Tamieli. It« plniiUtiifiut i>r tna arr 
^Ait^iiiivi-, and ilie ^TMicKl iiuaiHiIy of blm-k tea ih arowa 
berv. The iiihabilants o^lhu province arc notril for' their 
ntdiislry, anil aiiU more for iheir spirit of rntcrprisi; uiul 
Uiuir lore at rmij^niUon. The numeniiu aoiileiuciila of 
Cblneac in the iaUuds of Tndia and the rounb-im wrilhoui 
the G«n^ have hn:n fumteil br thvm, uid arc conOiniuIl} 
iticri-uiiit; by ii<!W ailveiiturera iroin Ko-kiaii. Thu capital 
uFu't<-bi'au-roo.on iho rircr Mini^ho, over whirh n hndsr 
w buiU of thtrlf-threo arrhca ni Enc whilv aloiii;. Tfii.' 
Uir^i;«at CbiiieM Tonels can cinn« U|> uliUMtl (o (h« wall of 
the <^itv, iho maritime ffltnmcrco of whirh is vt'rjr con- 
Bi<lurabl«. ntid ilv nop'ulntiun grcalvr than that of Canloii. 
'ihuciKt'houu-ftio, UDl«een Fu-chvuu'fuo niid Aniuy, is likv* 
vnso a lar^o tairxi. A ((roat number of vc«<'U Mil Iicik'i' 
ti> the ncii{hbourin<; voutilrirs. It hoa aWi'l^ built wvr 
•n «rui of the aeo, on 300 pior« of blark xlmiv. I Urv b 
■bo lh« hubour of Ataov. which wu fvnnorly visited hy 
EumpranA- [Akov.] 

II. (^u»n(;-iun, orOnUin, «xt«ril» aver ihcwhok Math- 
cm fimtt {torn 1 1 r° E. Iwr^f. to thu \t-ty boundary of Co- 
chin-Chins, and ii likeviie mountainous, IimI ilflmuunlains 
art: not u hifth as those in Ko-lci.in. It hnt n icri«t niimbor 
of fine and wido val)«y», and tlio jiluui ntiout Canton 
M of conaiderable extent : il proHiio<«all the comini'rciul 
Mtsmodiiios of CItina, oxcapt icn hnil vAmiith. Thi' num- 
ber tif ila !iarb(]unt i* raniiiderablii, but CaiitDti m •Ujiir 
\i<^ilcd by Etiropoiiai. This town istho rapilai of the pro- 
vinns. [Cantov.J Fai'h»n, lying iioiitli-w(.'j.t of Ciiiil>>n, 
ii(adi»tanci> of about JO inilet, isiiuid tu (xiittuin a {wpuliiticn 
ornni; iiiilliiin of snul». niul tn h.i\» uumcruiw muuiiriu-iuri'^ 
of »ilk. cotton, chiiia-warii. und mluuni. 

1:1, Quui^-ii. extending on both aides of iheTa^si-kianv. 
umvcrodtMlli mountniiii^: thr viilli;]->^«liirbnn'i^cn<:rall} 
liariDW, occuity n small (jortion of its nurfiiro. TUt- iiiuun* 
iBiui bclongius to the Nan-ling nuigc, enclosing the 
Bortbcm side of Ilic prmincft hmi to axrvat height, niid 
aonic MimuiiTs iihcwe the pcqwluulaiiou-ttnc. The fiireMii 
on tht d(.-clii ilics of ibc hills uro exlciisivc. Its prodni'iion<i 
arr* tifc, Mik, ancl timltcr, and il ih suppoiird to arulnin |Ci>M 
utiU oiliLT iiiuiul.v A inuuniainiiini aisiru.-!, towards \hn 
northern houiidarv uf Ibi* jFroTincc. is inhabited bi' the 
Tclumr-Colu, an aborij^inid diuI indcpciwlent irihc. diderins 
from tU» Chineae in lun^uaco ami uiaiincrs. The upitau 
of tho province. Kuei-liiii^-foo, lios in ■ narrow but One 
>TBllcy. 

13. Kuei-tcheow, to the north of<Qiiani;-si. is one uf the 
moot wounlainous pravinccs of China, bcin^ trnTtmcd in 
III! ila length by the Iiii;he»t portion of the Nmi liiifc rangei 
SL'wrol aununita of vh^b ara aIvkj'a cov<^rv<l with tnow. 
In lh<f*6 mountnint li«<! the Seng Mwo-lMe, an alwrttpnal 
tril>«, who differ in lnngtia|t*andmannersrmu thr Chinese, 
nnd often iauk« war on litem. Many fortre«9<>R ltnv<- b«cii 
erected in ihe narrow part* of the i-allefV to aMp iheir in- 
cortiiontt. ll« produetifins are timber and moUl''. l^old, 
silver, &c, but eip«cially coj>|ier and •^uirkailnr. The 
cnpital is Kuei-ynnj^-foo, a eompamtivelv small (own, itn 
circuit hein^ mil' much m(;rc Ihaii iwn miiM. 

14. Yun-ryin, the un*t *iuih-we*teni province, bonlnrini; 
on Qirhin-China, Siam, and ihc Birman ctnpirt^ form* an 
cxitiiui\n but uneven tiibte land, ■tuddtxl here nnd there 
with hi^h iwHinIajii».i'»pePiully itiwardd till' north, wIhti- 
then.' are several snow-capped summitt. Tho mount.'xins 
fOwiirtU Ihe svulh. on lliu bnuivbry lino irf the Biriniin 
empire and Siani, arc inhabited by a tribv nTmountairieerK, 
colled I^l'i«,i>r Lowna,wha are only nominally dependi-nt 
on tine Chineiie. Its eommrrrial wealth rcnui^tt of tho 
produce of ii3 mioMk gold, lilver, copper, &«.. and of 
it4 (bmta. whieh pontiiin timber trees, and several kinds 
of rue wuod. The nifitaU Yunnnu-ftki, nituated un 
the least mnunlBinniis part of the lable-land, b a con- 
aidenblc place, und rarrica nu an actl^-e trade with tho 
Birtnau eravirc!- A murli-rmiupnted ru«d, runmux ranolly 
on tho banka of the Ynng-tse-k'anjc, connctta tha town 
with ihc iatvrini provinces of China, and another pasHw 
b«nc«, w««t u Yan^leaaag-t)Oi another conaidenihle town. 



perhnpslartrerthan Tun-nan. Fmm ihu plaee the tmi 
nirititiueK 10 ttiu Irwwaddi rifcer, aiul to Bitantoa in At 
Birman empire. A eonaklanible trade ia carried nn by ikk 
roiile. [BiMKAM Empikx.) 

IX Be-i4-hu>uii. the larmi of rhe prorinoefl, ia nmAf 
everywhere enclosed by lntih mountain-chsina. »ni te 
interior w Iravcrwl by lower tunges. lb vitlleya aTOMir 
moulx wide, iind (iDrn expand into plaina. The anil !• HA 
and produreii every kind of ^tain. aa well ■■ rim ail 
ftuifnr. in abiindnnce : hut its ' rnminerrinl r»rh*tt 

rriTid])nl1y of ailki limher, uiid dilTerent kindft af 
!>> lanital Tchin|{-loi>-fLMi, siLuatcil mi an iKlanil foi 
the Hin-kifin^, In nn extensive and richly -rullivjitad 
b n pliirw uf roiiMilrrablt: trnde, and vrry poputnus. 
Icbeou-fuo, on the bnnk» <if the YontttMskiani^ ia 
the miMt commercial places in the iulorior cd^ Cfai: 
^erj- populMUH. 

16. Bhcn-&i is more covered with ruracd niountainattti 
Su-trhu-an, and cantaina a much ^mwlkr portion of evU- 
i«bl« land; yet the wide vaUc)> tliroutth which tb« Wet^ 
and Hait'hiunK ru>i are very frrtde, and produce aim- 
dance of wheal, millet, and iiuUe, but little ric«. m 
eupilal iaSi-nifun-fw, <iu the 'ftei'hix, once the inetro|Mlltrf 
Ihe whole empire, a town m laego that it ia eotnparcl will 
l*ektnK iladf ; it ia ftliungly fortified, and carrier en a e«o- 
aide rub lu trade. 

17, (>h«n-si ia slill more mountainou* thftn Shen-«i; K 
has one wide and fertile volley along the hanki uf thr ftn- 
ho, or Fien-ho, which ia wdl eultivsted, and ^ttxtiM ■•■i 
villog»'« and lown«. It ex»orl« wh*ni, millot, roi- 

end coal. The capital i* Tai-yncn-fco, a larfte i 
eontiiderable manu&cliirei in silk and earpelft, an>i mmc 
Itftde, THilonff-fim is nne of the principal furliAfd placti 
near the Great Wall. 

1«. Kan^i, the mo*l north-weilem province of ChiM, 
ci>ii«ii,is(if ihe western portion of Chtfi»-'i, to which hubett 
u'ldt'tl a i-iimtianttively twrrow tract of Laiid. which exttnli 
r^ir ui>stu'ard to the ventre of Aais. Tliis tmrt hna ben 
wblaid with the view of sepurutinf; the warlike atKl ■»!»■ 
dering tribe*, which inhabit ihe lable-lamlft to the norili 
and we«l of China, from one another, and of preveiilUi| 
their iiHmminna mtu Chinn. The eaatern part vf thii jn- 
vince ia studded wiih hi)fli iiid uuny »now-c«pp(^ inoua- 
luins, nnd the weitlem extends over the atony and wuAj 
dcMits of t^'ntnil Aaiu ; the wlK)te Ih a (luor ccuuliy, aM 
thinly inhabited. Tliu capital ii Lan-lchcou. a fcmall plan 
on thel>aiika of the lluaug-hn, which hnwoci rarTM* M 
a brisk trade with the tribes inhabiting the tuble-laadis Id 
llic north and west of il. 

To thiMC eighteen provinces may be added the proviom 
of Leao-lon^, ur Miuigden. which extenda along the north- 
ern shorca of the Hoaneo-iloi, or Yellow Sea. It ooodd- 
luled formerly a part nf Manchuria, bkit ufter the firMCHt 
dyiuiaty bad aacended the throne of China, thia portion «at 
•cparatcd from it, and considered as the damuin uf iJm 
imperial fiiiuily. It in di\ided from Cliinm by the ea«leni 
exlretnily of ihi; Great Wall, and from Mongvliji h>- • 
Htockadu of wooden piles, which extends to Iho iDouoUiu 
which M]>flraie itftom Corca. Thia tountrj ia covered wtlh 
hii(h mountflins, except wn ibe baikksof the Loa^bo, where 
there iia plain orcooKidcrnhle extent, and pretty «wll eut- 
tivatcd. Here is ibe c.ipilul, Hukden, or Mou|cden, IWW 
railed KunK-lhi»nfijo.a pla«> orniodenie estcni, in whieb 
nre Ihe lotnba of Ihe Manchow dynonty. ToMnrU the bom- 
dnry of Corea is Fon-Hoan, traveri«<d by the only rtad 
which connei^tK Corea with Clntia, and on whieb Mva 
trailu U eitrhwl on. 

Hitlory. — Without aUempting to deny to the htaloriolR- 
i-i)rd>ti<rthuCtiineM!i eiiinirea voiy highdo^ree of antiquity 
il i« now pretty generally admittodion tbctCHtiinony of the 
nioKl retpoctsble iialitii uialorianK. thai thia point bu been 
roiHidonibly ennerataL In ri-hirmce lo tnt nrliMl tn* 
dstiotu of their liutory. « native commenlalor obaenw. *>t 
i) irapoaiible tosivv entin crvdit to the aecount of tltew 
remiiie agea.' 'Hi* penona styled Foliy. Shin-noong, and 
iheir immediate iuecessors, must be rar^ed ratJier uodei 
the liMiI of mrlliolDKy than of hiatoi>- ; roacmblinz Iboae 
demi-ffudaandlMrraetof f)re«4an M>io wIm rwenea man 
kind mitn primeval bstbariaiD. The hbuluus part of 
Chinese history commrnoea witb Pttiii-koo, who is repr** 
wnied in a diM* r.f ]c«tva, and oenoemiiig wbotn every 
thing b wild and obamre. He ia aaid Id bMve been followed 
by « numbn of penonj with ^ciftil dubm, wbo^ io the 



ibc Hhitloo diTOiKiloin'. rcienal Ibr A^mivltt of 

vM^ the Biipcaniniro dI' r ohy; irho is fa'u\ l>) liavc in- 

I tli« arts of tniisic and mmilx.-rs nuil liii^^lii liU suti- 

U live in • civilteuii nUii-. At Icniclb i-aaiv VqouhikI 

wtw nrc tbitcA to have been tim iiutlcrn> of nil 

cmpvror*. To llic wj or Sliun ln«v rifor tlicir 

_ of DO cxtenMTv fliiotUn^ ol' HHe kiiua. vbicli b) 

i« hu« Wn idcutificl vnih the Mosaic dcliiiji-. It v*ni> 

t Ili4 in«til in (Irniniti^ llu: routiln', nr dr.iwing off tliv 

r.f Uip pr«l inuDiiutiuD, iu vfdicli bo was oiaplcrj-td 

ear*, thot ' Yu tliv Ureal' vas oboscn by Shun Tvi 

wroMor He cixutm-nccrl tin' ptri'vl mlli>il Kea, 

of S)O0}cari bi^.n.' Cbrirf ; ftiirl the wlinlc of llio 

■pdM of time inr|uil<-il uitdcr IluaDiiii Sbking it Tull »r 

[•"iiiiirvflllMH : until Wj^wing vnt i-tillnl upon to depoit' 

lyrnnnii^kt i-mpiTfir, ibo lut of ibo Shang, abi.m liou 

irs lur. With liiin bcf^n ibe parioil of Cbijvi-, wliii'b niny 

fOTuidcKd u tho coiameiK'ementaf *uth«nti<' hisUrr, 

JiiritiH; whioli Conniriiiit himiicif livpH. TTioiipli it 

itglil liu uoiii;; luo fiir Co nintlciun nil llint |in!ri<de4i l)uil 

"TKvl ail nil in) mi' I) rsliuimi, it va Hiill ia much mixed u)) 

ill <ibln m InrvDv m 'Irscno ihp nnrnp of hiHt'iij'. Tlio 

e rif ('hou' CMixt lliv lin^ |iL-riiMl nf HOO ytuirt, iluring 

irJi Ciiim npjiijors to have boen ilivinled inlo b niiitiliur »S 

W 'III li-|vntU'ti( tWtp^ unniitcd in )ii>r|i«tual dispuica 

nil I'.irti oiber. Tbe lung <j( Tsin bad long bci^ti gri)vin[> 

"1 iit the expense of llie oibcr stales: be fmigbi 

imlujiit, jnd nl U'naih riiinpoitEnl tbi?ni all to 

..^L- hiM -lulhuntr. Tlip rbiirt j^iiviTnini'nl boiian 

auume lilt aspect of an empire, wltich ronipre- 

llmt Iwlf «r itiod«ni CliitM Iviiis to Ibc iiorib ut the 

iver Ki^kiig. but nUirh wmi iWiiiKi). after (lio ]amt 

centuries to Ite Hplil n^in inlo acvoial pnrta. Tlie 

jKTvr of llif T»in iljiuiiiCy rfiijivntl iiimix'lf frnnous 

.erartioii nf Ote firnil Wall, ubicli haa nuw iriixl tut 

iff; a 9 veil ns liy Drtkrmii all tbe books of iho 

(includingtlu'writin^ntCjiifiii-iiiil.l" bi- nut into 

irv AWil ll»- year H'l ac-. ihe tiicB uf Titiii n;w 

rveileal b> ihnt vt Iliin. whieli filled one ol'thc mo»f relo 

lufui.ljof Ciiinc»rhiMiii-y. It mm now ibai ilicTor- 

. lhoi-aa»«<>f >-iid|c» ■Itu^iia-tlotbeu- iniin.- rivi- 

iDuful nei;j!ibuiiri, who were fronuciitly ublyod 

1 "ff witb Inbole, The jipriod nl' tiw .fan-kiwi iir 

!>:*,' Uiiv vbidi tlte <vHtilry wan diviiW tu«TvnI<i 

I lUit. about AJh H4, h a diMiUnK: eubjcct 4>f 

it playG ant] roniHiince 4f tbv (^lineHf. The 

Que liftltcM 'Tbrrv Rtatr*,' haviii)c ul K'ii;;lli ub- 

ibe (iim;reii!iU\, i->t;>bliiiiL-il the rapilBl in bi4 uvu 

lltii).'<n> and (-ommi^nced a nvir dynaMy. In cijn- 

■ uf lliv duitra^L-liviiH which bud nritton rium wvuien 

- -' ■ /: lU'iin^; III allUir* of RO^c-tnau-nt during 

•ITirco Sut«s,' a knid of Jabc law wni 

r<-< -.Uould not roigii. our ^Minl in public 

u.ly ic meet wilh iii> fomale sovo- 

On th(! confliiainii of lliis Rte« of 

. m *.p- -^l"", Chiiin beenine divided inlo two ftrin- 

t^'iTTt*, Nnittciii;; lu'lnfl; tho r«pitiil if tlif nouthnrn 

•r the nuribcni. tor oliont 30o y<>ar« 

iioo**uvc rifcs (Woa-Itie) rniiklly folloucd 

ilulary rul# of lirrMiUirj i:urecijiinn 

r .1 b) ibc KtroU)^«t, llie wbi^le liu- 

.1. . ...1 IN Ti mere record ufeontpsli and irirni'i, 

IV U), i'fi. ibi" imrlh nnd tvuili ol' hmmIc™ 

ut: li.>d (or ll)0 t)rM time tnlo une empire, tbu 

i|Ntal of «b>rli u-u BxM at llonin. Tiw lasl of llie flvL' 

ii".'.- r., ; wa* «win after dtmoMid !iv l-y-jiii-n, wtio 

-I -1 tli« '\\ natty uf Titng. TliuVi* u reaaon 

:!ain Clir:*tnitiof tbe NmlorUn cbureb 

liiilu about tliii tiiut*. It in rcoi>rd<Hl tlint 

1. lavini; fair hair and blue eyi»i. Aceord- 

I LA. ubutii Uu llalde lain i|Uole<l, n slotie 

und tiy tbem in (ilirn-«y. willi tbc rmM, 

' r "linn law, .mid the timnvMof Mnenlx- 

' eluraelcr«. biMriiiK tl»e diitc of a-o. 

I !if iiM i-iv Ln i Jngwnipul an fnd III by a pciuerful 

in tlio >«!ir Jt^i, and l!ie vUiAv couniry ua* iht'twn 

..-.i. .,( .. .f .,-,,1 conftuion. milh scvcril aK]iiranl4 to 

period, itbieh lantcd ntmiit linyttirco 

: iilnt^blinl by tlic intmrsionii of (Iw 

ilic cantcrn i-xirrtniiy of tbe Gnat Wall. 

:ir.:rt-i1 by iIh) unMltli'xl and divided slaU- 

: rt>at tmiibltt by tbuir inioad*. Aflvr 

..r*,T«-lsoo, ttic flrwl crajwror of Ibo 



It < 

'C H I 



I 




Soon;; dyiuaCT. 'wud rai'sMl to ilio ibrom- by (be nfllWry 
leailv-rsi a.d. !t50. Tbe art of |>rinimt( ba\mi> ti^n ju*l 
prc\imtily invenliNl (ahiiut .'■HO ywini belute it »ti» known 
to ub), IIio miiltitilii'ul'uii uf botiki bocnint' a priiK-ipiil ruuM; 
ortbti Ii(?[nry criarat'tvr ofiho a^e of'Soani;. The CbineM) 
IiDV {■! er boiiti; much U-wmnrliko (linn It«riiaL tlii- instcni 
TaiUrb adv.inivd uput'c; tliey liiuk |w«»cssion uf a jwri of 
nQrllicTii Cbina. and thjicatoned the w bidu cutiniry. The}' 
"■•>rc <lc>liiK-d Kuon t'j be diccki-d. not by the Cbini'^u!, titit 
by till- M'inv;"ls "b'> iiubbitud Ibo cuuntrieii nliich ex- 
ti'iid from iIk ni>r(h-Wtttilcrn prowiuB* oi' CJuiin to Tibot 
anil SiiFnarruiiil. Tbry hud ulrcnilv conquored India, and 
boint; now tilled in ngiiiuiil lliv Kin or caxtom Tnrttm, 
they inna tubduod both ibt-in .md llii- enenali-'d CbiniiM;, 
"bnm tboy had lii»en invited lo proivit. Tlic AKiti^ol!. ijiiL-bt 
bo Mii'l lo he niimleTw vl tbo northern part ol' mudviii Chinu 
from the tnidilo of'thc tbirtpenlh rcntwry. Kublui Khan, 
flndino; bini-udf potisout-'il of Ihv nrovinpc* bordiirin^ cti ttio 
Wall, vrilb I'oktng for bis rapilal, sonl hi* army n^niii-t iLifi 
last MivLTfiL^n of the SiiMnij dvnasly, tbon n rhdi). Link) 
or no resiitaneo wa* ofTortid to' Ibo Tnrlnnv wbi> exorciaod 
;in-ul cruplly on tbe VDnqUiblied. Tho rcmainR of ihft 
dSiinatn eunrl brtimk tlinnuulvc« to tbo sea near C«nton, 
ood per itthod with lh« vtnpitr'ir. ji.n. I'2a1. NofwithsUn^iiur 
tbe fjrent '|ualilio<i of Kublui Kbin. which wure cnlealatm 
to lay till' fouuiliilion uf a pernianniit dominion, hi* stl«e.^»■ 
tciiti of thu Vuet! raec, aa chuy iirurallvil. tiv thoir rapi'l de- 
IfE'nerary ('auscii the empire lo yiaa out of tbu hnnilH oflhs 
Monirol nua- in a litllu nioro Ihan I'iirhiy yejrs' time. Kni>r» 
vnleii by the elunatc and vicM of ilie uiutli. tliuy iiuickly 
loct lbs roun^' atul bntdihnod wtiirb bad put the coumr* 
ill |i(iiQ(ruiun of their aiice«U>r»i and Shun*ty, iho nintQ 
emperor in aucccuion, van compeUed to roigii ilm oinpinl 
to a Cbini-w. Tli^c now »ov«rctsn. who commi-need lli^ 
native dyitosiy ofMiiiic. a.d^ 136k, iwlei-t«d Nanking aa hit 
capital, creeling Pelun^ into u |>ftiiL'i]iality for ono of 
bi» voun^T toiiit, Yoongdo. When thia |irinee suctetidcHl 
a* third eni|>eriir ofhU family, (be tiapiln) wni finally tran^ 
Tcncd {K.a. MOH) to PeVing: a princifinl ri-atirin |ii^rhnpB 
liciiig tho iicocMily of Vcffnin^ in cheek tbe Easiern Tar> 
lars, nlio luid bwn ioint.-d liy aomo of llw rcfucfc-s nmong 
tbo cNiiclIcd MmsipiK I'rom ibis iiiiiiiM .ipniiik' the MaQ- 
cbuuA nbo vnTc dmincl ot Icoji^b to cAptl ibv Chinew 
dynasty, and vvlnbllsh a pmiianenl Tartar dominion. In 
tbe y<.tir ICIS. Wail-iii;, tbo tbitl««nih oin|NTor of tbe 
CbincM: dyiuiHty, bciii); on lli« tlironc^ a war commoncoil 
u'ith (bcM Muiicbows: aiiJ tbe etnpirv paiscd in 1041 lo 
Shiinrby. the Ural of the TaUiiij^ mtiv, of irbom iko nxtlt 
emperor i.« unw reiKntii);. Sm-li >■ tli* brivf nnmrnuiy of 
tlw principal rcvdnt>or.« m tli4^ hUtory of tbb uDtieiit 
empire, urbi<:b fur nearly tifo eenturiM paxl liw b«Mk 
eoremcd by a forci^ nae, who liad tbe Mi;<t<;>iy to adoeC 
to« political and sA^ial aysUtu of n nation wbicb *o sreatly 
oul-numberod tbcm<^lvc4. 

Arts. ^. — Whatc>^cr may be the ac4ual aittiouity«r th» 
Chirvpse projde, no dcubl wema niw to exist 4>f their bavinn 
h4«n the aiilhiirii i>f nhat arc ju.^Iy considered in Eiir(>p<< m 
three of the ino*t important invcniioua or discoveriea ol'mo* 
d?rn times: thL- art of prlntiii);. ibo enm^HKilion of kuii- 
poivdiT. and the itiagnotie fom^iss. To lliew may be auilad 
two \ery roinjrkable nionnracionea, ofirbicb limy vrerw uih 
i|iii'»ti')iiali1y tilt! Grit invenlum. tliose tjf u\k and of [tnrrn- 
)ain. There ennnol be tbe Iraal doubt uf Ibc art of )ifintiiiiE 
lini in^ b«Tn pnrtisud in Oiina during Ibr tvntb wntiiry of 
our tura. Tbe prircise mode in vtuen ibty opi-iate w cer* 
laiiily different ftom our^ but tbo main [winciple, that of 
multiplying; and rhenponina biioki, by <unin^ ttic time uiil 
labnur of Inniriipliiiii. uallof;ethcr ibc tanw. Tlte inviM)> 
lion of powdf'r, «a mmpoundtrd uf 'sulpbur, antlpetre, and' 
wiltov-eharroaV i» carried Wk by the Qiiimc^ to a teijr' 
remote dnic; hut ita partlinitar apidieation to Art-anna 
s<>viiu t()lurt-b(«ii Euiii|mn. Tlio Cliincsv name b.u no 
rvfcix:noo wluiiAur lai;uns, and eiui)ily iniplit-»/rr-dh<ff. 
nhirh tHVUis to bbow that tho composilioii ir«« npplio^ 
br then) merely lo fln^-works (in which llioy cxnl al prtt- 
M-nl) nnd olticr lunuloM or useful purpow;«, long bvfon) 
lliiir unwuilikoapirit couW bnvo ni^grricd the ut'-ofnini' 
lo Ihuiuiwlveit, ot Ibey could ba^-e borrowed tbo notion traB^ 
Europe. With rugaid to tlie compasa, Ihe atirwttve pow*t' 
of tho loadatonv biul bocn known to tbem from rcmoie antt- 
■juih. bat itB prop<-rty ol ef-miaunieatinejulirity to iron in _ 
fi>r the Br»i lime t-xpliciilv natlend in a Chiw-w ilt«iiot>Mjr' 
fliiL>ji4"liii A.B. 1^*1. Under tbe Iteod uf ' Loniktone* a^i^wn 



n«.4ia 



rOIE MNNY CYCLOP,^t^>U.^ 



NouN^V.— "Vk 



J 



G HI 



^ 



fctt t 



ihU deflnltwm : ' A •lone wilh whkli a rtirectifln can be 
ftiveii to (he ne«ne.' The some woid tfAtni b imcd 1-y 
tlieni loPXpn-M tlit? tnagiiotic nnil iht mmiiion worliiiig- 
iieoill'f. tw among (mrtflvVs. Vkk finiiliil, ill bia Ilisiory uT 
tlwTilngdynaiiy. staTcsllmt lie fimnd, in a irurk »rillt;n 
finf hundred joure lulrr lliao Ihc above, the use of tlw iruiu- 
pflH dislinclly recorded, II is t-urioiw to rrmUiMl iiivvntiont 
flf suoli Uii^Ii utility find impurlantC nilh the terj small pro- 
greis whicli the Cliintselinvemade in ilicflcicnpcMa Mtro- 
nonif. geography, ami msthcmaticg, for which the;- «'i-« 
anX nihameil la tic indebted to tlic Riin;]i«an utiuiuiiaricH. 
With regard to the finn aiii, cir ihrwe irhich miaistn rniUiT 
to llic plc*Mir«i llttin to rlie wunta of inDiikind, it btcoan-* 
ncfrsjwry WinakcMinc allownnrc* lor the ])tf<Mli!»ritip» of 
nnllonat tanlr. Tht; url^ cf ilmvin^ iittd [ratiilini; (1<> not 
Tank so hilth aruoiii; iho Chinese as among ourwlvun in 
Europe, and haviu); ibc[vfi>rcrocl wilh ks« ciiPourogtmuQl 
ihey may be cxjxicIxkI lo have ur-idv [v^^ prok'rw^- 1" dr«w- 
ini;!) where pcwpurtivc is iwl rcry ^tritily niiuirfd, a* in 
ntjm-spiilatir)!!* of blrd^, inw-cts. fruits. miJ IU-'ntr», thm' 
arc ctninciitlv RBrcc wfui. nii'l iiothtniji.-aii omtvI tbi-ipton- 
donrunrl varV-ly uf ihcir e»l"un!, Lttr-^ii-iril to thpChitWBP 
music, (heir insltunn'nt* arc raoMH' tunt'd in iiiii*3n, und 
Ihey have little or no ult-a t,J nctornpnnimpnt. limy have 
certain charaelcw to expreso llic nanti! «f cTMTur^ti* ii'i Iht-'ir 
vnrv litiiilcii trtilo.ariil tWwthcy t>«! inwritiiii; flown their 
ftiri;hyt wh«;tbi'r Ihi* raoile of notation ia innii!:piipus, or 
wIx-thiT they cibtiirod it from theJvsiiits, tii iitiilaiimi nf 
|Ik> Riircpi^iiti ni<-II>'A ta doMMFiil. It Is iniieed stated that 
thf-. Em]M»ivii K.lnir-liv int miirh mirirrised when Pi^ro 
Percira prir-l;ed -lowii tfc^ChitiMe lunes stslht'V' werrploji'il. 
anil (openlcd Ih'.'in artrrwnt* U. Their iriiinimMilii on* nuiiie- 
Niiis iiin*t.lii'.^ nt' different »p?elt;i ut lutes and guilnru; 
flutet and other wind-ii'-iltttmenls: an hamwnicnn rTwire*, 
toiielK-ilnith Imo sh'iiiler i^h|ih(i1' hniiitinn ; helh 3>id [■iceeu 
flf K ir.oroiw Hurtal : dni«i», and a norl of c-larioiielle whieh 
eitlitt at nearly ai enwililetlieiijiiM of l!uiSt'otlt<ih bagpip*. 
Lilfralur^atut Lanetiigr — Theantinuilj of C^tiiiicuelili;- 
rntuK- K piiipcirttoiiale tu that of their languaQ;e. and ban 
IwMi of eoHTMgnally promoieil and innvascd liy Ihl^^^arly 
hlvrnlktnof the arlnrprinliit^. v.'hifh ibey haiemiw jkik- 
KHned fbt9i)i> yean. S|ie<ime«!i of ihis literature in rurion.i 
dppartmeni* itaic been nflwnloil to Eumjie by Iheliiboiirsof 
Slauilion. LbTis, Mnrrii'ijn. Khipnitli, arnl It^niiiHiil. whu fiil- 
Ivnedup lite earlier invest jgutiimn of ihe Jt^nuilnat Peking, 
and have enabled uatotimia jiid^u<:iil re^iiriUn[;lli'-menis 
ofeoni|io»itioii4,ii-h!ch Pirn loiiiriJiTii>d uen: niiinidered lolii- 
inarnvffiiblo, fnun Ihe diffn-ti|[ie> >if the lauguii^e In wliieh 
ihej weti' »nne«. Ill lc'j;is!alion, we pt»icui a liatiHlnliun 
iiflltc Penal Code of the' empire : in politic* anit rooinis, 
ifafiuirreil htxiltM nf Cotifueiuii nud hia fidtuiren ; and, lu 
Pliilolocv and Belles 1.enn;4. we have a copious and wfll- 
Bxnrulea dietioiiiin' »f thc! Inn^nge; Mrvcml tninthilionK 
ar uWrnriH uf hinWriefe : Uie Diama^ of Iho ' Heir ill OM 
A^' Ihc 'SoirvWK of lUn.' 'Lv C'vti.'lc dcCnie;* an ulu- 
)>otaic (rt'ali.M! r«tn-i-riuiii: their pm-tn ; and tht: UKcelleiit 
novtil or rumaiiet: of the ' Fortunate l/iiiuu.' Iliw ciutcry 
illiich Iia.1 Ihtu been ubtained of llic laoguaife of China bv 
■cvcml Euraiieans, anioiti; flwui our ovit rouiitrymcii hold 
a eonspirueiif phice, f-ecRii l« pi\"e lliul the niniound dtf- 
flriilliitTs iiltciidaitt <iti il» uoiuiMlion, fh>in tlut alleged 
■tuinlwr aud ynnety of ihc eliuiactcrf. ore the niciv CMii;- 
gentioDM of ignomiu-c. Wo may clotu lhi» arlKic intli 
ffivinK lonw aco'iuiil uf so tingulur and original u Ungu^e 
from Davt»'s work on China. 

It ap]ie«r4 thm the il»eory of a uri' , i ,im for Ihc 

eamuiuiiicaium nf iflt'ivsi, lu i-onccu' ji Wilkiiis, 

]■»» t<e«-n rv*li/>.-<l hy llioChinthte. ^^:lJh- t' .' hiien' of our 
■l)ihaliet nte mere .vmljoh of MuinU. the Chiuoue charac- 
ters '>r written utiriUtre hjinWo uf i'V^M. and alike intoUi- 
gibk' lo tli« jH-ople if t'oflii IV China, .lupun, Loii-chno, and 
Coreo, with lbo#t! oft.bma ilwdr. An the hent praelK-ul 
flluilmiinn cf n wrilltn eliararter, ronimon to several na- 
linnti ivhncinnut underpin ml cui-hnlher s 'ipcprh. Mr Ibri-i 
adduce* Ihc Arabic iiumeraU ernnmon to nil Eurn|M'. An 
EnjijIUhman, who ronhl not underhand uhal an lialian 
meant if Ix- Miid nwi/i-rfiw. would romprehcnd him imtne- 
disiely if In- wruloditwn 2J, Thikadiantni;e, whifhbehniLM 
to our nunieraLi only, pertiiinj lo the whuie lanf^uapcorthe 
Chincs«. The uniformity liowMcr in the WTillcn chanvfter 
dan not pr«\enl tliit vxisteiiee of t>'T<-'ai ditcniiliet^ in Die 
oral bngUBgn of tt» neighbouring eountrtefl and China, 
iLDd eren vf Uw Mparate proiinoes of the Utle; counUy, 



Tlicvc divcnitie^ arc f rCciftcIf analcgous to tli« different 
prununeiatiuii {ci^cn to (he Munu numcra] characters in (h« 
vurioufi countnca of Huiopc. To a<lducc tlic forcKoiiif n- 
amplc. tlte tiuniher 'ii, which an Italian coU:v vrHti-dur, ■ 
frvnchnian pronuuucv^ xtngt limx, and an Rni^lishmu 
twcnl^-lifc, tU')U'.;h all three write Uuiu just nltkc. It ii 
in Ihi^ manner thot ihu uinicrfolity of the Chinctc Un- 
puii(;e cstend* "^-nly tn the nrilten ehar»der, and that ti> 
nuli\c4 uf the two e.^lremilieS of (Ik empire, >vbo rend Ifcc 
ttavnc book*, and t)nden.tftiid each other perfvctlj' oU pifcr. 
arc all hut niutusily unintvUi^ble in speech. 'Flic roDU.ui 
DTtcinnl cbaractLTs ijf the Chinese, are only J 1 4 in numlxf. 
and tntcbl indeed he rcdneedtou much suiuUer auioUnt bi 
a little diwM^ftlnn and annlj-si*. Tlicso ate eunihincd irlt 
each oilier la form other wordi, or express otlivr idea*, 'wy 
much in the name way that (he individual A ■ 
art» e^nahined tuesprcsx ihi- infinite canet< 
By a «jM-i-ic* of nnaloj^v tbi'v uiny be called iii<- !ii; 
the lurguttiio : with tfie differeiiee that cxiii* h. i 
alphiihet of ide«4, and an alphabet of Muudi. i j .mn 
thnt there are so nuiny thousund ehnraeler^ In the f.^hliiw. 
tt much the Cime Ihiii;; a<i t« tny Dint there are «o nan* 
thi'nsaud words in Jiihnwn'4 Dictionary; nor U a knov- 
ledgt' of thfl whole nt idl mnro neecasiiry for flvery prarlMl 
|iurpo<« than it i* to i^et all Jnhniwn'K £>lrtionary by lM«rt, 
111 order to read Englub. Prfmare observe*. 'tJiat Ibwe 
in tiobudy who mi^ht not read and write Chines«, atler be 
had oiifte aei)uiivd a good knowledge of -lOOU or f-VP9 «b- 
raeiert or Word*.* 'I^e root*nlriMiae neiitif.ned ■■ 
our jilphabet. for the arrant^nient of the word* iii 
Oiiuene Dirtioiiarj', n natiiiniil ucrk coinpiled by uh- ci-i 
learned perMina in Iho empire, more than n eeninry iinr*. 
bj- Older of Ihe enlightened monarch KSiifj-hy. So ii»^ 
uioii« and hieid h the armni-einent, that loT ,i praeliteJ 
perton tliere i^ lilllv mure dillieully in liiniiiig tu a worJ 
llian. amoiiif euniehen. in eiititultinj^ Johiw.in. From lUi 
principle oil ivbieli the written Uiiguuce bus been ma 
airueli'd, there Iibk uieriied li> it u reiuarkaldtf prbpcrt; v- 
ticed by the late jirufeuor Rf-niu>;Bl. in hi<. pttlrvr ' Oa 
the SutL> of the^uLiirat Scicncut uuuiiu tl)c Petijile a( 
Kaiilarn A'tiu.' A* the ■2\i rootu. or radical eharaelen. 
nhuw coiiihinationK with i-aeU oilier Ibrm tlie wboleUo- 
^iflge, sin;!ly exiirei;^ ur repri^i^ni the prinrijol oli^ecti « 
idenH thai men Iiate ueeasiun to connniuiicate lu lli>^ in- 
ftncy uf (heir kn^wlwdi^e, they lonipri**- within their nuu- 
hcr the heads of j;ei:et;i and'elaucn in iin!:'-- ■ '. thu* 
afllVird the clcmeni^ und nieanii of a iihiWci I ',i «t 

arrangenieni. A« their kni'wledKo nHTea-t -lule 

instinct (M. Rfmim.ii olw-nei.) guided the framersofthe 
written laniniii^e, and led them, uiileud ofliiriuinu ehane- 
teni alliimmer new. to express new objects by the inge- 
niou* cum hi nation of ihoKC etenienlary oyiubola «hieli llwr 
already po^icvicd. Amon); (he roiil.i, fur iniUncv, nv find 
/iinif, da^, me!-il, the atlditiun to whicli, of aome ntlMrr ng- 
niflc-iut ejnihul, exprtwivc of acme ni-cidiar property « 
charndenslic, scrvea to dcMgnute thvdilTerriil »p«<.'i«s root- 
Iiri.-iud under their priiiei]«l kenera. 

la tlusinatiiier, an M. Rem nut remarks, ucli niUiirtl 
object hccumca provided with u hinnn denoininalkiu, lu*' 
much lu the complex diaiuiter ia neniMardy fornHJ if 
t«-»paTl)i; one for llie clii6M)r'ler, ur |<eniis: tlic utker &r 
Ihc t-pccies or variet)'. Thus llicy cxprcaa horu.— horw 
ast—Itortic-mulc; dtm—doif-wolf- dog-fox ; meltil— metal- 
»ilver — metal -iron, ice. &:e. — the elenienUiry or crncre 
«ord.A, luirac. <\n^, inetul. beiiii( tlniNo under wibicli Uv 
crjnpouittb are arri)n^-d in ihe Dictioiuiry. Much ron- 
Kiden-ilum i»nttai<licd by the Ciiineiie (o the graphic braaty 
of IlK-ir mrilteii clianeter*. 'I1ic ad^anlaitc of »jinp1Inl> 
eoii«tilu1e« (lie merit of our ainluibetie vritiiit;^ buL tlial 
<if Mirieh and picturcaque elTect must fairly Ite clnlinvil 
by the Cuino««; m well as the (Kculiitr charactcrtslin of u 
unu'crul medium of coiumiiniratwn. 7^- W<i moat uainl 
fonnc of tlwir rhorneterare (lie printed and llic VTillm. 
beeidM vhieh, there are tlio ftcal, or engraved forni, and 
one or two otben. The printed form (onulonou) tu our 

Ri'Uian I\Te) lays claim only to clearncoa miii 'ir»<:i ; 

but tlicvritlen romhinca rvTructi»«9 will. It 

may suffice to i-jL^erve (•eiiervll), that tlto ^\ (lie 

laniifuntre i* cxlr* mely limited. In the al^m-e of ail va- 
flejion^ of which thiiir charncterB are utterly incapable, tbo 
relntion ci'wordi (o each oUkt in a aentenoo can only be 
■narked by their position. The verb, for Lutaitce, nUirt 
alwa«ppjcedcil8 9i>io«t,MKl follow iU»g«nt, libe plwal 



OH J 



W 



C J3 I 



number isdvnotnlbf jfae^x ofmun tononos— jin-mun. 
mua: llia-niuii, tji^', or byVopeattne tlw noun, aajin-itii, 
tncn. Rith^r gf IIkho i» reedercu uiwiw.'csawy when 
n ti- i>icr i» prciLipd, p* «n jin, tlirc* men. 

TJm' , . p<i»w»>ivo caa« ti tvmiiionly uiurkt4 by aii 

■(Bx,riii-. - ■^-^;^ f-luili ll*** HUUII )jk*! our 's.OnT'hK'n Witt 

(wn, 'liravcii** ravour— »b(Ki eh( ken, *llw Irce's rod-' 

'2(>A<1'— k/^nff twou, 'mot^HBod'— ting hanu, 'rao*t Roni).' 

Th* teniiM ol rcrba arc denoted by auxiliuncH, or t-xjili)- 

I'tiTei, as t'ha yew (so. ' ho tuM done. Tito cum of noniui 

lltnd pronnunx lue >l>'loniiini-(l l>y pr(pMilion«. a& tBiiont; 

t'biwi, 'tram h«%vcn.' The colIncatMni of wcrdu in a xfii- 

I tnusi of pi)Urii> be m maiter al^ moiv consiiiuoiii'c in 

ineM Ihnn in Ihosc Uit(;uii|tr« whi^m Uv< rebiiunn of 

fcAilIi'rrnt wnriU in varh nIliL-rtm.- luyrkLvHiT (lie dint in(?lioii« 

rDimlwr, f^d«r, ouo. niiil pcr^m, ha buowti by dt-rloii- 

I snd Mqjni^iQn. Tin? AVttitKi £t'ii^ii<9 :itnira' of 

Jcsnit Pr^nuc nuiy Ixi rt.-i-(iiuuienilii(l a» Ihi: l>citl 

hlnmc GrtunniBr e\'er wriium. 

As tipforp llw urJTvl or ihe Kiimpi'nns Cliuin vu flw- 

rtitly iliriilcil iiilu IUd ut ikri-v milm, ibe uitUhnri) [inr- 

Bii uf il iris cillod Ijy ilic niljartnl aaliuns oT Cenlr.tl 

, Ciiihay, and umlerlliih iiaiiii:it lniNunL* known t<> lliu 

Hisiuand Mon^U. wtulM ibc inliubiiunis o( In<Lu [-uni-il 

^■uuihem pan CAi'n, uiiikr which aanw t\\\i l^unu- 

tMvA Dtlwr Kurii|iriuisl>vrHme ur()ii«inlL-il V'ltti il. lit 

eaiccnlh cL-nmrj. awl aoi hdiiip, it wiu lutcritnint^l 

ty «SB Chiiin. and ihiil the gmtl lotiu ort^m- 

tT ■' ': n1 with Pckinif. (Dti llalili;; Stauiiton; 

. China : Rjtief's Alia.) 

.:. . '., AltR. flVKCKtAlx] 

LNC'lIl I.LID.li t'^i^jlo^y), iiniuull naiuml faiiiily i>f 
It (giuiniii}:) niiiiuiiK to Mhicli itu- altciiliun uf Kii;;- 
luniiUH im tant va\\v<\ by ^[r. BmricLl. fruin n\ioro 
■ the pinripul purt nf tlii,i lurliclu u vuinpiki]. 
Onicr. UoitKVTt*. 

Tribe, IltTbivora. F. Cn^icr. 

Molar iwlb vilhout irue routa. gioni'ing Ihroughoul UTo 
|iy uusuuufa pcraistpni pulp. 

Family. ChineAUIidtp. Bi-itnrU. 
4 - i 
V[!ftc uieuora aitoplc : molon, ^ _ ^. ciuininting of 1»t> 

lienkl or rflintul-hkv bmiy luinellfF or jsbirs paral- 
I ttirh vtlirT. entirely 'luiTOUndtil mib a i iircuiis &ub- 
I* llificmirn.iCXBrdy ap^OMlC In carb OIImt on'l llul- 
by allrilnin. Tbn piwlpruir liiiilih nwrly twioe ub bm;: 
Ibv nnii-riiir, TIk^ mi] |itMlucci1 wiih Iniiz anil somcnbal 
' i im above nnil al itn" lip. The vhinckiUidte arc 
ittid lublcrranran ia (beir bubits and miM in 
ll>pRRip:in. 

GiMtcra. Lsgotii. 

:; *—* 

tmlal ri«uu]ii: ificiwrs, "i' molui. , ,~20. Tile in- 

tm« iharpcncil, an<l •.-xcb mrXu auisist)! of ihrK com- 

"|IH Iikl««- .SAu//Qichp<l |Ki«U-niirly ninl abuvc; 

^^DTeciluWof tbc ijinixtnum int'finapu'uou*. ;\il 

lli<ir-l<>i«l. tlu> gn-nl (oc heinf^ oiitixvly iibM^il; imih 

tl lubblcuUr. Ean \-cry bug. 1'uil lung. Fur 

LewttKKHU. 

Ini>1<i. Lagalit Curirri. Slio. nnci nuc-b uf llw 
»1 Bwmaf il«>rabbii. 1' r.^.* luw ibo length 

[IJlM aotfvior: mil nbout t ii : b "^ 'h" b™'y, i-x- 

lli0 hcail. Wbifkti* vtiy itv 
r.k. len or tui'ivocl' llb^ loii^vfi ' 
iiiM^Jy 'h*^k mill riu;iii. and »ffviii iin iii'- \'>\vj. w.t-, 
rlikca lun^faraUetuuroiti, dmrnlc*! al ihi' \i\>, llirrc 

jlonif and dtiebroiul. wilh tlii>in;ir)(ijiii ruUisl in btJutv. 

I f|«(in|fly Aimisbcd wilb kIktI iur.itlt!red luin aa lo a^- 
ilmiHt naked. Vatv t<.-i-l like lb« bitnl^'r. nilh fuur 
l(y. ibnv l)*iiil( iw veslige rf u Ihiimti : dsnt miinII. 
r tbaneneJ. aiiij entirely i*uniH'ali->] by luii^ niul Muiir- 
riaily 1uir«; ibnw ul tbo binder feet tiiDilur in ttlajie 
'tn Uifcn, but that ofihciniKTiiii.- ibiUvDi^, cudmI 
i^ and ospiwd, Ihi- immribitifly udjoinlng hairs Kiiiner 
t» a tuft 111' sIhiIiI (.'i^bl niw 'I' sliiiri, (itiff. lioniT. 
i briatU^ apiinncbini; nciith in ci/'dily to ibn r-amli- 
iidajra lounil in aWnt ihc soiiui i.iiuiitii>n in ibe 
' Ammari of Grav. A aimilu aUnctun mcuth in 
• ^mkHU. Tke An ia hsuti&Uy aoft. «U»-ny, and vf 
uMlialllii Imjrib butiwbanaly aUaRbed lo tbe»kiii ihal 
ii^dfl; bUscf. uolu* luLwllud vitb koxv. Il is d'lsky al 
•ad U> vilJiin ■ alturt dialauoo «/ ttw tii>. wUur, 



for an extent of tram mo to tbreo Un«, it is dirty nliilr. 
more or U-m tiiixwl witb jrllowicb Hro^-n- A te^r loni; Murk 
haira, m'j«t aunii-rouH iMMtvrincly, lu-ulniilr IbrMiitcb il. Tho 
gDiKral tone of c-'liiiir in il mbtllctl (O'crt^h tudu ()n Iho 
>idt-a of lliv nwV am) \rv\\\ wbvrfi the lip« of tlx; f^ir mrrt;e 
i:i ~ ■.nll.™ish-bM<*ii than un ibu back, aiwl wbcro 

I • of grcalcr b>nt;lli, as well as on lliv lianm-liM 

j.ii ■■■'■, llio lalti-r lini;* nppcDRi rnlhcT more iirvdoriii- 

nanf. Tti^re t* Hlilf> cif ihe ilu«ky colour vi»ilili' un lite 
uiulor outface. Tlir li.int uf ibc tnil b<'Iow tiri> <'.\trpmcly 
shorl. elowly dei , ■ if a bp>wni«li blui^k ; «n ils 

siiU-a iheyarcftf i llurk an.l wbiU'; and ti.ia la 

ntiiothc L-tu« with lbi> very kn^f, rigid, am! i-r«-iiV> Imiriinbieli 
fomi a rres.t aloni; ils hjijht curlkcp. 'f Hp "mtt Iflnji, hriftlly 
iiairs, whirh projc'i't in a luR at iho tip, are Wholly blnt'k. 

Wt. Bonneti lidi^vis ihiv xpecii-s Id W ibo fitcafha of 
all llii« uriten ttom Pedra di« Ci^pt downwards, iM-lmbtii; 
Aiiii^U, Cfari'ilnutai, l*nU'r do Lad, Niwciuhcn;- PVudli^, 
U lloa. Vidaufp. Mnlmu. Scliimdlineyor. nfn! Slcvfiruin, 
who havii Ntnli-d that itnima) to hv v.n iivbnbitnnl nf ihe 
WMtmi ur Peruvian ncrliiiiius uf tJiu Ande-i M. dc Bl»in- 
tillv, Dewmarett. anil I^vksijii. ate anioMi; thi- inodum kuuIo- 
^isltu'bo liave noticed llio viscBcha: J.#i.*(in. in liiK Manual, 
nppnn'nily confmimbtii' ihi> insieni and nviitcni K|ierieK. 
i;ivcn it -M ibe i^twi viintii^ia uf Ginttlin, plaoM il amon^; 
Hie harpA. and ciuitteti Lleamikrcsl. u esprenun^ hi« flpiiiiun 
in bia'MatuDKiWii^' 'Ivil il i>ui;hl lo be l1ii> typo ufa new 
f.;ena'<, undift whit-li ihe rfutirhilla intiibl Iw porhaptamn-jCTl. 

CuviiT, in ihu 1b»I t-dtlii<n of ibc ' Retniv Auinul.' ti^ya 
that lliR viirarlui. na dcH-nbiil by n'Arnni. and ji-rmdii];): lu 
the ftj^urcA wbieb h« )n>l hctn and oliicb ai-nt lYnnmiini- 
ciilod lo him by Hr. Bmukr-'i and klijor natnilliiii Siniib. 
can -VJirrrK bv any itllHT iban n large spi^ricik orchinrhilln, 

II iih huii b-flit lull); and mft : and be Miys Ibnt it i» iIkt nni- 
uiul ileji-Tibcl uud(^r ihc name of G'Tft'Nvw gf^iat' {Ciiiml 
Jabua) by M. di: llluiiivillo in I>iTi<inin'.it'» 'MammAlijf>ie,* 
uid in ibc 'Niniv. Dici, d'Hi.ii. Nnl^' and nTimTK-nii.^ in 
(hv English innslulii}ii i^'tbv ' lU^o Animal under iliat 
of J/iir*i'.f /JiKwa. t'uvirr w-vius lo bo htTc snrakiiti; uf 
ihe Auf'^'^u'/'iif irTBriwki^ itteiJbcr tWaeba (of ivhkti we 
»liull |)n.'B(.-niIy ircal), and the Jhfjvt m<iximiit ffierbnU'! 
gr<iHie\ .jC Ut Bluin^ilU-, to inHtidi: whub and the cbin- 
rbiili. M.M, Jfliduru Oeulfroy St. Ililaire und DrN^tbiii-a 
l>*Oibi-.'iiy had jrupuM.-! iu Ibe * Aiin^ilca do Stitnccn 
Xnlurvtles' fur nuvembinr, H30, Ibc riviiliun of a ncv 
gen ii»— r'ii//w/y*-- 

Mr Bviiiir'll. Ill ihv rontludinu pari of llw first ivluino nf 
ibc 'Tmut-aclionaof ibt.- Zouk>a;iral Siicicly vf l^tflon,' ha* 
rceerdvd a KiKond sgiecir^ I.itfiitliK jiallif'tt. Thv fur of ibia, 
1m ob»erve#, t* pwbape cvon Ml^er lo the foueb limn thai of 
Logotis C'uvien i a feel which ia probalilj owing to its Iwinfj 
lem rlense. on iceounl of tbo mmpanitivo sborlneu of th« 
hain eompoaingii; tlie tarat LagtJi* L'wrtrri iinf«rlin3 tu 
Ibc liund Ibc aeiuaijun of fHiltneia and eomeijuent finnne«<. 
vhilo that or Lafjotis fHiJiip^t is riotding vtlh ita soflnot*. 
Tho bnirs in bolb Kpi-ri«». M]i«cwly ihiMW which forra tlio 
uiiiu uf Ibe fur, are vAii\ for the RMt put of their len^h, 
their tip< only bein^; Mroi^l ; Ibuwxr tbo middle ef the 
•idw nn«ni!n', wheti lla'tr naiimil wtices are nni iiirefftred 
with, tbri'ivijuurlcn uf an inrb in laeoU* pailipft. and an 
inch and :i tiuartiT in f-agtiih Carieii. In neither of ibeNe 
tyecic*. huueier, i? ib'' (j'rtlily of lite fur at all rampanble 
10 ibul off'/' 

We IxiM. -.^iax Hr. Bennett ia of opinion 

' iliia 9|.'ji'io u ttie t'L'iu«ian riacarlta of the authurt 
alluded to. The r<>U>i«inK ia tbe Enicliih rcnion 
iiib;i) ui' ibc paaaaoe in Pedm <1e Cie^ti'n 'Cbntnien del 
Peru' (Ji4-IJ, deacnpllTo of ihc babils of ibnl animal: — 
'There ij aiiolbcr sgrl of rreBtiiie lltcy <-nil via<»cha, alwut 
ibi! bi;:^iii.-3a and rcwiulilinK a bure, but that il has a long 
fail libf a Tux. These braxl in fton)' pbirea and aiDong 
lorks Diid mutiy of ibeoi are ahni. vith i^nit aai orowbcnra, 
and taken liy tlt« ludtana in fi^Bs l»itb the lawo). they 
beiiiK stHnl to eat aAcr lian^ia^ to tender: and of their bair 
or wmdibcliiduna tnuke larjte iuaiitle^ ckuka, orbUiikcia. 
w KuR aa adk, and very valuable.' VUm'a account (AW- 
ch» ^imvifimar, 1?*^) ia, in the cfiiiion «f Mr. Hennelt 
(whose translatii^n we iidupl). the besi hislorv thai iiM been 
I^Teii of its bubiU an<l ir.unners. "Titkiiii; ihe plice of ihe 
rabbit, which ia waatiitg id Peru, tbore i« 9riotJ>er kind of 
animaJ rnlW «VH.-acba, wliieb ix net fi>tiiid in Quito. In 
iutnt, bim) in Ihe <v>b>ur of ita fur. il is aimilar to tlie tabbtt, 
but dilT> r- froni it in 1 jnn;.C " '""JI '"'^ furiiiihtd wilh luileii 
ball lUke that of ib« Bouirrel), uhieli ia verv <i\vu. ^samij^ 



« 




0, iViiUmcd ftam timwr | I, tli* tin* (vm tnns Maw) t, luwn yi-> mm (i.-n -lii* i <f. nnttni •>( lUa Ino iiiil.>iiai motar tivilt uf tba t«ir«* jMi ar 
Ul^ |c, (ttroDi [if lilt <>ru imili'Tiiii niulii truitmr llir uiipcr ja* rnlituril, 

aplTraaohc>B tho lip. It veil Itnvourcti, bi^iii^ i-N[ii!rLilly dijlnslvfiil st wrtltia 



th« root, but lhi«k and lonf^ oa ii , . 
iloa« n»t cam' ils Uiil liiriKid uvor Ihc licod like 1 he uiuiml, 
bulstrcirtiitf uul, tM it \ror«, in ■ hvriionlal dirciMiiin; ilii 
juiriti are sili-'itilur ntul scaly. Tli(«o nniinals concijal ihcm- 
se!v{-3 in hoW of tiiu rwks in vrliirh llii-'y tnulcu iliutL- rc- 
Iruntf, iitit fiirmin;; liimiiuN iii the i-urlh like rnbbttn. Tkcru 
th*j tongto-^lc ill PuiisuloraMa nunibers. and are mostly 
M«ii ilia Biliini; |io^liu\-, but nal cnliii^; tlwy ti>iil nii itie 
)ivrli» siirl Klmiki. lliut inon nnianf; the rooks, iiui are very 
active. Their [ui>un> af raciipi? Aa luit ruiiftisi in the velocity 
of thitir IliKlii. I)ul in Hit- [immni iiiitic wiih wliipli th^y nin 
to llio *1icllur of lliiiir tiiiU-i. Tliis they iNiiiiiiiitiily do wlutii 
troundod ; fbr wliitb reason ilie iii(i(k> of killins; tliein 'u by 
ahoolin;; th9m in llm liciii ; as IT litry n^'c-iM- inv nhiim in 
^any uDw-r [xirt, althi»u{Ch uiiiirh iiijun-il. Itiey do iMl lul to 
gj aad 'lie in llie inleriui' or ihcir burrowfl. Thoy ha»e tl>i» 
|)Muliiiriiy. that as ourin as they ilio ttmr linir filU vtf. itnil 
oil lliik nctininl, ;ililiiiiii{li it is wiftcr and winKiMlial UiiigiT 
and flner tlun tluil uf tiie tnttliit, the *kin cuiimit be uiidtt 
tiM uf for cuinmon puipu-ies. Tlie Uetih is wtilte but udI 



»t»*, wlkRii it U n!lo^L-lhcr rL-pui^aiit to i1h> palato.' TV 
QUllior (aupwaed Ity boiuo to be ihu AhbS VvUur^)ofiB 
atimiynioiis Italinii wtirk on Ilie nulunil Itistm nf Chile, m- 
triirt« IVttm VI lifli are j^tcn in ibo 'JuiiTTUtl dc l*lijsii|tir' 
fiir [779, bo* evi'iently eonfuunilwl the easU-ni eiwl tii-di'm 
specici; and bin nrciMiiil, tn Mr Qonnrll Dell uU.ienv*. ■ 
ill several ]i:irlii'uhT<i :i]j<iiTy]ili3l. Mnltiin speaks of ik* 
ei\i|>liiyiiionl uf ils nool niiionf^ tbc uniiful Prrutnuin, nU- 
iii]j, dial the CliiliRiis nf the jircMenl d.iy (biK work viu on- 
^^iiully jitiblislKnt ill l'S->, ntiil reprinted niih iddiliaiuB 
ISl(i) tiMi it ill the niamiiiieiure uf biitv 1u biimiwt, ar- 
cordiiif; to the report of «ve-ii'iineuei, liavu two lUt», cou- 
munictiiiti^ by a vpirul «iairc?»e : in Ihe lover it deposits in 
Cxiil, while tt live» in thu up|iur, whirb it neltUnn ijuitStCt- 
eept ul night. It collects round the inoutli uf lU bntrow 
wluiewr liasbeunli^fl bdiind or lo«t by iravellcn: awl il» 
flesh, which i» white uiid tinider, i» prefiTrvil to tint of Hio 
mbhit ur lure. Bui this uccuunl » liHlilt^ lo ibt wnw •ir 
jectiuns ;is thnt in IJie ' Journal di; l'hj^i(|iie.'. 




Chinchilln. 
Dcnto! formula : jncieon. ~, umIus, 



I UgoUi Curled U 



4 — 4 

4 — 4 



= 2(1. Ibc 



uutlars gvncnlty coiuiating of tbrao oomplolc oblique pbtes. 



cxct^t the iuit«HoT lover molar, whtoli bu but tvo Uinotln, 
ibe Anterior lunu'lla beini; deeply bilobatvd. Skull |>uslc' 
riorly retiwa-truneitcd, nbove doprvsiedly ll»tt«ncd ; c*l- 
lulea of the tympanum eonnitcuou«ly inllabid. Anlariof 
fMlSvQ-lQC4: po«t<inor feet raur-tood, ibg q^ finuU ftnil 



BuliUeukr. Tho can luuptt'- Tiw Ull railier hnt^. In 
addition ti> ChmchiUa tanigrra, wtuvli iro 6«lcrl ii» an l'x- 
ttmplc^Mr. BcDQctl •nvnntoconcl 8[icrici<. Chincfiitiaaurea, 
CwOMyx uj^ecA i>r hill. GCT>ff. Rt. Hil-iin!. 

The leiigOi of tht 1i(ji1> uf ChinchUh tttm'gara is about 
nine inrhcs and lliut uf the t»il ncnrly livu. lu prupur- 
tionx nrv ^Uim-ticI, um) it* tiiiibx rLitnpiinith'vl)' nhorl, ihe 
Mstcnor beinic <Matiil«r.il>lx luop^t >l^'> >I"' untcriur. Tlio 
nu b l<insi iLitk, clioc, aimIIv, bo'dcvi Ii.iI cri9[Kil, anil vn- 
lan^lwl tO;»thi-r, grc\i>h, i>i utili-coltmntd aln»«. end jidor 
brrwath. Thu ronn of the hvai roomblcs Ibat of tlui 
nbbit: tlic <T]GK UTV full, Un^c >nd black; bimI tbc vnn 
broM'l, naknl, rounili'd at llic iip% end n««il) oalon^ as (lie 
haB«L Tliu inuu»tui.-bnt are plt-nliTul mikI ^x-t^' luii^, the 
lonmit bciiiK titjco tbelt-iisrtb of t lie li<^:iil, lyjnio of ibnti 
Ubok Knd utbcnwlkitc- Four ^horl toe*, with a distmrl 
rttdiio«nl of a Ibumb, tLTiRiiinlc lUc Dnt(,-noT IV-ft ; tmrl iht- 
pMlchor w« furnishiKl nilh Ih* eauio nmnWr, tlirw of 

I iImiii toBR. Itx' ini<idl« iiion- »^«■lur^ccl llmn llic twa Uiter.i) 
Met, and ibv fourib, e:^(«rru>\ to the others ^fij «hori nnd 
|ihM-u) far bohinil. On all tbtMu Uv^ (hp Hitw4 itrc oborl, 
kn<l nrnriy hMdni lir tvfU of liriiUy h«iri. The tnil m 
tbour huljr ih<> k^nc;!)! <-t tho bodr, of ci^iinl thicknt-rd 
Ihroiiifhoiit, nnd rovcwiwtth lonif biwhy Imirs ; it is u^iully 
kafl iiimod upwrnvU iiimnU thv oacW, liut nut ri'VPrtiv) iw 
IB th(! M|(iiiT«K' Such is Ibc minuto <li>i million of Mr. 
Rrnnclt, wlio, in )>>'ii>. dMcribwl llip miiinnl ii^ t)i<' [ype i>f 
■ dijtlint't ;ccnu( under i(* coninum imtiu-. Mr. Criy. in 
AufTU't. 19i30, also described and guso on intcriistlQ!; 
■rcfliint of ita domnlicated habito obtained fVom Mr. 
Hannah*. 

Orwaaisati'tn. — Mr. Yoftell. in Fl■^Jru(lt^', 1831, govc lo 
iMe Zflofepcol Society of Lnndon tbo fullowing aivoiint of 
lb* skob-lon and piiTHuf !iH*n>i-wrt uf mu? wtiiob 'liiwl in 
ihc WMin'^rif of ibe Suiioly, |it\^iiiiiitn^ tliat at llie lime of 
£;uinitrdili<in all ihc citrftti had bsi^n ]ircsT<r\ vA *x<mv luDiuht 
in ti HMfflk wlmion nf ipiril. 'Tin* liniyi kv fiiiiii»iM,-il nf 
tlii«« fiDDll l»tiP-« rKi «iiL'h kiilL'. Th« tieari a Iliilit-ned in 
fiimi Ifotn bsbilui furward*, mtasurin!;; Allw uf an inch 
ai^wm ill bue, nnd but ^^tbii iu dcplli ; ibv wani »f apcrx 
7:ii-« il a rouTtil nnd muscular uppeiT^iuve. TIh; liver ex- 
hSnti tvto hr^ und eciually aiccl tobcN and two smaUir 
taiNK The fiiuoiDcb. a uni^« cavity, tuMsura from ilic 
MUraiKW of Ihc (TiripAiif Ki ruund UtL'j^rruc curtc to the 
ftjtirtr rmitrai'tioii fiie inches ijths, the grcutest bTrodth 
S inchH i^tbK. the depth, 1 imrh ,Vba ; llic tplcnrn in ftitall 
aiu) 0l('QgftI''d Tho Irn^lh of ihv amall iiil<^»liiirs fruin Ihu 
fflotv w the ciiil uf ibti iVi'um, 3 f^-oi lu inches : the 
tarmm and Sni portion oftbctW?;! an of large mip; mode 



up of thrcu hiiLf cirrulnr ronrohitionit, one <-cnlrsl. wit]) 
one uf smBlliT diiucnsion* (in each imicj sidf. loiilaiiiing 
numcmus cells and diiisians. stren^hcncd by mutuiular 
lianiLi and iKjila, tlir wliulu length of carrum, cAqh, and 
rectum, [iiL-a!un« 1 fi'tl 10 inihea, With ibc excnplion of 
tlio caxuni and cotnin en cement of thu colon, wliiuh aro 
vwliioiiniiiis, iill tin; intiwlinra arc of wry small mlibrc Tho 
kidiic}» vary frjiucwhut in aliape ; one muu«un» /glhit of au 
iueb in lenffth, and ^tli« iu breadth; IbiLt on tlio opiioaita 
side i> much inore a]ihfrKuI. The vpeciaivn i* RTnalc, and 
llid uleriui^ cr;rfiuu ninuiurv vat:h 3^ in(^hl'n in leiifitli.' 

' Of the skeleton irhcn tnou.ni«tI^ the whole length, fcDiii 
the nD»e to the tml uf iIk- tuil, vn IJ iiieliif f,tli» ; the 
uj)pcr BiirfiLce yf tlif cranium froin lh« ocri/'ul lu tlw 
intcr-orliitul »pui;e i* lriivni;ultir imil Hal, (lie vriiUli at i)iu 
occitiut ] inch ^Ih; of tbc intcr-urbilul »paee, lVl>^ ^>c 
whiik* len^h of (he head, 'J inchcit I'll^^i il>e inaiiiuid pro- 
r>.-«fe*i and auditory colls of very large »iic : tli« cxirriin] 
mriitu^ also tarf^, uval, dircctcil upu-ardu and backward*: 
tht* rygoma narrow end dlendcv poBt<>riorly, but rlocp and 
Mr<itig«r «t ilb junction with tha inaltir bon«, which haa an 
lucctidint; bottT dtiinon b«Iwa»n tho orbiu and temporal 
/ome, Itw naial bones naiTnw. convei. and of pamllcl dia- 
rnotcr: tho low«r jnw w cnrved, broiid. and oiront^; the 
courw of thu inciiwr Iwth i» vtniblc, and (bu nlvsolnr ca- 
vitip* of tho iiiular toi^lh are Hell defiiied exleniaHy ; Iho 
r'oTiiinaid procffiflot aru traiitintt, apporcntly as if bro^n olT 
durii;;' the prcimmtion of llin tkuletnn, but have obviouily 
been of vi;n,' small MIX I! ; the ciindylt elongaied ftiJiu befura 
baokwanii ; the plate dwp, unil the poirieriw anzlc of ciiu- 
gidernbU' lenj^h. TIh; expoiiul iiiTliuii of lite inriwir* 
moaiurvu ,\I)bi uf an inch in lengtu: the molar teeth arv 
all inndo-tip of thrpi- jKirnllcl puriion-s vr bony Juminee, 
ixi''U piirlif>R hiVi-«teil uiili a linn eiKit ul'imamel, undH'Hcly 
iiniieu : iliu liaie of a molar tooth [ireientina >ix linw of 
enoniel oiid ihrcf cavities: the anlcrior ibinl uf the first 
miihir tooth uti each udc. iihLn« and ticlnu', is smaller llian 
llie oili« l*o |)u^tion^ and i-ive* to lliL-i-e teolh a Ifiuni^ular 
filia[i>d cTo*"n ; lliB puslerinr third portion i)f llie last molar 
IiMth on each side above, w tifiiily ninnd, anil jjivcs an in- 
creuut of xurfacu lu thew aUo; in the niubr i«eth of iliv 
loner jaw ttic fo)d of cnKntrl bcin^ccn the llrst and sceund 
jiurtiunit of tlw honv taminie of catch Iwth iIms nut r>.>ach 
quite 10 iht-* outer ci^ und the two purtiunn of bom- nj>- 
ppnr ihcreforc to bo only ])nr(ially separated. The itircci:cin 
ufibe paralkd hmin<r of all llie tnufur teeth i^ not at ri^ht 
AilK^eD vi'ilh the line uf the muxillan lioiit^, but incliiiin;,' 
oblicinely ftoni wilhcMl brnkM-ards, 'The length, ftom the 
atiiu to llie vml uf itiLt tail, is 11 iiichva iVIu; ccriicaJ 




[9lMMai<i( ChlacUlIU haigmr.] 
*. Au|lwr« Htm ilMat ika ma malMB.Mini -, t, knai |*« Hen himiimno. 



G H I 



96 



C il I 



ttr-lebrtf, 7 ; ilotwl, 33 ; Ifimbor, 6 ; tocrvJ 2, aai caudal, 23. 
TliB i^ffiUn arc ^iiibII, luoajtuntktf 1 inch firoiu tho cxtonml 
anglv \t> tliG urlu'iil^liii) uilli (tiu hvtnfruf, \\\<t ipinc ia 
but liulo cicv*!"^. ilii^ ni-iomiMi amplo. 'Iiu tUviclis [n-r- 
fcrt ; Icni^ti uf iIk humerm, | ini^h ^tlu; iLo 1)onc #tion(( 
niiH fumi*)i<il will) an <.'km^teit ett^X douviiilini; from 
ihe ht-o'l; from tho olccfanop to tho canwl nriiculmion. ! 
iiu-ii Atlis; tl)i> if/H<t nn<l raitiu^ luiiily ai)cli)'l»M(l 
throughout the distal half uf llioir Icn^h; thence to Ihu 
lon^t of tlio fiv« toeti^ihs of an inch. The ribs, 13 
pairs. ThohuDP^ t>{ Ihi^ pi'lvis Htciiilcraiiilcloiii^lrd; from 
lite cecit of tlic iJium, which i* hut litllc produced, lo lh« 
inferior edf^tif the ischium i* I inch ftths; the ussi pttbn 
Kliijlit in alrucliin?, aihaiK-in^ but lilltc ; the sumphi^it 
cloni^nU'il, an<I lh<r 'ihluralor Jiiramtii of luge uze. Thv 
/fimiir i» Amiiijiii. Uroii;^. and ^uuiotli, atiil meaaurm 1 im-li 
j^ihit ; the liSit "i inrlv^ fjl'is; I)m> Jihula in coiiipl«tL>, and 
fin'liiH tlw n.'ctvi'nni m ii //<■!; fii v .- ftuiu ihu ii« cohis l<i llio 
cnil of till! Iah^i^I Idu, t iiR-lie> ^,llt; Ihu lain, fuur in 
number, of »£if!» tlui outer one is tiie iJiuite&i, ihe 
lliinl froni Llio aUlAidc, llu; luii{ji.'!i[ ; the bucoud and fvuriJi 
Bv|Hn).* 

Vorrcll reiuaiks Ihjt in Kamo pretiuLuIy puhlixheil 
obwn'stiooa, Ilu huil stnttil tliat thu Cfiinc/itltii appoiuvii 
to bo el<i*ely alliml to Mr. Rratiki-i'x LiteMlvmuf. but 
lluii tlie mun! cuiuphcaicd siruuiuie of the K'»tb, and 
llie esisloocv of an ndiltlroti4l Ice on each of ibe feel, 
reijuire for tlw Chinchilla UJi: eMicritr djhtinrlion r1aim«d 
for jl liv Mr. Bennett und Mr. (iniy. IIu lulil* ttiiii thu 
njitenihlance of the ikelclon to that of the Jeibnu it aliu> 
TrniiirliAbU-. pnrliciilul) in ihu form of the liviul. in iho 
ox<ti'M)ve ilL-ii'liiniui!iit uf tlui auditory nivilio. aitil tliu 
uiull hixc uf the anterior cxlrciiiiliia cimiiHired willi 
the liind Ici^ ; and that the true chimclcrii uf the 
Climcliilla ' H.iea\ vwn now ti> hp unknown li> the Kronrh 
aulhon ^buve n-furcd lo*. uho n^ivcar to Iji- ui:<|Uuintcd 
with ita shin iilonr. nnd never lo hiivc c\aniinL-d either il> 
lurili, nr t^.l.- uuDibiYaf ita iuc«. In lht-»e n^jMCis il dc- 
viuln Tiuni llie churaL'Ifra of their {jiuiiu^t^il tccnut (Cii/- 
tomffi}: a i^iniiis wliich eannal be odajtlcd, inasmuch oa it 
i.i <:oinpoN.-il nl' hutdrogntivoua mular-Jvln, luiil a» the two 
tjpca iiicluih-;! tii it hiiv« hoili jiiL'^UtuBly heun lU-M^'ihtfil 
nnd dmi^atcd as distinct ffiuupo. 

Wc ii«w g(j bwk III Mr. Jt'iinttl'it intercatinif accaunt. ia 
' The {iuiOuna utid AIcntii;eiU' of llic Zoutu^ittl Society Ac- 
linwitod t,' of thi> animal, wliich that author obiicrvet, ni>t- 
ntihitlandinj; the vAtviuivc trade (-uriciE on in its skuiK 
' luiL^bt liiivi: heoii lef^rtled until the \wt icnr ulmuttt w an 
unknown uniinal.' 

"Hic c«rli«st account citcU by >Ir.QcnnL-lt is an En^liith 
tramUtion (I.ondgti, 1''.04) of I'athcc JoKpl^ .Afitela'n 
' Nnluml mid Moral Hiatory of tha Eii.it and Wctl IwJitw,' 
pitblivhcd nt Baivclvna, ill Simiii-di, in )SD1. ' nie Chin- 
chillM ia ■ni>lb(>T kiu'l uf >uiail beasts, liVo w|Uinvlit : they 
Kara BvmindcrhiU smooths and m(1 aluinio, which they 
IIIm nativM} iTcaro x* * hi^althfull thine to comfort tlio 
<)innin<^k<<, snd those psrtn that linvo nM^de of A inodvmle 
hoalc' SirJohn llmrkltii;, in hi* ' Vujagc tulo Iho South 
Soa, A-n. 159.1,' iLoiidcn, tnoM titlio, 1622, nt|irinted in 
■I'UTPhaBhia Pil^iniV) My^ ' Auiongrt other* thi'y have 
litllo bpnsii?*, like union :()uiTrell. bill thai ho i> f,TCy ; his 
•kinn4t i» thomoct drlicntc, tofi, andcurivoa furrv tUnt I luw 
tiwin*^. and of murh t'niiinniion (u i* rennon) in IVrii ; fvw 
of tlwiu eomo into Spiinni hocuuw ditR(.-ult to Ijc coioe liy, 
for llml the prittw!* and iiitbli'^ law» wiiil foe ihcm ; thoy 
call this hoa^t Chinctulla. and of them they h&vo i;tvat 
abundaiicv.' Alon^ij du OitiHc, in his 'IliHtoiical Rclatinn 
oftbe KiHt^tnti cfCtuli' iKoniv. Ifi ir>), rulU lliom sijuir- 
rcls, "The squirrels (Ardas) which are fnuiid only in the 
tallin' of GuuMo, am sali-roloured. and their ukiiii. arv in 
great cstf>eni for tl.o fiiteiictw niwl toflnnw of ili« f\ir.' An 
anonymous Italian author, suppOAed liy tome bibliaii^p)i«rs 
— nroncously, a'* Mt. Itenneli iliinik^io be ihi^ .'Vliln' 
Viduunr, who puhlislied :it Bi'loi^nn. in i77E. a 'Competi- 
iliuin of the G«o:n«j)hiL-3l, Naiunil. owl Civil History of 
Iho Kingdom of Chili,' (peaks of the Arda (Suiinuh fir a 
U|Uiin>t| oi n ^cipi ot nil, w lannwiniol. of the M^ie uf n 
iMl. found oiily in the prOTint)- uf L'npoipo. niodcrali-ly 
docil«. and rtovrrwl with oih- colon r cd wo<ii, it* cknw anft 
delicate US the fln^st ''otlon. Biifion, and llial too. tiftpr 
. quDtliijt FeHilI»e'» crxrolknt de»mpliiin. confoundMl it with 



the CAukM IIw !»<** utinkuij; of hMita. D'Aiamew- 



H 



...,;.i.B, 
t [« be 
lAly look 



rceicd thifi cnor, hutfalli iutoanolhcr h:i 

the chiiicho vf I'euilk-e and Buffoii nt 1. 

liuii (N.itilt:il Hiolory of Chili— lulinn. 1 . 

de»(-ril>c« thoChmrhiltans b apacieiaf Liuusl': 

the nuino of Mu* lutiiger. Ginelin idog>t<"' ' ' 

but M. Ct'ctfriiy Sl Hilaire riin>iid<rr«d i i 

rogaHi^d nn one ot'hi« /Junuffrr. Zoolo;,- . 

up Ihid opinion, and Molina, in a »t>cond edition of hit »«4y 

(imu), woms 10 have rnlerlaint-4 it. 'The Chinchilla,' 

Ba)-0 Uolina, ' in anulticr »p«eies of tlel'Vral, in ^n.'al bUtnu- 

tion for the exiri'mo fineness of itsvooL, if a rich fisr m 

dehraie as the silkeu voks of the ^'xnlvn enidt-K r< i 

tiTiniHl. It ia uf un soh-mtv, and kuAbienily i 

•pinmii){. The lilth! utiiinal whieh pioduccB it u ux uiilu^ 

lomt fi^iii ^'^ n*^^ 1° I'"' I**"" i^' 1^'*' '**''■ vt^'i '^^'^ 
ptiiiited ears, H ihort muxile. ti:ullt like tin- house ret, 3n4 
a [nil of iniKlcnilt! leii^ili. etuthfl with adeliciUe fur. Il 
live* in buiruMs underjjvuuud. in th« open coninlrv of tho 
norllicm provinces of Chili, tuid is ver] fond of beinjt ui 
company ivilti olhcn uf its (]ieclb)i. It fwdn uihiH tht 
Tunis (if luriiuiK bulbuu.1 plant) wlucb .qiow abuiHUnily b 
iho-ie paitfi; and ptoducM twice ^ year five or six >oubj( 
ones. It i» so doL-ilo and miid in li-iii|i<!r thai, if taken luli) 
llir luncU, it neither hiIcK nor trie* lu t»cupt! ; but oernii ta 
take a idfanure ill bom.? uLrt^swid, If placed in the buuim 
it remains ihi're as still and uiiiot as if il wtrc in it* owa 
RiHl. Thit vMnturdiniiry pbciuily may puMibly liu ratbrr 
line to iU ))u>illiiiiiuitty. which r^^nilcn it ciltvtuely litnlit. 
As it ia in ilielf (it'Liiliarly cleanl*. iheiv can bw iiu fear «f 
il»*iiliii'i the cluihc* of iho«<' wh-. hiiiidlr it, wo/ ila coi»- 
uiiinii'ulinjt any hud nniell to ihctn. fu it ii cnttriilj frre 
fhini ihut ill tduiu which rharactcruen the oilier tpedoa rf 
nils. Foi this rru«)n it might well be krpi in ihchoom 
with no unnu^nnrc. and nl a trilling e^pcnM-. which wvuld 
bti ahundaiill) rcpaiil by llii! pn>llt> on iia wo'>l. The in- 
ticnt rcru^taiis, who were far more industrioui llian tbo 
inoiU-ni. made of thisYnxil covurleta fi» kud> and valuablo 
blulB. Tbeiv iiifuuml in tlio ^atiie nonhtini pruvinn-n ao- 
oiher lildo uiiimul uith fine wool, called ihe Hnntilla, 
wiiich i* vvriuusly <lescrihed by ihoM; who have acc-n it; 
but us 1 Iwic iKviT oliM-'rved it iHym'lf, I cannot di-lemiiit 
lo vhal pcnub it Lchmi^.' I'ptui ihU, hir, Ikniiell. whiM 
iniii^iLtioii wc have picn. rcninilis that iheit- I'on In- little 
iLiiibl ihiit lhi> animal is idcniivul with the C'hin<bilta. the 
latter bt-iuK freijiiently npiiken of by thu nuinf uf Anlii. ih" 
tanio with Jliurda, ibi' diintiiiili^o of ivhJ-l' - t1-"'li1hk 
SdimiilliuBVcr ('Travels into ChilcoviT Ihe .^ I I'a. 

Ho, isi-i) tliuNdu.ii'nbt-s the animal. 'Tlii. i_ ,.v u 

a wouUy field- 1 II II use, nhich livt.-^ iiiiJcr;^mnd, and chiefly 
fe<;cl» on vrild unions. Il8 fine fur b well known in Riutipe ; 
iltal wliich comen frura Uj^per Pern id nnigher nnd lar^ri 
tliun the Chtndiillii of Chile, but nnt alwiLy* la IxautiAil in 
il« cohur. Gk'iiI nunibcri! uf these aniwula ore cautikt m 
iko neitflilwurhovd of <[A)i|uinibe oiid Copiapo, KvnotnllT by 
boys wiili duifs and sudd to liader* who bniig llieiii to San- 
Ua^i and YalpanuM, from v«hciicc they are cxiictI««L The 
I'lTuvian skins arc eiiher brouj^lit to Bueno«-Ayrea ftom 
I lb* en*tfm piirls of the Aiiden. or sent lo Lima. Tbo ci- 
^ lomivi: u»o of tliiK fiir bo)' Iat«ly cccasiimeil • wry coosdcr- 
abl« rtestniciinn t/f the aniiuaUl' 

Captain Htcchcy. R,N . lin hi> return from Iil- oifnlilioo 
lo the norlh-weil eoail of America, [>i' [r^ 

cimen lo ihcZouloTicnl Socuiy ; and tui id 

paTiieubrly Tuliiablo in c^nKoqueivee ot . . nil 

itrc'seiviil 111 it. wa* nt the sariw time l Mr. 

L'«ll ie. I he suriK^in of Cnplain BMcbcj's thip, ijtd ik ^^ulfd 
in Iho British Mui^eum. 

■ Til tint unwunt of its bahitdi pivoo hy Molina,' sAyn Mr, 
Uennen, ' we can only iiild, ihai it usually fiis upon iU 
hEiiineliea. and is eicn ahlu lo rai^Mt ilMlf up and stand upon 
Its liindtT feet. It ftvls in a uitiug poaure, gns|iinp> IU 
food, and convejin}! il to its mouth by fitcnna of it « fore 

rn«. In its temper il t> cvnt-nilly inil'l and trnctahlc, biit 
w ill not alwnvK n-.tfer lUeif to be bundled vithnui n- 
aiotojice, and suineiitne« bilw the lund which altcmpis 10 
foudks it when mn in a humour to he pluytrl with. Al- 
iliough a rntivp nf the Alpina valltna of CJiib. and ronse- 
queaily auliiectitl in il« own contitry lo Ihe elToeU of a low 
Irmpeniture of Ibo atinoij.plierc nfiniiiAl vrhioh its tluelceoat 
alTord:! an admirable prolection. it ukk tluiughl nocnmy 
to keep il, duriu)^ the niiitar, in a mwh'raiely waiin rooai. 
and a piece of Ihuioel «u even iairoduced into ita Rhwipii^ 



G Hf 



87 



I 



ifc fn^at<T Minrort. Bui this iDclulipyne» 
»t ptrtinoTiuu Jt rcjivltil, -iivt o* oficn ms the llinncl 
|)tar<-<l, 10 QO«n tran it •Irai^'d by tlw tillk- Bnimal 
too OQier 4^>mp«rtiiitnl <>f it« «a(^, wher« Kainiucd 
Fvlh |>ul!int( it aboui, rnllini; tt iip, And «hakirti^U 
wiih lu Act and irotb. In otitcr mpwls it «^bibiU bnt 
I till* "UvfulnaH, anfl eiviM fi>w upjnt ofactUiiy: »*l<lom 
1^ itii tlctul quiHnilt hv atijMOdilen or «^tnar«ll- 
■ ■ ; '^ ni^Ktl*, but ocFdiiimiUy dutplnying Strong i^taplonu 
«( «lara wlien BtftMltiil by any un'utDftl orcurren^v. A 
wmfbd MiTidual of thci intcrf^HnK »it*i** Ihir bt«Iv bc^m 
(dded io the eaUwtian by ibe klmlncM «{ l^iiv KniVhlcm, 
m whme poanotian it hsil nMnatncd rvrire monlhfi 
{>ivrMMi9lf In Iwr prefMSMltur tl to lb« Society. Thia 8fM!ci- 
tnrn K Uiyi-i in *>itr, and rou^biT in lU t\tr thnn tlw onn 
abors dcsenbMl : il* cotonr B aha leu nnifonnl]' j;T«y, do- 
riiiiwft sociPwlKit inoiltiid iip|K«nn(« frmn lh« nutnVraua 
MBmIi blackish m>U vrhith Am •mtipred rt4't ibp bnck anil 
ifim. It i< |nuiblu ilt.it thii miT bo Die Pt^mvian variety, 
M em '-^""l '■! tlio t'xlnu.'t Oum * Scluni'llium'cr'x Tnveu^' 
an I i ICM deltc«l« ami ^altubtB fur thun the 

Cb.l L It ift n|unlly f^ivA lempi-rod nnd mild in 

iu dupniiiuii, and, prbUtblr, in canKqtieiire of baling 
t'i-«n pxhiliiicl in a piiUtc roltix'tion. is murli ninrr tamu 
i\ti'\ pbyful. In its Inltf nbodt! it vnu fr«|UfiiitIv itiiiriiml l» 
• <m uliijul the room, wiiim il vrauUl *hi>w cIT lU »~i!ily by 
' I'l t)iB Iwicbt (pf lltF lablc. Its food ron^isted prin- 
I dry Itcrnneo. such ili bay anil rli^Ttrr, no witirh 11 
j-,l.i-j;> 10 bue ibrivffii greatly. Thnl of the !l(tncty'« 
ort<iunl «pLTim?a has liitberto bwn chiefly gt^n of \-anMw 
■ t ■' :- ilcnt ftiot". 1iVhrnlh(tiMn«-4.'oaierwssllmin- 
ilfutiKi Stroet, it «br pinrail tn the ante cag« 
-, . ^.lJ•l^,l^):■., ■ but tl»c Utter apjtMfcd by no 

nir- I l« lite [irrwiiro of \hr iiiinuler : 

a fr: 1 :.iij[ fight imiiicdaitpl) (•ntiiiil bo- 

tircN>a tliciu. and ihe UUlt would unqticitioiiiibly tinvu 
tillrli n xiruiu had it iwt brvn rnrucd fh>m ilt iiupcmlhig 
&tr : ulicc llial tline tlicy lave iiihuMird wtjiarati; rogtM, 
liWcd Ms In side ; nixl nttbuu!;)) t)i<- opi.-ii wirc« would 
kilmil of M'iDi; lilllt; rainiliorily tflkili); pljco botwcrn ihnii. 
no Bdiati'-ci luivo BH yd Ixfii toatlr o:» cilber tide. Such 
ut iiololciL r«cl tan, of coonc, Iutv little vrcichi in lyppO' 
tiiiaa to lltc tcstiuiuiiy of Klolina. iliat the Ctiinc-lnllx u 
<•■■': -f i-rTtnpiiiny. It u DevcrtbclcaA a icntarkattl^ clici;m- 
■..'\ Actfne^ to be iDcndoocd in iltiuumtuii uTihe 
:ltaie aiuiiuiU.* 
.Jf.— Tlic fur i» a consitilcmltle nrlicle of trnw 
In mulfo. ■ii>|)ci!\ liiiin,!^ (o cloiks and (irliiuwa, 
>ad thmminga for iIm »nie, it U tvM vxiunKJvuly, nnd 
at a eonjpntiTDly hi};h yriee. Therv in now tAii^u.ti, 
ia36> a Coiiie BpWimcn in the Oankii of tJio Zoolt^cal 
Sodely, til the Rcf^nl'* Purk. 




Dontal forrnnla, ineisoni, -, 



[ChtMbilk Ltaiscr**.) 

LAoonoiit;t. 

2 . 4-4 



m«l«r«, i — f = 20. 
4—4 



The 



i 



iutaBn alHrpeoiad. The tuolan oacb consisiini; of two 
eaat|dete bbuqut lanioUm. tliu upper pwluriur one being 
bfltflMlliT. Atitefior f«ct fuuMoed, Ibu tbunib being 

* GalMiH tiu Ofurrd it la hit ' Kilnihkl«t«ri( Ailai.' iiudFT Ibi- Biaw 



allo^llMr defltrkmt, tbc naili small nnd (^IcuTa^ . „.„.„. 
fctit litree-loed. the naiU prudur<-il. KtnJKht, niid roinutt 
Bars modenitc. Toil moderate. Example. hie'itl'jm«i 
In'ekoiiucltflit*, Bcookcs. 



I. f 



«,n:|>rrl*wt t.Unnttw: r,<ia<mot liw vnp<l»>hrtv>lk«f iWkA 
liil* uMlie tntn )■■ i t.teMK tttSu U(l KtUa lujili ultlw rifhl tA at ^Ut 
ttpr^r )a*. 

Ill lf4|4 ihere won n lining S|icciincn of thi« animal nl 
Exctur OhaniTf, v hcie it wat> ab»Gn«l bj M. do Bla:iivtlle 
and M. K. Cuvicr. Tl>e former dcwribuU i( in lb« * ^oii- 
veau Dii'timnuiro d'Hinluire Nalutcllv.' Bnd the Utlcr in 
lh« ' l>;i-lion»ai[« dca tii:ivnci:« Nuturelles,' under the 
tiatac ot Oiptit maxhnw, hlaiu'' ., vniMiMt.]!/ r-M'^rrmK II 
t<j llie JcrbuAi, and not sut>|i«<:ttni^ il« i.U-'ntilv willi ibe 
Kafilem Vutcacho, or tiiscacliu. an identity ovorlouked alM 
by Mr. BrvvkvxF, vlio obtained the ttfierim^nhner il»d«»tli, 
and prvparvl from il a ituCM skin nnd skeleton, ubirli. uii 
the JbrwliinK up of hU mu^uni, paiwl, i>c>.'ui'djHa; lu Mr. 
IJc-nncH'" belief, inio ihe bunds of M. Tomnnnck. who pur- 
iliawd tlwai for the Leydcn Mximuiii. It liad l.ecn tltoired, 
wliiW li»in^, in Mr.Gnflitb's ' Tmniilnlion of iIk' It0:[a« 
Aiiiiiial.' under the nume of Munnol Dian/i, a^ hi'l\,m 
i>bM.T*o(l. MM. D'Orbiiniy. filo, ""d M. Iiidi>n' Gouifroy 
St. 1 1 iluirp, piildwbrd in the ' AniialL-* das Scimipes" I'lir Nu- 
ii'i.r, ISM.a p.nper 'on the VEtrai-hnaiid iheOniirhillo, 
ied a* the \y\ifs of a penua tiainiid VtiSlom^i. lotjcihcr 
■ r l>..'di]'*'ripii'jnofai>owKp<«ie»,' Bui M. Itidoio (iujflTruy 
I iK'.i- iu!f'n niawiii Iu ttbaiidiin \m upinian of the ueiivric 

:'y of tho two otiimals. In Au^uivl, IkU, M. LecMin 
III IliP ' Bull'-liii di's Scii^iici!* Naiun-'lle*' ;ia extract 
I liiB • Jllinltuliiin»de ZomJo;jii',' ajJiiBiiiiiig a DOw do- 
u-nplion of Die Vincocliai. uiidtT ii» orifpnul numo of /-oiftrf- 
f'iwM» tricfiodaclylut, wbii'h M. Kuhii Itid pnr>'iott>>ly re- 
stored to tin) atiiiniil. The ' Illuitmioiu' ipve a Dguro ul 
lli« antuuit. and i(>preM>ntnliun« of iU ftuM. and of lU 
muulo. 

Mr. Itenneit i« clearly of opinion that it i& the Vi^rat-lui, 
detxritied by xo miui} Iravelleia as ojlonizitii; ihi- vubI plaiiia 
t'-aiiluu.rd of the KTt'iil i"lwjn of iho Ando. Dobri/huffer, 
Jolifc U'Axiira. Prorlor. Heiul. Mu-rs. and lloijjli. uU mvii- 
liun iL Qipt- liniw Sir I-raticii Hwul) jtivtti n pieliire of 
these animaK silling w.ik-mtily ul llio ontraiiec uf ll«ir 
barrows, unite In hi* nei;ulLar style. Bi»cach<» ia (lie uatiM 
he lowigiui to tlwiu, and, accorduig lo hia account, llic Si» 

* Pton Ur. I)n«k«'i lltw*la tM llilital.ar tlit 'LtDDciKiTmaMn 

tIDIlt.' 

t * LkB..Tniw,' vil, t!ii^ t<Wv 




1 



hVii 



eftcliDOraf. or ttMmclM burronic, nliich )ic>i-foratO tlio ploiiKt, 
Oiv leiriblc Impt for Ibe utiwar^' liot*etnftli. 

ih't'lt. — ttV teleH tlift oMwiiit* of two t'.ucign tmvt-l- 
kr» <wIioM wodte are not in Ihe lwn<l* *f STorj' ouel of the 
liabils of (his epM-ie*- 'Tim Biiica^hii, ralU'il liy the Abi- 
ponm N«lii>WlM«k,' saw Uobrielwfffr in hi* euriouK Hm- 
I'/riii d» AbiponHtitt (V uinnir, \Zf*iy, ' (liini it.* butrawa in 
IliP mnrt clt^vatcd port* of ibc pbins wilii so niiicli urt. 
Ihut no apftrluri> is loft by nlijcli iIIb min Mii [wnotntlo : 
•imI i[«!K biitTovs tirr diviJ^it nilci ili).tiiu't i.uiU«a)ent.4, 
niinK-miU l'<imiUi-« inbabilitii!; tho h-miio loc-alilv. Oil the 
nji-ra<« of thu t^uii'l aru sfv^uraL •.'ntniiiucB In tfn> burroia*. 
Bt vbirh, tottariU liiiiiKiri, tlicy arc M^rii Kt'iitcct ill c:ro\t<l«. 
fUliiiisnlly luH'nint^ fiir ilw sound of any wfsoii auproachina. 
irm>r)ihint^ rL-muins iiuiot, Ihcy Hvk iWr f<i(i<l in iIm oI>- 
Mnirily of llic njflit, nin) rtiiiiinit i;rii'v»iu ili'X'ANliiliuti on 
fN|B nniiflilHtiiriii;: Ik-lUn. devotirinu both wlieut anil Indian 
Mrn witli «\lr«uu' aviilily, and wlipri oitlioi' is la bi> linil, 
dwprsing pRU«- For ibis t« won lbt> tialiunf i>f tlic^ BimM- 
rhiui are rarely 111 tm wen in iUl' (kiu'rl ]iliiuii>,bu1 iniltrale 
Vitl) certuinty Lhv nenr ncii^Iibourliood of the Sjianisti set- 
tleinents. I havo oCWn wwnlrnHl M:\n Ki lime ■een llii; 
BiwMln in Ihu temiuriut eilhur »f ilie AbiptincA. or iliv 
Ouantntft, iltliougli wHl supplied villi nil kimla of crops. 
Th>y <ljiil» hop up, at \\iv tiitmncM of thi-ir burrow, drj 
bune*. <-Iii)M nrwonc). or wliniever uiher rvfuij; llie>' iimy 
liioel with, but furwlut piirpoets ihi-v collcc:! sur h tliini^ 
it is imiioi^blc cvim lo ronjprlurr. Tin- Spntilih rolimiM* 
ntniiiw iliL-itiiM!h'Lv with Iiuniiii.'t l!ie-in ; ixiurin'^ uniiy 
'buckcta of water inlu tlii^ir siibliLTiancoii'i reli'ciils, until, lo 
aroiildni«-nini(,lbciininial^rniiiiirin)iintollir pbiin, nlirrr, 
'tii> niPnn» i>f cKnpc liciiiL' alTiinb-'l tlii'iii, liity ntv. killcMl 
with iilifkn, Their ilesli. imlc*. wlien vi-ry old, i* not ton- 
ridcrctl di'^iicablc ctch by tlir Spaniardn.' Tin; Abbr 
'Jitli» Aitvh, fur Iwlvn yuan* in Sntitli AinLTicii, tiiid inailL' 
threo journeys inlu llie wmoic diatnils of tho ijilorior. 
'His work, ' Snsifio nulla Storia Naliimtu duHa Proiinria 
•li-l (i randiiicrii' (Facniui, I7KS), in no litllf kimvn, ami \\\s 
duw.-ri|ititiii, in some [wrliculairt, diffon »> ntucli frnm llmi 
of [XibriEliolfur, that *-c i;ivo Mr. IktintlC* IranslntioD of il. 
* TIk^ BiBcncliik;! livw in wciHy, in Inuruws, uiidci uroiind, 
which tbcj fonu fi>r 1 1wnvwli <^, <'\c«vatinf( iti ill iliicc- 
tloiu lo iIk- extent of o uiitv in cin-umi'i.-ix-nrc, wilb variuu.i 
■■V' 'I'l (upiinile n.'li*ats in whit-h tlio old liio tliwiiii't 
■ youiicer. TI»o wil in whieli tht-se are usually 
:- thtit wnirli i« hard and barren, nnd dostilulc of 
'•^wytliiua:, but with b«*ho* (bo»rngli«) at no great dutancr, 
aiH ptuture of Icndi-r tjni**, roots, nnd the b.irk of tren. 
Thny ^f)Ilwt ni^uiid llwir roinvtn bnn(«i, driod If aves, ami 
^-tvntKviT lb(<y find in the nt'ichbourhood ; if nnvlhinK ** 
miasini; in llioir di<ilri''l>i. it is lo Im> lonnd with Mrtniiitv 
pUfrrl np in lU^M' Hiniiiiinns Ibc fidlii'rrinii; diiy. As iIk-v 
»» aiiiti)n)» lliat o^■»ld the Uljlit, liaTintt litilis pnwer of 
vi«ini). thi'V nn> not tolieMvii in t1io day-liini?, unlnu nt 
•Inwn, at tinvarti* evening utter minnvt. Tim niirht, and 
etqwiHally when tlio moon sliint-i, is tliu proper Una- for 
»4vltin|> Iht-ir fowl, 'i'lrn^ nmong Ihd Biscirhas whic-h nn.' 
nllirl Cliinctir !!»<:. iiivJ wliiidi uiny bo nul tn lu'Inni* to 
thi> nr<i opi'noit, iiibuliil onlj llie niounluins and viM Hiinti- 
tmm; ill jiim Iher nti> like a rabbil. and are rlntbed uilh 
n line Ions; fur. Tiipir Bjilily i.t (■urprisin!' ; Ibey aro aeon 
' U<4tiirn; from mrk to nn-k iik if tliey bnd llir liiriillv of 
ItJsht. Till? Dthen, indiculwl abm'i>, inhnhir the Ii-in! 
cmititn*. in ntirm iiitiiationti. .... Kicirp and pauntgciiuit, 
ihnr d^ufeiid ihiiinn^lvci irith all Hmit niii^lu apiniit llio 
rin^s, and someliuirs m'cn altnck the le|^ uf IbL> huntcre. 
I t^iiU Kpeak in my tnvi-U. aitu fiilor plir«, of tlio thriM 
rariom mmlea in wliirh they aiv driven out of Uicir re- 
trcniK ; that is to air. with waier, with (Ire. anil by rubliini; 
mirk* together.' 

But neither of thoM' unilinrs incniinna thssonunrhal ano- 
malous rompaninns with «hkh the Binnu-'lKAnreannPinlfMl. 
snd svr iwWl, fhitn the lr.-iTots of Prorlor. Ilmd. Mii*ni, 
nnd ll(ii-;h, ttie twruunt of I he flret-namvd traveller, whiL-h. 
iw Mr. Bcnncit ohserret, k"^*" nrarly all the paniinlan 
which are to be fmind in iImt rc^. 'TlicwhnlL- mnniiy, 
tmtn Biwiw* AyrP« lo Kan I,«h ilc la Punio. it mora ur 
le>i bummed In an aniiikal WlHi-eii a nibbii and a hodircr, 
(■nlk-d the hh-r'tr}ir\, «rbieh renders tnivelUiii; dantit-mu'^ 
psrtiniiaHy by liiL'hl. llioir liidiit Wvn^ w larv'c and deep. 
tliat a horse i« oliniBtt aaie lo Gill 11' tie aiii|n inlu one t>f 
lh«in. The l/itaicha never vcnturca ikr from ii.i rein-at, 
Mid in tcbloiu K-'en till the CT«ning. nhen it (omcuxiui lo 



tUl 



f#oil, anj liun4ro(U may be fjlwervod *pwRi'.t- 

bolcT^ livid tniikvn^ n noise very similar tu i:< 

pigii. 'flicir HiJi i( niiu'h bkeii by- the poojil' 

rvmnrkably Ibt, and on that arcoutil, whon ' 

ili^lniKe from thuir tinbys an- entilv run d..\. _ , 

howeviT di-'fcud tlutiiu-clvfh froui a do'.;a con»iderable tji 

Tlie Iwili-'K of thi'su animals are also inhabiled bj- vaia iiuiu- 

bera uf small »wls. wbii'h Ht. during the day, gating oL tbc 

ptuisin^f tntvclU-nt. nml makiita; a viiry ludicrous appear.ii.r.'. 

Tine purU of the nail mutt fmjueKled by the bi\ 

jjcnerLilly overrun byaBpccics or «mall Vp*ilit m<-l, 

ti) llio la'stp; whellmr it llirivL** particularly un lln; 

of tlio HuiitinL uc wbeiher the biscacht choc&eii '. 

nearer this rtuiDiiii; plant, doca not Mem. to b^' 

oaiwrtaitted.' 

In March. is^3. Dr. Mi-jon icnt to the Impcnid 
demy NaUinc CurioMruin. the st'eond part of a fceii 
zuoLo^ciil observations, luado during a. tnyi^C" rguiu 
world, coniniiiin^ il ru^twon uf this family, for nhldi 
a<I(j|il» Iriitn WiL'fcinunu ihc name of Lagoil'uni, 
which he refers six fjeiieca; lit., A-ifz-fM, Tm£ 
Hrinmyi, CJiijifhifhi, Uulfr, nii Lnxidiumi hinL 
meriles three dmiinct upeciw of £<iyoif'WtM*, Ilia ■ 
was publiihed towards the end iif 13;t;t. in llie ' Non 
Ai-ad, C^m. Not. Cur.' His %icwii dilTcr wiili-Iy fn^oi 
of Mr. Rinini-ll. wliich liuwover we liavc relaincd, 
ihe eitnvietioii that they art; well fomideil, or. at 1 
^linkcn by the obwrvulioii!* of X*t. Mcyen. Aa 
eiiiifusiiin UMV ariw! fruni the discrcpaney. wo lliinT 
lo i;ivo ^[r. lienneli'^t ri'inarks un llw pap<'r in I 
viiluLw of till! ■ Zoiilo^irnl Journal.' ' Anr^iurtU lli» 
African ^rnun PnUlifx. 111. (or Iffliimjft oflU, F. C 
6iiy» Mr. BfiinctI, ' I can by no Uicons eon' i-r « 
Grrman iimto^sts v\m have jirupaiixl to n 
the South .Aioericaii fmnily uvCAiticAitUi/cr. . . 
luivc already slated in my papt^t in tlie ZtiQl\K:.i*ul S 
TransB Clio lis, p. AS, il svemf iti many of it» clmrucli 
uppniaL'h I.it^iMtaraiit. I lun nlill uiirfrtain aH to 
position, which 1 nintinuo to tlttiik we arc not yal r\i: 
with sutlicienL materiala to determine ; but I am cun^ 
Hint iU reUtiun lo tl»o CltinfhiUiJar i» not one uf ucof 
iiily,' ' Tiio dift'erv-iwus ill Hie rilutivo pri; :■■ '"lie 

limb^ in llm eltin^ulcil iLaws of its anterior > , i|i 

the character of iU fur, and above nil, i» U-. .. , ;,^ ,,.ie «l 
its teclli, fuflitd, oa I lia^c tliive »tal(sl, a cloiw t^gCfl^- 
iiiialiuu.' 

'The pcmis la^idwm of Dr. Mcjen it n'Qoay, 
niy Laifotin ; nri'l the niH'i-jcst nuned by hiiii f,j^ 
nturiUHtiai apihsara to be iduutii'al will* /. ■ 
Tlie auvrluinnH'nl of il» liabilut mi fho e'e^. ' 
Peru eoulirm* the afioiiwy of in 
anv e\id(>noe an Xo looolity, rugur 
/ 'luivn'^a (if Peruvian iravollen*. u; i 
by biiiitiLdF in ita nali\'« ci>unir\, Ur. Xi 
leresiins iKinictiliu->. He sintos that u ]~ 
jiiHl ti[-liiw ilu? ItTnitK iif perpetual >>i)iiw, niiH 
th'Vt' exleinive sulilerrano;)n fxc^iwili-.n* m v.... 
liie vi'irk of the P'itraeAa uf Buenoi Ayn»; it wa . > 
in\ari:il]1y found among the roelw. nml ne^-r i- 
B^tiund. On >ti>vanl a«oai>i<ins il van i>b'>i '1 ' 
butWBsse«D moil frei|iicntly at aun.4c|, b-. 
abundant, although puniieil with aiidiiy on 
KoimI Itniuur uf iia &e>.\L, nhiidi. bvwevrr^ if. i , 
that of thd hare. Tlie fabrication of stulT^ iriiiu lU uwl.a.' 
general in the time nf thl> Inrais has now entirely ce: 
and such Mull'i. an- only lo \ni uu'l with srumtt; the r. 
found in tht.* fonib^i. of llie anlienl inluibilaniK ** 
further add^ thai Ihe skins of tliesu V- - : ' 
lo Its ihrouub BueitoM Ain-% a" nn nrti iiul 

arc not to liiglily jirizei) a*ihusc uf ;i ;^ Ur 

givM a flcum of the aiiiiQnl, and cooil reptP i i i<» 

vkuU and tmh.' Mr. Bvnncit tScn prgowi^ l.u ifa*> 
Dr. hteyim. bb be bad before obtervcd, «flumcculf« tipvc 
species. 

Or Lagvitnmiit, llio lu-n llrsl of ihei« rupriMool tie 
Diiimuls re'pei-in <-ly (i^iirLtt by iho bte Mr, Uroukea tad 
by M. Lesson, iindix the name uf taii(ntomut tricAadec- 
li/tut, tvliirh Ur. Mcyi^ ron»idcrs ns dltlinci on acouW r^f 
till' diiren-nrcii iibu-riHlili: lirlWi.«cn thr ino H 7*110* 

ouiis.i>t in ihoMuullaiiil rurml claws uC ihi- n in 

the fbriser, cunlni sted with the l.irge siioand .^it 

direelion of ihc ume oric:in« in llic killiT -, in : am 

in tliu nb:ip- uf the lair The mi-apprcheiiu rie 

Ml 




C H I 



B9 



C H I 



I 

I 



to dWv Itow ■hn^erous it b l« rely vn fl(;urc» utiiy iii the 
dieoiittinatiiua of HpuciM. Aa rv^vU Uiu Qmt ^rcsiii»t;:i 
ditlilKlkHi. Mr. BvimoU hiu uWrv<.<d (]>. j7 of Li» popcr), 
1)i*t 'in Ihi* [wliciilu ihc Dtpiim (ji^cu by Mr. Ilroukcs 
an l)cl1»^li1c, aa uxUilnling lliu cUu's Tar pQiultcr a.w\ nxirv 
funiKl tliun ia naturul.' A ivrt-rvncu (u llm descrii'tiunr uf 
M. F. Cu^icr and M. dc BIikinTillt. tioili tuki'n i'roiu Mr. 
U»m>k*5'B Hpci^imoi wbiU- li^mi;, will cynftnn thu nccurocr 
oriht*<il>^rvutk)ni ll>c bllvr in iKirliculu' <Di:»iu. J/iimmu/. 
Ka. iu>*), (lew till in;j; the initUlU loc of th« hinder foot as 
AintHluyl villi n vh>* iTn^iitr cbw. On the («cond poiul, 
Ibo lul>il. it iwc^ only be ubierrvli llist bolli R^rCH wftre 
taken fVvitii ntufTtnl t^kine by artisU who had ne%or eecn il>« 
livitljt iiniiiinl ; utui wlio iM^ulil citns»i)u«iill]i ni\« only tlicir 
own conjtvinriil iAc*i t,T iU itntnml apDwrnni-o when in a 
living tijii-. On lli« third, tt may Vv ulitta.TViMl, ihnt ^>m« 
libMuHly it to bit r<fir«Kl, M. 'lo IHniiivillo hnvtnt; doMriliod 
Ihesniiniil whil« tiMngiw baling iu tail Iruncalo and nm- 
liUid, and Mr. BrookM'A akiu and ikiileton boins Itoih 
prtiMltil wilh i>«r(o«t 1»ilB. A (ino skin, now in the jmj*- 
uniTjn of the Zooloi^iail Siiricly. n^rcH>< m cU c»«nliiil pur- 
lirulnrK nitli tho animiil l)^ijri<jl by M. L«»on; itnil u fiir 
» \tr. li)'iino'i\ nxrollocUon i^.h-s wilh thni wliicli oiks 
A)mie<l * iwri ul'Mr. Bnxikvh's MuM-'uiti. Tliv ligitro \ii\cn 
hy (be liiitor riboul'l only i)0 consiilen:>rl ii oi)nv<!'t in ehi fjT 
u il » lir>n>o out lir llic ilcMTijHiii!i- of MM. F. Ciivier snd 
De Bliiinkilk', «liii;h atkiuttl hti rufi^rmd \o in eiiiiiioxion 
villi it. 

Hie Ibird spcci» of Lagottomus, «niinipint«iL by Dr. 
Heyaii. is iIm Krinrnp* Chinc-kilta at 1>. IJi*IilpnBlpin, 
Igond Biul il«i.rnU-u in llii) 'l>ir»telIuM^ neutr uAvr 
«vni^ tiotunntcr SUugcthieru.' a work unknown to Mr. 
Ihninsll vhrn hi* papvi vra^ ptiblhliwl ; ami Mr. Bctiiii?!! 
■rkiiiiw Iwl^it i1m[ IIi« lixun^ thi*re fii^^n <"> dii^oly m- 
■Miiblra Ih* ini« C/tinc/iiU.t tutigera m all il« piotnuiviit 
hBtarot. thai he should not liavv licaimod to refer it to 
lliat aniioal. lud it not bwm «ocoR)|iaiii«l bvMpimlsnf 
prewntntlnn* of iIil* fci-t, which ofTcr unly (bur toe* on the 
BJiteiiar, und three un ihu pasleridr cxtrcmiticw. Dr. M«jl'ti, 
howcurr. (fuoln ni n •ynnnjin Caihms* laniger of irf. 
Nilore Oi-'iCTnay xid iliw jruuni^tr D'Ch-bigny ; »ud Mr. 
Reniwtt. ih«t«fore, otinerveJ. thai there can iw Utile doubt 
tlut ibey ovcfIooki?il the stnnll and nlmott nidimunlnl iniiier 
\oe^ luiTh iif Ihr |i>rr and hind In-t; the idi?ntily ijf lies 
• 11 ■ : Iji- ChinfhitUt l^nix'Tu of Dr. Rousseau lieinj,' 

vv '■ by the Piriiiiun luolopiaifl, ^I'ho liavtr ample 

i r comiHinnir ihcm. and M. Gvuffmy liim.%'lf 
iiieiilly uiliiiillH itiK (coneric JiniiiiL'tiun of the 
I nin: hii'ii liiia Ciillomtft tanicer) iV^jm hi* i^'nus Cal- 
fmav<. lh<^ Iroc Cnsoitoaiui. The ChinrhiUn of Mr. fimy, 
ibe feurlh K^nm uf ihc fitmily, unnirdinti; ti> Dr. MeY^n, 
brine li«yi>Dd qtiealivn llie cuily ChmcUiUa ^tt nut i ml by 
Ba^iith ziMiloicttls >n<l raii«c<|urnily idi-nliral with tlinl 
ft^uml in Mr. OtillithV rdilitii) iif C'u>ii:rN Atiiiiud Kiiii;- 
ilain. and Mr. Bcimotl'.i CInric-hilla. The (Ulhcr Inat naniijd 
MM no nawB bt doubliuif ihnt xhe Jirimnyt uf Vnnikr 
llno*«a. Dr. Ueycn'i BAh gmnN ia foinnled on the «ino 
tperlcs. 

Onttr, Dr. Mryro's tiUlh ffenuA, ii fouiiili-il on a &kuU 
AinroTctwl nt tbi: cntmticc of a hiirm^r belonging, acconlini; 
In Mr Hrniiclt, in nil probnhilily t» u yd Ubdrnvibcd 
•I"- 

«V : 

U-. ■ 

Ilt 

11 



<1> 
d- 

t). 
a. 

ill ' 

»- 

U 

p- 

lai 



faiiiilt CAincMliitlfe : ut the cli.'UBctcr oftlM) 

■ lUna; ibc biinvw, which w.'» cnly pocn at a 

.ired p!om;1v|o mcnMcalrue Chnr/iitlu. The 

L-ili, iHrtvtwr, ulnwtvi-^ Mr lle^tni;'!, aoccntlin;; 

■, bclonK '0 '111' t\ii-iVrf<r, wilb iiinmj of the 

of which do Ibcr nllocfrlber agree, although 

: L Bwal Iitaily to At'(''«A''r. : 

i combnUsby t-lfttini? that Dr. Mwn'* Dtn- 

• i!t hi* (Mr. Bennetl'd) Orttrlnn 'CHminffii, 

March, lb3i; and ho obMrvc* Ihat Molin*'* 

1 hi* Sfiufn.t iJ^gui didcrcd no f^caUy ft»m 

. rm nbirh Mr. Bcnn*ll'a d^MTiplion -ra* lakcn, 

r;> IJ^in^ in the trardon at iho Roj^tni's I*nrk, 

l^;}J, ihiit h^ hoitntod to t\tiala that nimc 

. iddifi^ that h« i* 111)1 iiuilc mu« wlnilher Dr. 

iTt liii a\rn knowlmlt^o or (HI Moiiiui'K authu- 

1 Dr. M^yeir-il nniinal i* called ItfguM by the 

If ilic fonni-r. iho ijiion)rn, lio roinark^ 



caa bv of course ni> longer doiiblfid. 

Aa dBl» Brv of r«n4C4)UPnr« in nn inn-slvitBllon of thii 
tutnrv, lb« nilliiwini; note \o Mr. Bciinell's paper on t-agottt 
fmBip^ i« ipven:— ' Dr. Mi-jvn'i |m|«i>r w« rotnTiiimtcaled 



lo lite ItiijierinI Academy in Marrh, 1633; inino im msf 
uiuniiMictl 111 lliu ZiKi]nKi<'Jil Si>riRly in May of the aumt 
year. But (he ^ntu fMgtrtit had boeil choiactcriKcd bf 
IIK-, so&r aN it* o.\l<rmal cboroclcn eould be aaceriainad 
ilvin llitt litiii^ Mpwimctt. at a meeting of tbc Coiaraitleo 
of ScieiK-o and Corrctpondeucv, in June. IMS ; and tho 
naiD'i then Kivon wuh afllxcd. throughout tito life of Iho 
iuiiina.1, tv th.e cogo in whiuh tliv Society's oaioal vnta 
hupl.' 

CHINESE ARCHITECTURE. Tl.e architecture of 
lliv Chiimo may be ron»idcrcd unique in its utile Their 
Ifuildliiipidiiri^ alto in t^)nalrti«liori from ihMc of Eumpe 
Biiil till) root of Asia. Tbo poculiar chumctpr of Chiimo ar- 
chitocturc i* dii^plnycd in their royal |tiiIiii;os ihcir Icinplc)^ 
bridn», triiirnphiil nrelu-s, and idiio in Ihoir haiiM« and 
sopntcUri'd. Tlit- mutcrinla ciopl<^i-d nr* wooil, of which 
tliot moat in use in thp nan-iiinn, n kind of cedar; ■tune, 
luarblc, bricks, bamboo, and i^ldxcd or ponx'loin tilos ar« 
nUo omplovfd. Tho condtmclinu of hou.'iM i« dirccterl by 
n iitiblir functionary, u-lioni wo niHy not inaptly desirnale 
a tlintrict surveyor. Kvnry onn i« i>blif>H to bwild bin 
houdc accordini^ to bin rank, and for ever}' ImutR n certain 
^izc and delaili ai'i> fixed. Tlic ordinary habitations bavo 
iJiie floor, and wo may prosuine tho hougi>« of the ram- 
man [ii'i^ple in the lown> to be erowd«it, nnd ba<llr vcnti' 
Idled, lini'o tho poliofl fom tlic neopl^ lo slcrp in ilii^ open 
air diirinif the dotf-day.o, le^l lliey should bo Etifl'ocaied. 
The botiKi'H iMllt'd hi-on, ihiil iu of many llooni. mro one« 
vers miM-'h tho fiuihioii, and wnio wure budt about 211 feet 
biga. Woodeu columns, tn pineod a« to snpport Ike roof, 
are cnmmoii, and nrtr fnmi oii;hl I'l ten diatoHcrf ill 
hetfjlii. Tliey are tl.vetl on stone or marble bn»e«, but 
)a\c no copilals; nn iirrbitnve of nrood |iiared on the tn)l 
of tlivm runt ihruu^h the wall of Ihe linwo, and a bMin 
which i> oarried through the uppj^r pare of the roliimii, 
nttd passes through tbo wall aho. is eunncctetl nitli thfl 
architrave on tho oui*id« of ibe boww, 'J'ho roufs, whieli 
are Klinhtly cDii-tlmrted of bamboo, are otXen double, and 
reiemble one roofrisinB! out of the oIIkt: they turn up nt 
the eiiTr^ at the aiiiile^ of wliirli are hiiiig i^oIci«|Ue 
flgiirett of dragon", &c. The column* and lieiima tire oRen 
made of procioiu wood* and arc inlaid with ivory, copper, 
and mother'O&peBr). Not the leant singular appearanca 
in a Chineno hoUKo is tbo dour, whifli in ofleii a eoinploto 
f:irrlu: the vtiidow iVanien and .^a9l)(.■H urc foriiied of kmall 
ponnel^ of vnritiu* forcDfi roouldcd out of clav, and neatly 
joitieil toi^ethiT. Tlie hiUx of diiort Br<^ of aluiie. Tlio 
uood of the nan-inon banid to laiAt more than n thou&nnit 
yean. Stone and marble, ihougli in abundint^e, arc mor» 
rurely u.-red tliuii wood. brii:Kaiul tile. Tlio palneca of ilia 
kin^ are built on Ur^nia&!«n of alubaitteriisafoandalian, 
Tho pDliicoof i'rkiti i» on nn immmne sealc, 221^ feet by 
3'2.').V feet, ll IS .tpokcn of by the uininioiiuneti ua preveiit- 
ini; a very im|tun)ni( a|ipcantnc«. The palace, which ia 
divided into a number of ctrurt?. is comnosed of towers 
l^llerics, porticos, halN, and immense l>uildin(^i caeli 
rourt is more fupcrb than tin; oUicr aa yiis approach 
low^rdt the Innt rourt. the residence of the km;;, whioh is 
tho richuHt of all. In i'ckin, and in the envuuno, Ibeni 
ore said lo be lO.OtiO t^mplej.; iho-n wbtch are wilbin 
tho n-allx of tho palace are beautiful, and some are magni- 
ficent. 

Alrdust nil the t«miilo« dilTcr in their idan. That of 
lIonnnK presents n* you enter, first, a very exteskivo eourt 
u ith ihrct' rov* of trees which lead to an open vastibnlv, 
the ancent to which i» by a step; tbia vestibnle teftda lo 
another, In which are four ooIohmiI seated Bguroa, tbrmed 
ofotueeo; ihit !a*l veilibule leads into another groat 
eourt lurroundM nith colonnAilns and raoma behind them 
for the prieUs. Tho eourl rontaina llao* »quare toroplea, 
oi]uidi«tanl. and ^et upon a plmth along Ihe centre of ili« 
court; thoj' are two stories hiffh, nnd fium>tindeil with 
columns bolh above and Iwlow, and (lllud with idola. The 
nriexlK perfiinn their reliipous eeremonlee in these build- 
infpi. At the four p«rnors of tliD court ar" other smaller 
mid MHnewhnt Kimdar Mlijlee^ but without eoliinms. in 
whicli the eliitff pricsta reside. Under the mlonnades siul 
betnven Ihe nxraos of the onllnarv prieaU. there ate finir 
ohambers ooctipied by idoU. Two amaller rourta aro 
^BCcdonenehsidenfUieeentro of the large court; iheso 
ue surrounded by the liitehan*. refectory-, and hospilals- 
all tho buildinga are eo\'ered with green vnrnUbed 
tilva. 



CniE PEN 



IfM^PL' 



OI'.EDli 



C H I 



flO 



C H I 




The ln*0« which «• call pnjtorka «ro very common 
in Chifo. Ttio miixT colrbraUril is at Ntuikin, anil is com- 
tit'inli' raWvA [In? rormlnin Tawrr. Tlie pUii U aclai^oniil. 
*ilU a dBinelpr of 411 fronch feet, each fac« beintc IS 
Krenoh fwl wiiln ; it ban nine sioric*- Thcw nre diWts 
tif rouit'l. Miuarw. am] liexaf^onnl fitmiti, liuill of Htone, brirk, 
ponwluin. and wood; Mich ularj has n roof and an elabo- 
riLle iNilcoDjr lailiiii;; al Ibe bh^Il's nf llt« roof bed* ait 
hiin^. Tbi; puj^uda at Kew i» n poiir rrprt-nuiitalion nf s 
pue<Kla, having nrithrr tbo colours nnr nrillnnt Aecurs- 
mnoDs of Ilia Chtiiiae. It «u biiilt by Sii William 
ChamlMira. 

Triutnplial arrhef. errctcil lo the lionour of woinun a* 
veil as tnem, nru vrry miiiinoii ; and tbcre ia a greal 
TDKc for tlinn in China. In tbo smoltcT lovni thoy are 
liuilt uf wiMxI. and tho « orkinnnfihip "f uttiay in rery 
roane- At Miiiii-po tbi: Iriuiiipbal arcbm liavu ihnw 
Knlvs, Inx) Miiall und one InrKC iho lart^cr dho being in 
ilu! ocjttre. The doar-poetc nrc of ^tcinn. The cntablniurc 
COQSBts of thm or four Ikns, and (be archilrnvu is mui:- 
tied and Icnoncd. nllliouah it is of 6lone. Mouldinc^ 
nr« widoin ti^ in Ifaew laces, except in (lie highest i>r 
the hi);biHl hut one ; injilcnd of a «>rwi«i ibt-ro i* a pro- 
JMling roof which ltovius ibo nh*lo. ITic omnmcni* of 
MiRK- tif lluru! arches eonsist of men, bir<lt, and tlown, 
and tbo KTonnd u «ul uwny tu thai Iho dar-h^hl i* 
MHjn hohiiid : tho ihpfo opfnini!;" aro also arphod. Mort 
i9wni httvu oXloosivQ walls, hit;h enoufib To hide the build- 
in%n, pxocpt Ibe pitfrodaa or tov^n, and vride foongh Ia 
ride on hontrfwck. The walls of fekin, wWiPb ar* Inult of 
hni'k. aro •Ij fA't 6 inohrs hieh, and they lute xniall 
(.qunru towiT* al ti'ety ■2l»i feet. In some plaws ihcro an? 
Iodic indtncd plani'a fut the ca\-aln' lo nsrcnd. Thp iMilnfj^d 
<T»iilloof Ti^D-sinn-foo, rI ihv cnntitipncft of iho Pi-i-bo and 
K»-Jio riv*TB, is of a u|UBr« fortn *nd built of ^lal^-t^o- 
loured brlf^lu; tho walls aio rampvd ur im-lim-d innonbi : 
thabaument isofatamhand the (!nlmiire.wlui-li i« arrbud 
laith ttOfiM. in at aame height from the ^ound. with a 
nquare window cm each sido. Tlio Uiji uf ilii' riutlu htu 
iMtDcnienls, and huluw ihom ti o lursi- turus-muuldint; on 
■ i*t(d with tho Imnco: Juit aborg Ibe lonis are unall 
jwniKittulur un'lies lo let ttw rain ran nfT the tvrr.ioe. TI)b 
parapeta b«twu«i| Ihv haUtuniHiits an? Mich pimrct-d with Ino 
»mill lioles, and a small |;iianl-houf« wiih the riKif having 
tbo usnal lurned-up eartis is huitl on lh« top of the tor- 
raua- 

Tlie ChincM rambh their Htlumns. tviloiu Iheir roofi, 
nnd piaster tlwir walb with sla-ned HuhBtannns of (inlliaiit 
i-olounL OrftaioenlB in China Jiri< linln nttm than incic 
lUl cutting out. likv llw'! Wed rndnurk ul' Iheir balconioa. 
Thu Cbinew ronl's, wbiL-b foe their lunu nn: unique, u» 
roniMcrBd by wroe to liave bran dcriTed from ihn tenia of 
this pmpta in tfaair noraadio otaie. 

Tlw tombs and montnni-iits of China eiilubtt a variety of 
imldlCClUTal designs, uflrn letrmbling the foinilia? ft>rtn« nf 
llwir tiiniding.i: ntcn Ibu diiul lit niof ia varvcd nn nomo 
nuuMih-uini. Tlic common people have only n cuno of 
curlh wilb irocs on thi^ «UDiniii, not unlike the hninws in 
AVdInliiic. 8ovRral fninn of tmnli* an! i(ttun In Alc\an- 
dur't ' CosUune uf CliinA.' Tlio fonnii are round, Hjuare. 
hem^nnl, aud o(.■tl^^ll■l, and tho £>nii of tha ovffin is also 
iinirainl. 

ChiiiL-.-ii areliite«tura dms not appear to Ira fliatukid <in 
the lie>i prinrii'tes. As in ttU somiuBtbaroaa nations, ont- 
wnid iOfuvr is IIm erant objoct. and thus tho brit^htest cv 
iftutvd Iiuuflcs BM IliOti^bt the naott bcauUfuI. 

for a fccuotal account of Chinese bridf;». aoo DniDOB ; 
and for the Great Wsll mil- Cnina, p. 74. (Ak«and«r's 
Cvtiume of China, nnd his dnwinic* in the muHeiin) of 
thv East India Ilouie: Sir William ObaroWn'-* Ar<-hilve- 
ture; }i C"«tuine Atttico t .WwfrrifX pluti.-*; Ibo Bnrf- 
(iapf.ti- Meih"'liau* f^^f^^a,\ni a vorv lona; srlitloon China.> 

CIIINGLEPUT. n inict of wjunlrj- rirmintf part of tfc« 
^nts obtained bv the East India Company m ITM and 
i;s3. from tlw NnW) nf Arcol, and known in the unnati 
i>ri|»o Indian pivemmont as iho Compnuv'itJu^htre. Thii 
iraet is bounded on ibe N. by Nellore district; on tho W. 
by the distriels of northern and southern Arcot: on the 
8. by the aotitbwn division of Airot; nnd on Ihp li. by the 
bay of Ben^l ; it Ihcretbiv fbntis |eirt of Iha nrarince 
of ib« Ctornatie. and ia included in tbe prcoideBcy of 
Hadrat 

Hie Mil of (ho Chingleput disthcl \* generally nod. ; da* 



tachei rorkt of |;p^nite are contionally net with in ihs 
Aolds, and inlcrfeFcwilh the processes of cultivation. TOb 
distrirl whs inv-aclcil by I]>-dcr All in I7C^ and 171*0 ; in iho 
latter of iheM: iavH>iuiiit lh« i-mininr was so laraged ilnt 
many pans were wholly di^pulaica. and for some yean 
after presented to tho view of iliu tntrcller onlv Ihc ruim 
of liouMwand IcmpltM, ond the hone* of peofle wlio kal 
been massacred. Shortly after this invaaioii (be inW 
bitsnta of Ihc less dcsnluted parts irxpcrienecd a finaioe 
whirh raiu«d wi cwuidi-mbla nn eniivraiinfi lliat nnrly 
the whole rounlry waa deeeriwl. la 1 >9-) the district *a 
formed into a collcclorala under Mr. I'lacc. and a l^radual 
improvement took p^l(■l^ n> ibat in \^X arcoriiac h 
rctuma made hy the collcnlar to Iho Nbdrss Km'«rrit»eiii, 
ihe population amounted lo 363,139 pGraona. of wbnn 
10n,243 were malrs and l*'2,HcfS femalca. Tlic |innnpal 
liiwns in the eolVt-ionto are Chin itleput and Coiuocnn. 
Chiii!;teput is situated in VV ^6' N. laU and SO^ S* B. Ion, 
on u slioiim whirh at a short dbtanrc w<»l fh>m tbo t«va 
tiilU into ihv ?uluur. Tho lown i>. dulaat 3i niUts S.a.W. 
fnnn Madrax ; it ia ine^ularly built, and the hoinm ar« -4 
mean appcsrnnce. The fort ts of conridcmble exietit, lad 
h« biMu uf^nml strviigtli; vf late years it has hvca A 
loved to p> iulo decay, and is corrisoDcd Ky « few iii>«|ijh 
In 1751 it vms taken by tha FVonch under l>uplci\, onl 
in Iho (bUowing vx)ar wnsrcloken by a xinall dtftacbiiKal 
under eaptain, aficrwards lord Clive. 

Coiiinvcrnio, eallcd by tho rnlivcs Kunji, is *iii. 
a fcrtile volley w>1fr*<l bv the small nver \V<- 
in I i" .IB* N. lal.. and 79'' JB' E. lone. Tlie town »> bwll 
in a #tra)5^Hiie[ Tnanncr, and resembles o wriM of »<J- 
lai^es inieiHpi>r«ed wilb exiensive gardeus and plnntaiutw. 
The street^ whir-h are wide and re^laiiy layi out, an- 
plniiled on enrh m\m with cwoa-nul trws aud bawlv^l 
podars. The hmiitos are nnlv one story hi^b; ihc^ hflvwaiMl 
Willis and are rooifefl wiih lile^. Ewh house is Will in Ibe 
farm of a eqimru, uith a °.m.i11 rouri in Ihe eenlr*. Tk« 
builihnirs extend I'lir bulweon Ave ami m mflea ; rowid 
iho whole is a hedfi« of Ihe Aiipve Atnericana. wbleh bai 
hi-uu found iKv-rnl iii, s defonve iiKainsl invgulartrooips. A 
(wnuderalile pari of llio inhnhiiiiiilK are wmven^ niid en- 
ploy themselves in makint; red bandkerchieCi. lurbnns, and 
eliilhs ndnpled fur the dremea of the natives. Conjct'LTBia 
la ului tbe fi'sidfiimt of niimorou* Hmhinins lieloiigilig to 
templea ilaliialed lo Siva and Vishnu, v. Iiieh arc miKfa 
frwiuentod. Itio |Ut:^la of Siva is a lan.'c huildiui: «aid is 
(xMiiain lODO pillars, many of thorn olnbonli'ly sculpland. 
The |ia^a dedicuted lu Vi*hnu (^>njve is itol »al>«{(e, 
but is more hiijhly veueralcd. It wa I'lom ihis buiUm^ 
that like town obinined ifs nameof Cottjevt'mm. Thereare 
many other piigndas, dudieated lo variDUs BiahminlnJ 
delltea. I'hore arolarye lanki near lo ihe difl'ei«nl pa- 
podas : fbr uno of lhe«e, lyine nn the Wnl i>ide of Ibe gnsl 
pa^fHln, it is said ihegiwli ndhreied water trum lla«« tai- 
lions of rivers. Y.\ery Brahmin who visits the pines let lite 
nr»1 lime must perform bis iiblutions in ibis Innk, and 
spend mtiney in i-hnrity; the sums ibu* tailed ln-iniC in 
faei n]>plinl lu iliv sup|iurt of tbo Bmhmiiiii belun^tiig lo 
Ihc temple. 

(Mill's /fiV/ory ^ Bnlinh India: BuFlianaii'a JaurMty 
thrau-ih Myaon. C'tttmi. "wf jl/fifc»&ic .- Heyne's ftitt*- 
riral and Statistical TracU on India ; Rrpr/rt qf CoiHniltet 
flfCimmont on A/Tairt of India It (J.) 

CHIO'NRA (Ualnianl, a k«i-"3 of Oiplurou^ iniccia bc- 
loni^int; to the Kelion Tiptii^ritt lerriotre. 

Only one ^H-ries in yet diwoveml uf llits i^nuik bul this 
b n-markable bulh in iUi tilructuro nnd habits. It b las* 
than half an ineh in length : (he head ia of a brawtibk- 
j«l)ow oolour ; thvllwraxand abdomen arc asby-bnnin 1 
Ihc laller is of an ovul form and rather hairy ; tbo l«p an 
very long, rather thick and covered wiib bains out unlike 
tbo Wn uf a BpiduT, and ofa yellowish colour. It is pcf 
feellv dealilute of witig». and is found npon tho snuw in Ibo 
wooiL of Swodon throughout tho winWr. Tlie ffenortc 
ehaneler» are : — Body apterous ; juinli of the palpt uoarly 
equal: antennte letacoous, Icn-joinlod, and oovered wilfi 
fino hairs at Ihe extremity ; the abdomen of the mule i*f 
minated by n fbreicp-liko appundoze oootpuswl of Iwn 
hoTtsontal jointed proee^et, and that of the Itmala i* 
Icrminutod by ■ boring inMruraeni, or ovipositor, con- 
sitting of IwA vslviilast nlairod one unon tho otbor, of 
wbieh thu upper one b tne longer, aiiu romposvd of |wo 
plutei. 





TJ^a turnintt to lli« i>Ttu-li! BoRitr«, il will bo found tlul 
ibvTv is an^llicr iniKcl which, (hi>UK)> i' teloD^ l<j a (liT- 
ItrVQt «ri!«r iNfunmlera), wwiiililca ihU fepiTci^* in iU 
hai>il»i]f npjic«ring aurina; the winter, atid eriwIiRf; ii|>c>n 
"" MOW, u wvl) a« in bcinf; ii{it«r<nu, ■ chanctor vhit!)) 
ntt vwiimnce in eithor tribe. 
iOK, r«tled by tl>c inodorn Gr«ckE, Khio, anci t>y the 
lulikftB, Sfia, i> an island of Axiattc Gtimes, nemr tht W. 
4VMAt u/ Aaia Minor. ]| facet tho peninsuUi of Clae^- 
ntpiin wl ETylhrop, which ia rormed hj the ^If of 
Smyrnn ikii titn N-, and ihot of !yain<M on thn S- Clu>i« 
hit* at t!i<<fiitRinn.'Afthi'G(iir of Smyrna, mid is e.c-paraW 
Iruu llie main land by a (channel ahoul 8 miles wide. lis 
Uitffth rrooi N. to 8. is »bout 31) milos, and lU grr-aliriit 

Kth aliout 10. It is raiiuntainoui, vKUi'cialtv in tlic N. 
ttw principal autDinLi uf vhic)), called Mount P^li- 
«UuUto of a Ioue; line of bar« roclLs. Simbo 
nud 400 stadia frtmt tint N. uktrami^ ot Chios u> the 
Bi'arcMt puiiit of rx>sbo4. Tite oldest t»Uun. nccurdmff hi 
Iinitilion oiuNi currpiit in liii> idand. wrrc Pflasn uoin 
Tticiudv. C!m(k was iil^t-tn'iiriU vnv i>f llic toHvu Ionian 
•Utios luundad hy the Kumiwan outunijits ttvm Gneai; 
th» population thalseulMl Ifac'ro was tuil puiv Icniau. hut 
■iud. (HUab. A33. Ilrrod. i, I4i.) Thi:> ilmlvct nt'tlw 
bkkbUlDls b said 1^ Herudntus to \\a\ti hmm Ihu saint! 
•itlwt nf tlw people of Biytbrw. In tlti> ^rvat iwa-flj^ht 
batwavn Ihu Ionian Gmtks aud thu IVniaii». (b.c. •19-1) i 
illiah Kwulted in tin! entire drfeat ur thi; Grvekn, ihv 
of Chios furnisluMl 100 khipa, and fought hratt-Ir. 
IJk! hitlth' lh« IVtstans took poascHion or iIk- islaDO, , 
su(ri>rt:d in iwarly the aaina way that it tiu nj^ain 
mL in our own tinio: llie lilics and l<.-mi>h-> wi-nj 
irnti and all ilw liandM>inc youug tl'nial(-« cnrrit-d off. 
Hw principal towns of ihc islniid in antirnt times were 
Piffiidium. Phanc. whidi luid a eouA port and a 
uT A(>olla Notiutu, EUctu. and L«u<-oniuiu. loii. 
.•lir writer, lh<! hisliiriaii T^ieapuinpiii, aud tho 
Theutritus, wtre tLQiivts of this isluiiil. Cliim was 
of llic ploroa thai claimed Homer as Q native. 
iIm cliMti uf lite IVrsioii war, h.u. -ll«U, the i»lnnd 
jMMfld succssaiv(.dy under iIk dmnitiiiin (if ihu Athi-ninns, 
tbft IfaBKlooiaiis. Hhj Koinan&, and iIm: Uyxanlincs. Tiat 
'QvastSH Uxk it in laifi, and it n.u ({"vcrood ft>r a long 
4Im«br rho Genoese fiuiiily uf Otustiiuuni. Scilyntan tlio 
tirnat iDi>k It in ljfi<i. In 1694 it woa lokcn hy tliir Veiui- 
liaMh bill wu f wn «ner rt-(akrn hy^ the Turks, by nhom it 
Vu tn-oM-d w ith exjirrial favtiur, hning allotted aa s kiitil of 
dowry tu the Kultunu luutbcr, who sent her otRtwra to eol- 
Jtd Ibe mutte sum whieh is found in i^ri'st ahundiuioe in 
8. tls»tric4 or llw island, tmd which constitutes n ralu- 
jionilltiditr, bciu^ much uMxl ol Constant inoplo, and 
" Ijrby llw lathtt ofibc scraflKi for ebcwin^. Under 
ccltMi of the Sultana raolher, tlic people uf Chioc 
V fr>ui ilic >rxutiuni of the paalias and other orhi- 

. , chiwRi ; tiivv hail ll>eir own laat^U rales, oikI lived in 

^Miapl<Mi\« (nvdom and M-ctinty. Tbo inland aecordiiiicly 
fr<«f«r«>l. at)>l Tountefurt, Ur. Cbuuller, Olivier, and 
Mlier Irssellt^ri, agree in reprwentinfc it os a ganUii inlia- 
~ ~ by a b^Pfy people. It* inhahitonls uui<,>untivl to 
h«a |l)<i,miti, of whom AL-arl) .lU.OOl) MwA at Khio, 
ilal, ■ hat>'l-'iiii« town htiitl in the iloliaQ f^tylr, with 
rssllo niiiedhir the Ownoese, on Ihe K. ouort of lliouland. 
JMu (s al tbo fool orPdinsus, andoncupici thesiteof the 
tomi of Chios. It had a eoUoga with fourleon pr.>- 
in which bclveeii'llMBnd flUO youths iif ttm vsnouii 
iKlaeds reiMMred their ^daentton, o printing>otfMv 
(Cnrtl libntrr. Tlte Ntabliahmeiit wa^ supported hy 
eontribiitionit of the (Jhioio roerrhsots, tniajr « 

• wvalthy, and rsmiid on an viutaslra eouumn:* 

l^ludr ood other rountriet. 
> OmMflw apenks with rsjttiire of Um beudr and the bim- 
Mnpare4^1 mannfrs ofiho ynunc fenaW of Chni^ uiiho 
pHM nfhia vi>iit. When tho OnoK insurrertiun hrok« out. 
ifcvCbi'ile*, u pevrefiil nee. and for Ooni llu! Ih^alre of 
'*«r, rvinaiiied qvier. until a portr nf lurUibnt Samiotn 
and mhee Grraks from Candin, Imlf partisans, half pirates, 
landMl upnn Ihn isbnd in 1BS!i, and eveileil or rtlbcr 
" the t'"2[''*' *" i"'"* ''*" insurreetion, 'ITio sL'qiicl is 
nwn. The capodan pasha c«mv nnlh a tsri^ fume. 
ti oscopen by sua. Ihi.' prior Chtotcs made hardly 
unw, but «Mvo alaugtuored hy ttwusands, their 
chiUrvn «n» carried away and sold >s daws 
vu burnt. Atr»'eller whoTisitcd tbe idanil 




in 1829 d«i!erilHM |}w) tiicliincholt' appearance orthotoneo 
thritmi( and bt'uutU'ul plocv. *We walked thioui;h lotut 
slrwvt« that rt>i'itniri<id niilhiny hut (he raj^ged sk<--letons or 
houses, nnd heaps at I'nllen nissunry ; (Trai*, WLvds. and 
nettles wert! nwiuir in tluj orcvicei of Ltie nmrblo halls, 
in tho ruined chuTcrie», in the hut lately iusy tUevts; 
and to ^vo an idea of the utti^r ileiulatiou uf ihi* «nee 
populous luicn. we iitarled a eovcy a( nnrlndces in the 
Stradadei primati, or principal AtrM't. In ihu i^wn and 
Lho viU^DS of tbc tslaiid then tniro at that mamenl alniut 
I&,000 Grcelu who bud escaped from the iJau^htiM' sud Iwd 
rL-turnfrd under the u^durauco of protectiuii of tho now 
PaJia Jussuf. the seuniy rvmnant of a population of 
ILill,(i()0.' (Macfar bile's C'oMttanlitti/pIa in |8^».) 
' Till! V inc of Cliiojt is ecl«brati>d na amonjj the host in the 
Ix'V'ani, and in had the same reputation m iliu liran of 
Siriljii. The i>.luiiJ ]iriidu«'s itU'.i mi inn ond silk, hi^s.dt^ 
tVuit in nhuixlann-. A fircut number uf innte purtri'lt^M 
are lirtdon the island. Marble quarries aro-unnliunidhy 
Sirabo ai beiii)r w.-irkiid ; ami Clundler spuaka of a luurhle 
ijuEirn* m'ar iln' town uf Khm. 

CIllPl'KNIIAM. a [rtinili. parlianientai\', mid tnuuiw- 

Iial boruu^ and market lonn, in th« hundred of Cluppt.-»- 
aiu, Will&hiiv, on llw Bristol Avuu. fb miles uest li\im 
Lutiiluii. TIm purisli eunlains uhuut 6900 ocm, hutn^ up- 
wards uf six miles in length from vast to west, and larying in 
^ipadlti from one to two nitl>>%. The parliameu tsiry horouifli, 
whitrh rvtunis two nu.-niUci», vr-.i> cxtcniled utidi-r liu.' Itv- 
funo Aet. and indudes ihu uarisbes of Chippenhoni. II inluu- 
huisti. and Langley ButraO, and an exini-|i[U'octti:il disirict 
U'hich was fLinnerly ttiu forest of Chi|ipetiliaiu. Tlie piipu- 
lalion uf iIm^^ jiamh in IBitl una 3«UC ; inlS31.4inJ: of 
the eticiided boroujfh, in IMI, yj7u. Tlie popidntiou of 
till! tiiwn is enUiimlL'd at alioul 1*0U. TJiider the 0>*tN>ni- 
lioiRi lt«fi>nn Act, ihi^ municipal borouirb baa four aldennvo 
and twelve cuuiiciUors, hut is not divided into wards. 

Cliippenhaui is an anriiinl tu«n,hut it vas mil inrarpo- 
raied till the nbixu of Maiy. Its name is derived frmn il« 
tnarkei. for which il lias boeiL long Dtmoiis. Tlie Avuu is 
not nuvif;uti1u fur wvend inil«» hcluw Chii>pL-nhani ; but 
nbratii'h uf the Wills and Berks caiiid ia hruiulit luiu ifac 
town train a distance of about two miles, by whieli a cun- 
■idrniblo trade, piinrjpully in eoola. n cuiicd on. A if real 
IralGc also arisM IVam the town lyin^ on the L>iii(Ion and 
Bristol and Hotii rood. The icrvui m-ntvrn railuiiy wdl ixua 
williia a quarter of u mile of tbc morkel-jIiKc. 

Tlw oiarknt boa ncvntij been changed frvui Saturday to 
Friday, and a hondaoaui buildinic, ualkd tlie Markol-Huuae, 
(oi er which is an extensive room, used for puMic meelini^), 
has bocii erected by Joseph Nvetd, Est)., at pn-Mtnt ilf-tC) 
one of tlia UMiubera fur tliKLorxu^h. Tliervisa uiniilhly 
market for ttw wdeofcallK- ond ehecsc: four annual fuijs. 
fur cattle and iiursc«, are a\»t> held ; and duriujj llw prcseui 
yoai ( 1 aim fl uel Gsirs have been e^iaUishetl. 

Ttie li/wti Ilea rvmnlly bveu lij^hlvl viiili j{iu and paved, 
under an Acl obtoiniMl in 163-1. With the o\ei-ptiou of 
Miioe very dibpidoled buildings in tlw i-ifittrL' uf Iht' town, 
the heiises are gunvraily ucU huilt, cither with frM-stone or 
bri«;li. 

lliere are two manufaetortes, one for wouUeiM, nnrl tlw 
oDivr f';r kilka, at pivM-nt al work: tlie latter is of re«<nt 
olaliluhnti-iit, hut llw lornter tuu been for many ynnti tlx 
staple fu)>riu '>f lho town: the nuinber uf inanufai-tiirMX 
in that limnrhwai fomicriy considwobla, but for si'veisl 
}<-ur« their number ,dL-(!tiiioi], attd ha» bdCP now rcduotvl to 
eni>. 

A savings' bonk vaa eslabliibod in 183:1, vhitli, on the 
SOlh of Norembcr, 1»3^, held the sura of '23,d*2W. A lil^ 
taiy and vciontiSc iusiilutiun lias rveonlly Iteen t<>t on 
too*. 

A coun of nqUMsta, for thv recovery of dehta not esrHwd- 
in( itH^ is held horv vvtrry mk weeks; itx JunMlictimi 
VXMidt over thit huiidn-ds or Chi|>|wnliani. Oiiuerluiin 
North, and Calne. Tlie bvine of Chipjienham is a vii'jrsp-. 
villi Ihe rectory orTylhurten Xueas annexed, in the gift of 
Christ Cltur^Th. Oxford. In addition lo the church, (a reno* 
rahia Gvlhio «ditoe, oliuosl in Ihe oenire of tl»« iiiwa), 
Chinpenhnm eontoins four cbapcbi, not connvrted with ilio 
vstBlilitthTnenl. 

A lind};>- ovvr tlie Avon, and certain catueways id lho 
neii^hbourhood, at» kept in repair liy ihe eorporalioti, vbo 
wtiio yean lioee widened liic lindge at u coiisiduroUu ex- 
po&M ; it is well fwivd and lij^btod. 



J 



CH t 



92 



6MP 



\>'A'9rt* BBlaRiTtrtif Hib *i!«<!ati(»n isf twdve \>atir pliflilwii. ' 
U'(wilh mhpf *hnnti«s» iiiitler lli* msna'^ment cf tlii' cur- 
paration'. the 3li|<cn(1 ullnwpil In llic mnsli-r by tin- fniiinl*- 
tinn M .W. l.S». ppr iirinutn, wiih ii rosiilciKfe. Tiiore U 
B daily and S"Tid;iy <rboo! for poor cliilflren (which ii 
well altendt'd). in ponnexiijti with rlir NntiiiiiJil Sclimi! 
Soffioty, anil then Brf nlsm Suinluv icliiiul* in t'oiinoxion 
•■villi iBn variraw dlMCTiIing din|)el*. A Iriltinc endow- 
taenl Tur a Siiti'lav &clioiil for tm inKlrurtitin nv girN in 
lite prinnpks of tin churrli of Etij^IuihI vnti l^n in lli« 
ywtr 1 '3-1, liy the Rev. Rulwrt Cock. Ticar of llio pnriih, 
»'li<», liy his wil!. gave Hw wboli^ oi' hin propcrli t« Irunln-n 
for that piirpotic. A inoiiuiinTit ti «rocuit u> liix ineinury 
ii) Dm rlia.!));*! ol' Llio churcli. Tlwra an wrprol otiicr 
i-liBriiiei. 

Soinp minerri Springs have been found in the ricinily of 
Cliipju'iilinrn. 

Tim uiilii-nt aWiey* of Sluilay anil Laftot-t are within 
tlirL-cmilrsof Ctii|>ncDliaiD: llii- fumuT it coavcrtc-il irili* 
n tnnn-boiiM. butllic liTtfrliiw fiilliHi iniu lh« haiidt uf ihi? 
Talbcit luniHf , who have prewned, and iruiilo It their fiiniily 
■cot. 

Tlie anticnt forett of Chippenlwuti an»l P«r*hnm ii iliv 
strayed, alttuiu^li tlie hitler pWe isKlill praviaiially called 
* tbe ForcaC nnd thv roads IciidinK imm it Ici the tuwti 
ntun the namo» of Wfiod Laac and TiinWr Sirix-t. 

A Hdiun. uiiilor tht- I'uor Lnw Aini'iidiiiL'nl Act, liaa 
been fomiL"! of Cl)ip{icnhDin and (uenty-ci^ht niirroundinif 
pwitliMi raiBpristni; a p»pulalinn, »rcijnhii!r to thi- riinnUH 
«f IMIi of mjai iKTbDiin. mid mi area ul' i(>,3Tl arrcit. 
{fiommttnif'tii^n from Cfiivricnham, Ha:.) 

ircnU'i>i-;\VAVs. [Cubr^.] 

...CHlHOCF.l'UALUS. IB.iAKcmoi-oox.] 
, ,CH IKON KCreS. LLorHixti.B.} 
,lft;UlKO'NOMUS. n gciiur of Uiptcroui iiuwots of the 
fotaily T'tmhda. Tliia genua vu utablixhed 1>y Metgon. 
and la priiiriixilly dihiinauished by lb« folloving charac- 
ters: — r'ourili juint of ilic |)alpu« longer llinn ili* r«r ; 
anIonniD ihirlMii-juiiitixl, in (Up nuili*, uit'l fiirntHhoil wiili 
loniz hair* : tlio nnlcnnir of )ho fmiialt! bm nix jointed, and 
tho' liaiM aro »lnj« ; tlio anlerifir l«g» mw in**rtcd at aonie 
ilixinitrc fnim iho othi-rs, and (he anturior larai aro gono- 
rally tcrv' lon^; ihi? irinip vtht^n i-lntiod lie patmllerond 
•hfiy ljnv« Ibno- posterior follii ; i)i>e body a loQ^ slender 
■lid iiairy. 

iSx. Sttipfat'nK, in h^(-ntalo:{i)o of BrilUh inttCcUt, rnumn- 
ratMupwitrdsof eii^hty K]<cri<->or(hu)^nuM: ilieyare all of 
nnall *izfi, nw(ju«ni.nianiliv ftiiiioiionj, and v^ry miioh ve- 
wnihlo iriinl<^ Th« wonn Icnnwn tn anglers by lliii itamo 
of blimij.'w-ijrm in the Inna of otip of ili« i])(*ii.>ii of llili 
g<inii>) — the ChirfmemuK plnmotug. Th.i» wona i& about 
half an inch in iL-nj^h : the twdy ronsisls of imtnurou^ 
iieL^eiitti, and [* funiivbed at tbo tuil with Mcverul apituti- 
du|ros which ronMiluto the bn*;ilbing appaniu«. |i k 
seen during the Hummer inontlt* on ibe iiiud niiiir Ibo 
cdffes afpondb and ditches; when thus >^en hovc\er It it 
only fhiftinjj fram ono ptaco to nnolhor, iin nntunil loca- 
lity being in iho Tnvd.whcrr il may (renenilly tie fuunil in 
BTCjt niitiiherK lititig fur tlie nio«l part undt.r water. Tliix 
larva isniuchiuuqht after ^nd devoured bv^iriiltiaiid flahea; 
bill diiriniif thi» laM summor ( 1S:16) wp rtinrnvored that jl 
hail a \cry furmiilublo t'lR-my in nu iiimtI of it* own order. 
A fly, which rloMrly tctembled iho house-Ilv, wai ubservod 
in Kmt ■hundunrf on the mud whu-h hmf ju*t burn left 
by the roiirins; water, and wo fuiind thi-m iiueniMed in 
little ei^ups of flicorsix, in the ore uf exlraclinic the 
bloxd-vrarwa fnjiu iht^ir hulc.-h ii>ii)g ihn prtib^n'In f>r ihU 
puq^no; but till sooner was the worm fairly ilinl[Kdj;ud than 
a batik' viifucd, for eii'rh appurcntly wuhod lo have ihe 
warm (u ilsclf; Ihotc that kvpt [^oiocMion tucked out the 
fluids froiu the wunn. 

The pupa b of a hrowniak eolour ; 1h« body it c^Hndri- 
cnh ihv head, thorax, wiiii^ and Ici^ are inilo^d in scpa- 
nite shvulh*. oiid. with the exception of the twa (brc-k-^», 
lie iit a rlow and coiii|Kict laa.'v; the foii^lrg^ ru>er(i'l 
by Ihcir hhcathst projcet ffora cath side vf the thorax. 
In lhi> as well [tfl in the lar^a Ktatc, the aniinat lives iu 
the water. Tho brcatbini; apparatus conaiita of two 
ai>|)Ondiu{c». unu vn each »ii\> ot the Ihonx, und each it 
KHnposed of live bmnchca which spritig from a coTnaiuii 
ivtitio. 

Whtn the iiuect is rWify to quit it* pupa caw. it Min» 
tfaerMuCtcv of Uu vmuik »iiii then je(iaiaaiiiu)iead«a Su 



fl6nic> llWfi tihie* i^Slli tti* aisc Sf iitStlfiJi , 

traded : thi* pan biitsls Aunn llic middlf. atiil tliij i^i 
whii'h is linir}*,niid iiomo ilm's iM\ oaiiily wtft, {dace's ii« Ihrt 
ii|mn the luriin-f of the wator, whtre it flualu <if the v«> 
tberbm calm) with iHo grtttoslsafirtr. We observed, upoa 
tiikiiitronn u|<oi) mti fiiigpr. lint the win g^ an; at Bm 
upuiivif !vnJ wtule, and (1H»4 witli a fluid : hiit in n minaJc 
this Iluid was eipellod. and tin" aide* uf the vrinj^i cut- 
lapsed and bcranif tmmipnreni. Hib fluid thus ejected n 
pem'ivrd on our flnjjer beneath the iiis>»:l. but fouM vol 
o-M.'erInvn (htm what part of thti wing or body it inade iti 
escape. 

TtiR prrA'cl in«n:t !;« of ajinletAb colour, and is a littlt 
larger than Ihe eumiiion gnat, which it nesenbles. Thit, 
QA well ail olhcn of (he g«niis. is remarkable (br its balK 
of carrying iho two furc-leen in a horiionlal poution ; lixj 

iimject in front, and luigbt be miatakon for nnlennir ; tb(M 
alter or;>aiit hllwo^*c^ ate very bnvuliflil. and in (be mala 
rr3cml)lclitlc plumes. 

CHrnOTKS, a i^enua of Suiiriani aeparalcd by 0». 
vier, and. aeeordiui^ to him. roseiiililiii!; the Chalrvirt 
in thoir verticillatsil scaleu. and ijin AmpAUbamie »till 
niorr, in thcobluse form of their bcaidi but distiiuiutafaeil 
from the flwi by their want of pmlol^or feel, and tnm 
the laiit by their iKisecMion uf nntOlpor limbs. The 
Nimc author adds, in nolo to iho list vditioii at the 
' lif^gtw Ariima!,' lliat the ^'encn whirh tcniiinalc tli* 
order of Saurian.') am iiilerpo«cd in ^ariou» nutnnen 
liKlwccn Ihcordiniiry Snurianaand iIk- i^eiKra wltielt am 
pinrud at the head uf the urdcr Uiihidiani to euch ■ poiltl. 
that many natuculiata arg new uf opinivd that the Iw 
orders oui^ht nu LnKcrlnbo icpumled, ur ralht^r thai oat 
ordvr ahutild be (.■ntubliahedtCOtuprihin^on tho unu pari Ibt 
Saurinnit, with lliv CMxplion of llie OncQiiilid(w, and vs 
the other thcOphidiani of tlif&inijy JlU^wiW/r ; but Iwob- 
MT^cs that there e\isl, ainun^ the (•.tMil (urmsof iheanlieni 
calcun-i'us bods, two ^ory exttnordiiinri,' tfi-m-ru (Irhthyo- 
tuurut and ricsiotaurus), whieh. wiih ihe hea^ 
uf a Smirian, liuvc fc<.-( alluehcd lo short Ihnbtr a 
Af » inulliltido ufiituall artienlntinnsri^njoined Ad (CT 
ft kind of paddli! or fin,liV* the nuierior paddle* at 
of Tihales. rhose ouethl, he nddii, to furm a verj- " 
forudy. In their osleidnijy th'-y nppronch \ht Stidt 
properly so culled, much ""lienror (ban the i-m.-.i'III.--!,' 
wlmch FiKrinjpir aMoriste* thetn in hi? f 
Ihouglt in iho foMd* there i« no trace vithi- 
the inncvte, tho two part* o» which the cliaraetji|ni i 
Lnnrafa Wat. 

These Bimnnoue rcplflca, eu Cuvier lemT? ' ' 
necordini; to him, hnt ono ^peni^^ which 
Me\ieii. ThisKlho ifimanfrftnifli' (f'^'i 
of Cm ier, BipMa eanneii of Lac( jm}'! 
put of Schneider, and Laesrta liimftrifi.s-- 
animal Iiilk two Khorl fwt with four tur* vn ' 
veitige of a fillhl anflleienlly organiied intc 
tarhod by lut-anaof rciyju/tf.r/flwW** audn • 
but thi! fiuoil, lliu v(•rt(>1>m^ and, \n ihon. 
the nUeletun reseiahle ilint of the AitipAuln/.- 

Chirotet fanoJicuUilui is about the^iij' ii 
finifer, nnd Irom right to ten incW* l-: 
a fle»l I- colour nnd covered with flhoiii .. 
the back, and as many under the hclh, vhu-): 
ulirmiiiLiig. on the side. Tlie longuo i4 mir Imh 
and it ifrmiiiuled by two fciaall horny pc-int- 
^■cry minute. The tjinpanum b covered vi i 
viaible extemaHv. AiKirc lh« vetlt ate iwu i\"' 




VU 111) 



-f- 



•r««47j 



* Ultcntilnni^iita ■rticn on IhrniMni •tilcli tUi nntinkV 1, 
»»i|iFn.llil(il*vlf at itir>urr>»'iri)» «»(** *UMniil v^Unn. IU*|f 
Tilv krtlBf inp|MW<1 (>bP ci"l" ^h^Dv^m- 

MrtiiL Utrli) (dI liiciiir Atrx'urt Ini Ii hf > kiml </ jfreptlt-tf |w*4i 
which llic ccDlIc antic lliDTLt pn""'"- ""'' ■■n'" *^^' 1^* J^ll ttuj iMt 

tnlnidsl aiulilTiliit.tht nam-llannrili* mrin ilw riir piriteaifUM it>M«, 
■uHlnlliil lo «M]|Tflln* IIh b1I().I ai Ifr'Tnai talll* alimac grOVilf Vl***a > 
llir aglnjil tnd ilic (liniiiui^ li.il ii i> furihct imIdiI llnl if* dmnor wiikr 
(atl ufainlh«fnt*rlilllili llmtltuilUinaiiHlU'aly liBk. ' " '' '' < 

M« lia<«hp[>l I In lo Inn-ell In n il»« )-ir F>i Vn parpor "' ->■— - ■• — 

itnlikU, sibl ar* t*'^ n.i^h itif-linKi EDrtau^.l tlial It' t|" 

iiinnlliib rraiB impa in tin- iis^iKiidat*. IuiIbrI ct ihli Uu.. .. ..ri- ■• — - — 

•« a|>jptiiiu-(ii'.! ilii- jar, iH-iife n rlic (ii|i, ihry luiiviDttfl) flM*irfi^«iI W"» 
(|ii1i;k il|»g ni.>F*iB»il unhv Ii(>Jt^ bill «rDD«arr*KiiialB«^uUi IM afa* 
OieiilUin (■■••ilallinoili.itiaiiJ ivH W llit >iai-:M< •«■''<'- ^'* tWitlB* llM' I 
k( tkli tin* tilt uiIbuI *UIDn hiiiiu( iiKnn« faiVmlty rtltvatafiri nm BB 

piiiw tniP. Itioipac"**!*!*" ll" tinit Nlt~' -111. »■• ■'.-i' •>— Ml.. 

•ulBcifal Iu ui«m>inc lliFilJIbiTiiwor ti ■ 

•rUwilnoiiiMoaticirtwni wiitn«ntiiu,~;i.i r — •..- -.— lui- -—t. 



<^^h 



93 



CHI) 



\ 



Cdvicr mt llial Itw only Jetecleil one larffe lunf( nnd The [ out rery ktarfy an nl] Bid**. ft»l ov»I, tmj t»tuX\. Btvd 
vcittigc of n •mall emu, lU ia ilio inajorily of tcr]H.'HljL Ntiircvl/ ilsdnct; iin» f^a/acitJ^, liiddun mu'Iw ilictJiiLjil, uf 




[CtlMlH MlwII'UUIol.t 

'CfllfHUR, n g.nius of fl«h«A of the ucti<iii ^«i»/Ao- 
j^fryfpi, nad fniiul<r GnhioitUt. Tha apccJes of tliiH )!;«n»i 
hnvo ihe l»>d>' oonii.k-rebtr cloiie&t«1, furniOitxl with 
' ■ ■•■•'] wBU>fi. inJ. iho inouin not dwiply i-loft ; tlie tvolli 
1 Qiiil rotiii*«l, liiil Itio inriHt rftrnftrknlilc'eharaclor 
- - III ibo Ikvly Iminj; furnUlied with m^v^diI lotif^i- 
liulinnl lines of fonk, siiiiil^ lo ihe onlinnr]- hli'ml lin«. 
8>rtDe "f Ihc iin«<-ios Imvg ipppnilauiw over llti> i-jch. a* iib- 
"" ", iil ihe /f/rniM>*; llicir M'tiiml flna Iiiivl- tufh ftvu 
*"> ! tht> iit)iiit4 of tlio (Ijniil Till arc Klpiivlirr, tuid ibu 
irly liio nliolo leni;lli nl' tlu' liiii'k. 
. liiul it M with Iit^kilulioi) llikt hv pluCLii thU 
^^ »itJi lti(? fuuiily uUtive-iiK'ntlQiicil, and lha.1 it will pri)- 
o no (lav iuvm ttit»lt,[K' ■jfn wparnlv fmnily. All the 
> ut yvl ili.cijiutvil iiilmlul llii' kl-iu urKuliilHi-liiitkn — 
»re inrludod iii ibe ^umii Labrax Ijj- Pall.i*. who Aa- 
j*t "irvpral of llm ipiscies in the 'Mvuiuini of llio Aca- 
d^-my of Nt, IVl(Ttl)iir«Ii,' vo!. ii., I s lU. 

.CinSMOBRANCniATA (Ziwlajfy). Di- RluinvillBN 
■Moud cmler af tiu wcond tu^-rlAM, Paracephalophiiru 
w'co. TIio rollotiing i* lij« ilofiiiilioii of Hie crnlcr. 
0/ retpirution ai|u:ilii;, liniiiL-liial or pectinaiLxl, 
ed at llio aiilerior pait of llie lack, in a large 4'iivity 
commiiiiimiinp; niili ihi' aniliicnt fluid by a widv obliiiuo 
aalofinr »1ii. Ahulh tijiilblcM. liui ifru\ided willi a loiii; 
lipguil riband-like urv^n- Shtlt citlicT none, or intenml. 
or exlcmul. vcrj- uiiicii dcprrwol. willi n vtT)* lutgc entire 
ap^r ^ >>itbijiit aii]* |)illur(i.V(uiii'/('a>, 

Ti :.Jti !■ inoin-L'i't, in sn fur os it sialc.ttbul in 

tuiii ■ ihiL're is no shell; fir C'triacelht, the only 

Ken .1 by Dc liUiii>illi- n* buiiti; witliciut any shell, 

lui _ ;. .;u-. as C«\ier nlist'nei. tbim^h il in vci) ilcli- 

tiW >nd ile\ib!c. and ntwly mcmbranoni, Ciivlw, wlio 
pUi'«a ilirec of ihe R^-ncm. SixarrlitJt, CoriofgiUi. and Crjfji- 
lattama, under hi* Cijjmhidfs. a fuiiiily uf liisi unlrr Oatlc- 
riipad^ p^fU'til/ranchiut-t, tjlwcrycs ilwt Du UluiLi^ille jilncisi 
(hi^^natiT part of llio Cupuloid't under hi* iion-»rinmc- 

liBt ikat ibry appuar lu liim (Cii^ier) 10 be all liiifiiiius. 

Thr 2i> ii^rjphinil di^lribulion vt this order, whirb, aceord- 
itiE Id be Bliinvillg, n marine and pnikibly L^cbivuroUN is 



G ancra. — Cpriocd la. 
Av^ e1linti«i1, very much donrMned. hivjnj^ the bnrden 
of tha tiutiiW vqy delicatG^ uolco^l ^1 front, and tDiwduig 



umeuzf. but sliort and rontmclili;, i^«4 at tb; «at«ciui[ 
base of ibv triitmuh. Bafh unmcwlut toiiiidiid, %xA «.- 
ccnliof; la Do Blaintiltu— hnt ihLt, -a wt hava idrotdy »ofti>»' 



in an eiTur— wiibcul any slidl, exiiriwl cr intenuJ.. 



Etanjplu-— t'ljTiVjcf'rtd nigra, lllmiiv. The only i|}eciM' 
of the ^nua. aud dwrpilwd bv IXi Bluiii\ille friiin a nfHii- 
men in liU cvjileclion, I^iuibly, Sras of the I»W of I'miK*^ 
CuviiT placv* lliU imd the luu follgwiiifj gun«m Uiulor Lis 
Gaslerripuda jitctimbrancitiata. 



SigSMtuC 

SA'fl mwe or l«<n lbi<k, IUlten<.->1. with an amp)« and 
round a]K.Tlure nnd but little xpiro, ih« vibM-U of Mbtt-b in* 
trvvtM very Eutld^ntv ; and envdoped during Ur>t in« «pi>ni:^ 
fthield, ubirli mnHJil4<mbly oneainpaBBm lU IwtdL-r. at -vi-ll 
SH tlin font, and ubirh u Out true mantle- In fr«nt <>f itiii 
nuintU' thero is a niitoh and a di^nii-iMtial, nbi.-b aoi-W't) 
oonduci ilip vninr into itw branphial c.ivtty. Tbt* t«nii>ettU 
an iNinioal. and the oyui aro plnci'd ui ttivir ext«nial bntei 
The male Drpaii. acccnlini; lo Cm \ut, \* \vvj lftr|;«. 

Dc Itl.iiniillu tbiu tiubdivid4.>s the ^>ntu: 
a. SpeciiM wiih a very lU'lirale and amoolh RlieU. 

ExQiupIi--.— SiifareJiu conffXiit. 



*. Spoiifti with a Ihick and solid »hell. " " 

Example— 5i^ar*/w haitoltfidevt. 



Cjv. 



(Slfonlu lulleluiJeuLl 

Do Bliiiuvillv tiVserT<j!i that only a fow living s|ii>.-'t« .if 
tin* ^f»misaro knflwn. IVlr.G. B. Sowt-rby, odtinltiri; llial Uo' 
baa but II slight ftc^iuninianpe with il. jndi^M it ii lH>lijrij; to 
iIiu same family witli Lamarck's HtiUtcit Ajilysto, mid /»'»/«- 
i^Ua, tlinnf;h I^nanrrk btw placed it Bnnint; liia Mai^fo- 
lomata, near to Haliolii, cvidiiitlyon account of iia uoneral 
firm and its dilaltyl aperture. G. R Sowerliy futlttfr db- 
fj-rve^, ibnl lin bnnv* nitl why l.amnn^k has niTaiifjwl 
Nenla canw/to/ti of CJiotniiilx with .*;(^*iiw/M« Tiilbcr Iban, 
«-ilh Natiea, and remnrks that iriuth ivrnfuviiin seoni* to, 
rcijfn in I.niniirck'* i;)n<)ii)-iny of bw Rt^tsrelu* Jta/ioltii- ^ 
dtus, ina4.mu»b aa luj ijtiitiw iii;ur.f>i of several vm- dlaltndt^ 
BhclU fjr il. 

SigarHuM bag boon found at dt;|itba vtiT]ing flruoi five to 
fifteen fhthunm uli tuiily Iwtluinii. -^ ^ 

PoKil ^ifnrclL n ' 

Dibmto «miBKnt1«i UtTM (ami aiic<;iM,oae ffm. <ci4^ 



c n I 



91 



C HI 



rttimrUin, one fiwio Criinoii, and inolliet teon tbc cii- 
Tuvnattf Buunloaux. G.B.SoTerbr s-iy-i that tho KmhI spo- 
cin an few rnvX mre. and Ibal ■)>«}' oi'ciir in tho I>onaiMi 
rlny al Borion, utnl in tlio L-onloinpiirancouc Gomuitioiu in 
Fniice untl Italy. Tho <p«c)M in tbo Onletire gromia nt 
(•riKiion, h» aiiU, has a sm&I) umlitlicuB. Desliaj-M in hie 
'Tables' ^i*«ii otc^iin living qieoim, and fbur uiuiL (Irr- 
liary); wio, Sigar^lut t{^pnr»Jfui, living in the bms of the 
Molui'ca Kinndi'. Tlio fwwl* occur in 1ho Fliocoiiv, Miu- 
nvne, and £oeeoe periixls of Lj vU. 
OrfptoMomo. 

Shell vctrr like Ihut of Si>farolUj, euriod willi llit* hcnil 
and abdanieii, wliidi ilduvi^rv. upim n fixit I'niii' liuics iu 
siie, cut almoal aquately behinil, and whivb pro(lii<'C!> tiiiio- 
narly a (Ivuhf ana obluitf: part, whirli niak«s iiciirly oTm- 
bcJf of till' ntau, Th'F iitumal ittcXT hiiK a llni. hi-ud. iuv> 
Ipniacula, nml a laFjfi! jp»Ftuiai«d braiietia an tlit plufond 
uf iu iliirsul ca\-ily. llio iiule oc^n iE [ilavMl uikUt Ibu 
riirbt tonlairuluiu. 

Eviiiiolfi. — Cryi't'itUmta Ctaekli. 




De Blunrilli), v\a> wpnnilcil ibn Maus, np tliat he 
klKt«s twp Bperaos birth fntm hiilm. aid adds, tlnil jiiTh.-iiiB 
mac Rpecriea of Laniufclc'a Signrvltis belw)^ to Iht'in. (i. 
B. Sowerby, who itlenlille^ Ciypl/i^lumit mih Stgarelut, 
tOntM lh»t UK far IIS IbodilTi^rciiciiK in iho ibelts (Iii-iiim>]vgis 
warmnl it, hi* ti|iiiiion i> (ImdMlly !i|i;nlnal ih« mpnmiiun uf 
De UlaiDville's Cryplotiomu fhiiu Itie latter iiuiiuii: ami 
adtb, lliul hr diH-s iiol tlunk tba: nniiiiBls tullirieiilly ditt'er- 
coit to rwudiv the pruprieiy I'f lu"^*!!!!!!!!!: ibi-ni vttry drjir. 
He aftct^nnb Kiyii, 'U|mi cxauimuiioiicif tlic spLi-iitieiiit 
in thaBriliitli MiitDUin, vm »n o>nvin»Ml ihut I>c Blniii- 
ville's Crfptotiomu l.twAti u ibe tame h» ohm nl liiu iwii 
fihclli which Adniiiron rmti» Sfgaret .• iiuCrrjpt. brevicu'ium 
i« iirubalily iliu ulhcr; but Inia ire nuiDul n.*('cilai ii, bt-- 
rauM- iti<- »lii-11 has been lalii-ti awsv flnm tlin apccinuMi in 
iliL' Briiub Mtucun. We havu iwi ^ubt, hrjuc^tr. that ibij 
Crifpt brevicttJyn of Do BUinvillc ih n t'L-tnale bpediDon vt 
Cu^icr'a Sigarelia, t;tvcn bjr bim in Ih, Lvncb. Il u Iu be 
ivtCKlttiil lUoi Cuvier lu» doI tp^cn any d(.-a(-[i|>iiiiii uf ibe 
abVll «f bis Si^itrtlu*. n> that it n impuviblc to ascerliiiii 
wholbcr vr not ii 1m idoiitii-jl i»itb viibi;r of Adanami's 
f>b«lU; it a pcrUajM nv«ilU'M to odd, ibat utili.'M it caa bo 
idvdiilicd vritb onv of ihetu, ii vu^lu uut Iu be conudoral 
IU a a's-ftiitt. Ita tiniiuiil t* cvTliiuly vcn' ditlVrvut ftgni 
lltal uf VfjfptQttQma Lmichii, wtuih wa beUctii t«i be hIbii- 
t^cal niih «ii« of AdaiwoaV Cunvr. io tfav laat adiliuu of 
tbo 'lU^ft AnimaV tcUiiia IX- Bloinnllc'it kcdub O^p- 
loflMndi, and aloMa il mixt tv O/riontiiu. |{<: odds in a 
Mtv, tbat boaHca Ibc ip««iof iu the Bcilibb Muauiun ( Cryp- 
totiwiit tficlii'it Blaiiit.), li» iKMMawa aaulhsr (Crypltf- 
ti>m» CarfiJtnuin, Cuv.), umt irom Caralioa by H. L'H«r> 
laini«r. Tba gtav* duw not nppvu in X>iMba)«b'a lint. 

A'M^ tutropod, wilb D lur^c dona) >bc1l. nnlnrior, bulli- 
£imi, Biid witii n Mraplo npitt-. Foot niinwiv. /ironrAitr 
tnar^al, Ktriainl tntiwvvnely. AtwttI* widoucd iaW two 



Rxatnpltt,— OLryn«'cJM>ArM. D« Blaiurillo^ who H4 
to cAiuidcT this g«-nus *»u«vbat npocryplwl, obsorvM thu 
hcoxly ko'nvs it IVnin llio liilU- thiit Ifallnrsquo, wIm V 
'(^hcd it in tb« 'Jouroul d(< I'hyttqtii'/ «ay« of it; nml 
nAAi, that ho only pUcM il in the pasition (pven to it, U- 
caii!>i> M. KafinifiquK KlatM tbnl it only ililTcrB from £ij[» 
rfliit, lifrnuEC the Kholl t* I'Xtnrial; ad'biif^ that, neitr- 
ltifU-*i. if lliL' hfanchitp are di>pi>wd, u RafinL-Aquu ik^fnbra 
lliciu, t tie (lilT<.'ri?iici)m\i)itbv milch gr«]il4T. Kanc', who^pcab 
wtih titi|imbutioii onhiit rvMark by Di> Bluiuvilli:. pbu-ocB 
under Ilia unclassed g«ntm. Cuviei (km not nuiint it. 

Tht> next gpnu; in De Blainville's smingcmont ia A*- 
mulfl/ii, hut 'I* lu'iilni'iut Sl'iiiiiilm wiih Iht! Mi«-«ftni oiid » 
in- Uifri't' wilb (!. B. Sowerbv that Slnmatia and Stomatftti 
do nol (UfTt-r i^iilliciciillv fvi' generic di.'^linctiou, ibe veadcf 
will iliiil Ihmr riPnTiplron nndi-r IIai.iutiu.k. 
Vi'luliwu. 

Aniiiiixl uiu). Aafflicknilv [iiiilulKruiit (boinb^>, borffc 
spiral : bviilcr uf iba laaiillc eimplc antcrioily, and duulilc 
fur thL-wbulcDl'ilncircuutfvrenci;; tbi'! internal lip thickn) 
and tentacular. Foot IbiclL Tenlnruta birgi-. iiboouMaL 
dutant, with a Bmall fruntal veil between tJicin. /.yw 
bbick, atis^deat tbe vxtiTiiul sid« of the busc uf the tralv 
culu. itoulfi ]»rfce, at ihv <.-).< rciuily of a bort of tnuolf. 
[itifpir^il'jrg carilg lar^e, vi'ilhoiit any trace vf a tube, lal 
eontaiiuiiij Iwu uuwiuul pedinaK-'l bratKht<r ; orifice of (faa 
ovur> lit ibc hnsv of ibe male ur|(BO, uliiutcil at llio rogt •! 
■ he rii^Lit ti^ntiieul 1,1111. Kluseular atliu'bmeiit of a lunr- 
abou ahapv, wiy tht^bt bvluod and opvn before. 

SAeU, eailiTnal willi an epidenm-s putvUifonn, *ilh a 
small lateral spire, und without n culiiioella. Apvriutr 
i<irf;u, tho cdifc nluiosi fwiiliniiouii, und cburp: tbo n|it 
border unile<l let the letl by a laiitellar eakarcou* depo»it 

Kxaaiple, — P'elntiint (■.tfuVoi'l^'h ll'lix ltre-it(uta, Liaju 
De Blaint'ilto ohscrvtH; thiit b« rtlalilUhiil thi* u^cniu fi«ta 
an individual provided with lU ithell, which he oned to the 
generosity of DcOanco, IlcoiULt that b« know but mm 

rei(s firoiii thf roii*l of EiitsUnd, which is ve^ry probably 
' nmocf^rhir'h MiilW tpcnkit under tba naiuf of Btti* 
i'i^vti»a, and which l^ii:iarck erronnauidy re^rd«d w 
the jnaloi^o nf hi& Stijurvtut hah'otoid^m ; and llul 
Air, Uray "has uUa jvojuiKc'd thu gptiut under |b« satne 
name. 




[V*lalLaa eipuir>Ui* j 

CmrONS. CHITON tribe. CHITONID-E. 1 

iialurjl family i>f Ganlrupods, Ofvbriojis of the- Ft*lir^ 
iiOhiilitiiit Ibe only ktiown inttoncc of a i>rr>terliiig[ Uwli 
funned iif niaiiy purli<jna. or, as tbey bare been u.iiKalial 
inrorrecily ti-Tine<l. viilves, oflcn in coniaet and ovi^rlapldnit 
mi-Ii uther. but never truly nrticulnim). Tliis knomaJMU 
sIrv>Miin> is the ]woTib1)1o causa of ih« vanima w«i»d«rin^ 
of tbo>«e who havv. (iicli accOTrUiigtobin own viev, m»Ap »ei 
ih« Chiloniiia ihar iilnro, upon ihu faiih of a loa gmt 
vatun for this mull iplica lion of fbelly plito*. rompMirn a 
abield, nr r*iat of ncaV annour for Ihe' soli partis The W- 
lowing cat wOl give some idM of tha atruclmc of tbu ihaOy 
c<i>«nng. 







C H I 




M phlac uw bmioA togBthrr liy ■ MtMreotu burder, 
. M «• iball prvraUy m b uiil>i.T plaiii, or bwel 
vulka, «|iine^ kc 

a>rl5 uAtunltsis took iIm>»o iiwiU fur ttio peculiar 
r ofcrrUin imK-iiln,!! rnmlitonn m which iliov wen? 
e* hL-l|M>il h_v ilu' love tjf tW inirvcllnui^ w) tlroiii^ly 

iti the lumunlf of the oldtr Intvclltrii. B)' rlcgn-i.'* 
le ciiiKliliiHi i>r iHcM moiluflks Iwramv boiler kno\ni : 

10 niipoxne opinion* of Liniueui ami A'tuiiiM>ii rlitidii] 
turalM^' of ilmir afR*. Th* ftmnfr amn^l tbt-^o 
BiiioiU III* inHlli>alf ux, t rloos cnlitvl}* arlilU-iul. dqiI 

11 BJtiflrLil cli»admlioii> ^<l^)|1ri^iIlg i\»- nvM iiric- 
<om fbnn^ Ai1iin>un. on the ointrarr. lorik nuiun- 
» gtiiili', anil tTnn'fulIif nbM-rvititc ihc nnimnl itself, 
bo nconlcil the ■tiifll lu nf ruinixtniinely miuU im- 
00. jdaccil Pauila aad ChUnrn •mAk by *j(le in bis 
■L Hill ihr Liiinamn Mrhuol laniirn9nalp«rain<Miii: 
donsnu's Ubnun wra coiiipiniivt^y tarpinen. wlit-n 

' l>ci{Kn III niana thi' cru<)o klalu in whW-h he fuuitd 

\)iliurn, ami Ijimank nod utbirs aidnl in the vurli. 

• vim tnailu auMtainiral tnvcsti^atinn tlic bacia of faia 

Ih at diiiw pronouivi^ iii fB\iiiiT iif Atlanaon- Lo- 

altarvanls nili>ptM the fwiniD Mmclusion, btit not till 

I prvTiot^y placral tUt Ciiiton* at tho ■'□■l of (he 

■loiu MuDinkk, butwrcti Firltdiuta ouil ihiaHMi. 

a liu iiia>:iiiils'€ni wurk on tlio Teitar*^* ttiriunfu^ 

'fin spvinu' llx; nnnlaiu)' i>f a M t-ilitcrinnran e{K^ieii, 

t B laltabk- iilly : lor. alllmu^b br vlill rr'aincd 

trlMn of Muliivalve^ and oIiIioukK in hit niiuto- 

(l«tiii1s be laul mitUinx nf (Iw ncrvoutf by^tvtu. « 

. of uiiiiiinl ur){aiiaiitiuTi <ii*i;iittall> nv^.-L-MOfy lo t>c 

tor i>»-i^uifiX an animal lU true ytam, hv tlviitoii- 

un<MiiHi doulTln shKn-lhrtt Chit'in boro nu rctalton 

' Ml. '-I ' • ■ . ,-. M. .V BLiinvilk-, 

i!-iiUy<-rihf fA.V«», 

. 'if C-i'L-r ndil )j»- 

whicli ' ■ III' ; . , ! .. lo 

Mjl>t\'p>' :i ■ 'IT iti'- r,i-r- ,'." ■^'■'i/'> 

, In which cacll ol tliu l.iiiiurau »om-ni. I^ftii tmA 

I i-oll-i!lTUTP ,1 -rl-Ji?: iViC fir?!, tbl' i.'Y"'//<l»M lt L^jm- 

7'h'irrt ttr t'tJifptaripKira. 

. ii' KIaiii\iilL* bivc ni>l pre- 

;.; ainl Cii«CT,ia llw last edition of 

^imn^t lli« CliifniiK at tb« riilo of 

: from tbenc inu genera, hu niunll 

Sitau. 

rilcle Otnifrrwin. in the ' Eiic}'cloiM!Tli{> 

III Inriji-' Inio iha oi^nijutiun of i)io 

....~^k villi intM'li U>arnins and anitcnciis 

< {litiiuni vi C'll^i>'^ mul Ih- illniiixillr. 

i;^ iv ."I suwiuiirj 111' IXiiIiuyt^'it obM'riatii)ii«.* 

::h aiarouivli ilii" month. 

l.i llii' Ptmiyoi'. for ex- 

..i/i jiiii LK"ip)i'isiif. fiinii'livd with 

iiilltit >ti(r.illi. mill ^n;ii"l niiti hciTtiy 

■. ' !'.:i, Sloiiiiirl., 

I r ;;ii«Iriijni'U. 

^u> .1.111 •!. iiii —'■'•.. •!> iu ih*.' Pliyl- 

pnrtM. tr.t 

'imtofy lUii/ Ciratiatin^ Oraam, Tlia imnMir 
JhiriMK ■'■•ti'ut afa ronKt' of mmII iriuniruUr IcuHlIk 
u i» Pairltii titvl PkgUititii. in (be lumw wliirli 
» tke fiwl Cram Uw nwntle. Tlu) Amt' u Bituaiod 



t lllv J-» -I 



na»*all*»> 



I^idialtk.lDl. I'll,, p 487. 

, \A 111* inlviltlir >f trfjlMf 

.1 Ox pwwtk^minui}. 



CH T 

pottcrimlf* in Itie mesial snd tiottal line: it in ern- 
mPtriBkl, and ram|<we(l of n single venirick and 'iwo 
RlirirW. 

(irgitns nfGntfration. Af4<on!in; (o Do Bl&in«-ille, nn 
ovnr>' only, which, in^tnid of hnving:, aa m the tHiwr mol- 
li»ks. a mi'i\« exit, ban two cxlernnl iasueii. on« tA th« 
rivlii. the other lo (he left. rv-Khaj-w ttbairrKf^ upon lhi«, 
that Ihcjtigh \iv hait lande minute aaatomieal intrstit^iioii*, 
ItB has found it inipuxildn In find Iho s«ond Mne of iha 
un^na of )r^nontian. but ha ac know led jjm tint the bpedea 
which lie disMCclcd wrro inialj*. 

tfervtMM Sgilcm. Prn«iil by Curier not lo differ from 
Ihal nf other mc^hialu projierfy m mlTed. Il -raniiitis of 
what may be Irrrneil a romplete (Bsopha-inn tiii^. and of 
variflun linim-b<'\ wbic-b arc jiven off diierjinj-ly Ivwurih 
I be R vera] on^iu. 

LotsmKtirt Organs. The ota! fctrt. taoir or low wide, 
arronling lo the Hpooie\ nxienils iho whole len^b of llio 
animal. 

i^lc//. Ei:;h( narrow, transictita cnWrrmn pieeex, 
overlapping oat^b otbcr, and ^tron^ly impUnii-'d on cneh 
side in a ihirk aad filiroiis b<inler of tlw luunlle, wliieli 
»utmuiid» the whole body, and b soinelinicN, u w« hu\e 
oliMjtvcd. nakeil. but more gcneniny roveted wiili amnll 
»«ilca, spineB, or luiin^ Thi^^ picric are not iitunori.— 
able, as the animal can roll iiwlf up or ntn-lrh tUctf 
out asain for the purpOM of pro^resnioii or ndholon. 
To work lbi« inucbiiiury. Iberv ore thrrc roTL^rlet gi^-en off 
Irwn tl>c flr»t pirn! to ihu bcicnd, tlirre nthcra pvttt off 
from ibe wwnd lo (he third, mid eo on tbcou-lKml, ;« m 
to mnkc tho rn<-'-hiui49a of ihii »t-jle aniimir rumplHe. 
One of tin— iimiir!™ (jiciipie: ibe mcrDial rad dioij lipe^ 
the iiibi-r ivro uie liiit-ral ami oldiciue. Tlic (.'r-jwlh of Ibn 
•hell i» sunlogwiu to lliut fffbc oIIiit latlUiaks. 




I ni'wl. 



tAat*ul*tChliM S^i 

a. Ihr nninml unA iWltMrn mm alnn ; t, ikr u^mIkv* ti in Iclua i r 
•tiU tT>« inf (tw tr.rll and anHwl I* • »m ^ iJ Ot iMirtlnt lUtf j d, {uUni at 

The ehilona ihon rewmbla the othur raollti»k«: lit-, iu 
the Eenoral form of the Iiodr; 2nd, in Iho orgnii of Wo- 
tnotton ; :ird., in the nituiw, ^unn. oimI po«ilMii of tbe t<raii- 
<dti»; -Ith., in the heart, and in the diitriliuiion of the rir- 
culating revel*; Mb., in the mmilh and itit \ei1; Glh.. In 
tba loninie and tbo roat nf tb<i dij^ito at^na: 7th., in 
ibc pwltiun of Ibe vent; aud Hb, loai, bul not least, in 
llie rwrrou* antem. 

Whai. theii. on* the diflVreiicw ? lit. ibe form of ifae 
abcll ooniposod of e^bl Dieees iulswl of one; 3nd, the 
mantle wliidi is mora llvtliy and flbrona than in (he uihof 
mollunkti; .Irtl. Iho taydu)^; 4lh. ibe double ium; of Ihe 
iir'j:nnH of icracrelion. idlowinit Ibit differeuee to be ma- 
bli'uhed, wher««a U i« doubted. With rapird to ibo ab 
unea of vjva, thai ilofcci «ai>b in a caniMenibU) number 
of niullualu. 

llenM' De»liny« fvi kI the cutiflmion appvata 

in tu in III- jiui, ibai i arc inn- nwlluskH, and 

tliut tlieir plnce b not Inr tiiki.><ii horn (W p€lrUi». 

(if'i^rytphieiii dittributitm. The xpceit* am namemu^ 
fliid there am fl-u rockjr ihorea wiihonl artinr of i!)eni. As 
a i^ettenil riilt.-. the Urnat are UmnA in wurm iliuMies, bui 
ibcTw ore cxroitliMis; WW Inotaimo, Chttin triiger luvl CM- 
fill ItoH-enii, Kins;, nr« found <ni the ehomuf Tienrn dol 
Kuc^ik mid 111 tlio straits vt Matcalhaenc llw forntor of 
ihcM apcciiM gnnn lo th« Icn^b uf Iwv incb«i and Ibree- 

• irina Dm retliwt ' 
t CwWt i»y«t>wl Ow awry I* aumw * ■!-"■ ihr Wtw »i« iim , taJ Ifcu l» 
maU KWi W up— U tta Mn lij t— —U'l'*^ 



C U I 



96 



CHI 



«ig1it1i«^ And tlifilinailtb afaaa ini^h and tbroe-eighth*. and 
ihn latter la lh«leugth of ibree incliits and mo-rii^blhs, 
and tbe liroaillh nr one iiirh niid u Imlf. No ini-nltnn in 
inaile nf th«m in <he ' Su]iiili-inunt la Captain <ni)w Sir 
Edward) Parry'* Voyage * (l»l'J— io), nor in ilie 'Supple- 
ment to Capt&in (now StrJtilin) itiW* Vojagc* (ls:f9— 
1M3). The Brtliiji ftpui^ic^ nre *iiiull. 

fjneaUtif. Rot-kv sliorw nbare it adh^TM, anil also on 
tlonci and other Atibiuariiio tioilii». Koiin'l nt (l<>|itl»i vat}*< 
iiiK Tram th* snrbce la twenlj-Uve CitlKini«. 

Mtni ifMloguto are aCTetxl (hat ilivre are no dilFcTemccii 
naRtuienily slroii-.'lf marltct) (o make a ^neric ditiinciiDii 
beiueen C^Hon nml ('hitr>nrl(ux ; nnil. iiidt-wl. Iho gnida- 
tioiiK froto the one to ilic oiIht art- «» iinpirnvjuiblB. ilmt 
th«K Is no point vhciv Ihc lieu: rnn be halisfiicronly dnivn. 
In the mOiX compltlfly-dfii-tojinj fiinn iJCChUun Ihc slidly 
M^relion g;rcally prL-jioiiJcrales ; in Chitonrlhm that w-rrrt- 
liuti U cumparntivciy small, and the ;^rcnl dcvL-lo|)ment is 
in Ihc bnrrlcr of llm tniintlc whirli. in some instttnccs. 
alintxl Iiiili-.'i tin; ninipanilivcly-miiiuic- ■ln-lly |>itrri'». 

a. Species wilh ilio uunllc border or mar^iuul liizamcnl. 
roriacpous antl iinkwi. EnamnK^ C/riVtrrt Chilentii. 
Fmnbley, und CMlou lilaim-iilii. nrudfrijt, 

Ciuhn Ckileiuia. Slicll oblon^-ovato, npaqtte. thii-k, 
dark bnmii, siDoaib, dull ; inisidcwlijlc, wilh pink ninikini^ 
on iIk: IInl,nocoTid.iindlaat valvcti. Valve.<> with lon-^itudi- 
iiul utiite, ciwsctI b)' irre^fulnr coapentric ridnt-s. Anterior 
and p<nslcTiur valvci tctniluiuitv, alj^litly punctated : scl-oikI 
vnHv M]l>nirin3k.-d, thu irunl mat^n ii1>Ui.-«:l) aiii^lnl, lalpral 
inarj<iiM arcuate, and iho poilcrioi nilli u pruiuiniiit ln-nk. 
on each side orwbiclidivcrgv* a ni I h(.T derated j^nululcd 
riiLk^ 1 lUe next Q\u valves alikv, bo>v-slmi>cd, wlIIi a f^ra- 
nnlulc ridjro on vndi ftidir. Uonlor mtiuulb, coiinccujBs 
touub, tkivk, dukcT i-ol'juro'l Iban (lie i>hctl, Eentipi;IUii.'id, 
broad at ike sulcs and narrm' -.A tliv fxtrvniilic». Localiiv, 
ValnamiBOi in er«Ticc4 or rock« and utiilor iXvaea. (FfCin- 
hlej.) 



CCLltnu CtilUudt.) 

ChifftH BlainrtHii. In thta »p«cics the shape «f lk« cori- 
seooiis border itKcif is not onlv very reniotkable, but it ix 
her* and Ther* fttnjK^l, Ihouzh iiut w Jlh hoir. M. De>.liaviMi 
hfti pinccd Ibis tinder lii* »ki'tii>n ot tlw%f. ipi>eicii whiph 
hare the bontor of Ihu niantlu fringvd vitli kuii or spiiie», 




tCMInn fllnlnTllin. Con'iHIf pfnniniiiDftDaSowpiliy**inii<ti«limiAf 

pmbnMv from not haviiuf te^n a |^1 snecimen. SfirFi 
ivutidiKh. anltritir valvu oWurvly ny«A, tnn postm-ior ont' 
vcT} imall and ahnii>t; llic otheni conccnincalljr lin«ated. I 



tliQ vliole 1)cln$t nuy. vnrl<^te4 vilh wfctte. 
gri-i-nidh and, iiil«rnal1y, white. The mantlQ-tMfdier 
r<'d. very nurrow paelprioTty. and nmiat»u\j pradv 
tcricirh, rinnidit] and fVingra here and Iben^ capecialljr at 
Hit aulerior inu^in, with som« ahert Utriaeouua 
Locatity, Inner Lobos Islajid, roaxt of Puni. 

0. Manilebordcr AtnooiJi. but wilh infta of bur at 
iDtiral v::(tr(;initic4 i^f cacli plate, Bxamplc, Qli'iM 
FasrindarU, t.iniitruH. 

Shell nppar«n1lv smooth, but when eutnined witk 
l{luM, proviiin tu bii ruujli like tihaiij^HMi, «Ttct?p| on U* 
I'U'^iiKsl dotval rids;e ; mnri^in •>iirraiindrrl willi tuft« it 
whilitli Itoir, one at the juticlion ofeai^h valve, andlwaji 
llic front, niakinB i-i(,'hl«!n in number. Colour browa«f 
dark ciucr«oii« ; TiTnajih flve-eighthfl of on inch ; kmibk 
rulh«r uinre ihnn twn-cticblhE. 'Localiiv, Britivh aoallHTS 
i-ijattK. lIonlHi^n, who if^wea this description, anj^ tfaal O 
Ibo coast of Uarbary it it, nut nnrreoinpnily an iiteh lofi|^ 




[Cblton fai'liuUrH.} 

f. >Ian tie border hairy, Exampl<>, Chttm P^ruritnt, 
Liimnrek. 

Shell oblong- oi-niv. opuqnc, dirty yrlloviahBrcen,OT|l^ 
Inniih blown, iii»idi! white ViiIii-m ihin. digHtlv cletaHd: 
posterior compartments of ibe d'ir>ul Xiilrcx a Ittile JlJtm 
and ■trifiled. wilh minute gniuulntcd slriw, and in ISt 
niniini-r till! olbiTpinrlii iif tin- shell; uii'ier each lahr U 
insertui] 11 series of ahori Mnek liuin, wbirh lie on llie Itu* 
of tlic shell. Durder narrow, corinceuu^ thickly tct wilh 
i-cjunc bliirk liaim. Lniulh tnv inrbc«t breadth one and ■ 
half. Found iindiT Moiii-m !il low wiiti-r i»\ the tJiotn of 
Valpnmiso Bay. There is a rariely with the nnleriof Trim 
mneh narrower tliaii llii: iwatcrior. (FjcinUcy.) 




[CMtoB rmnUoM-] 

i'. Mantle border hefoi wiih ;-pinc», E^an1pI^ CMm 
minoitit, Brugtiidrc ; and CAiha tpin'J'fru4, Vntf 
hicy. 

CMUoa sfiinMsu. Shell limwnith bWk, vUv«a Vl*^ft» 




tCkllM ■plBdiai,] 



^^' 



97 



C H ] 



L- 



ilM. Miiu;V-li'inlpr wi'le, and btvM wHli 
Soulh Swu. urconllng to 



N.B. Lanutrlc <t' 



v^xItcb n« sniootl), nnil th* 
■ 1 tiisUcncni tins tbeiu nrarly 
m. 'Thitf nsf be llta canwquenu^ of ago unci rorruNioii, 
fat ill n Cfinnxiralivdy jouiie speciinen ihe cntilptiin* of 
l^.tuhtEt 1.4 lb«t abore doKribed. The Bpccm is very 

kCAifcn ipint/ffuj. Tliis in the Ckilfin arti/'^Uat of 
yfJ4us % 'luuic vbicb had been invoccupi'S'l by I.iiiiirous 

llpinliy in Uic 'TftDkitnillii Cnrnlngiio:' but the lallirr 
gfiQ'^ .. . .. .,,, ^y „)|^ sjjiN^iineii with bri>ken ejiin«3, 

K'\ 111 as JQnppUoahl?. Shell uiiDriiM), ob- 

u <>-.i'--. iv.i.--b-l»ruwii, ijlussy; ia»i<lE> n.-<)'luli' while, 
The puviefior uiigiKH uf tlie vaUi's itii not rover Iho unferint 
ooe«. .\iil''rior valvo wilh geiifrullj iiiiu> towK uf raU«d 
doi« (livpnaas from Ute ap«X. but tlio hiiiiiIht pctbups 
wi«t with IMF Rjic of tlw shell. Serond lalvc ratlipr 
uuieir be>ke<l ninrnrinaiml. ImigiT th.iti iho IItc fnlluv- 
in^. wbirh arc striaic^ and sluiMvl ulikv : iheM ait rise intu 
a nlhrr nriilc hralt. are curiniite<l, eacli siilu of tin; rnrlna 
beinje diiiJinl into iwo diminct pm-lions, the antoriot ww 
AWtn^JtM, 'and bearing bnvail, irrcg-iilitr, iDni^itudinal tilrite: 
a prominenl row of milled dol», cxieiidin^ frDiii tbe api'x Iti 
ilt« luitinior lutf^ea of thu vulves, »eparalm the eotn{)Brt> 
mciiU; ibe puMcritir purlioii gltnuj, wiih Hoe oonteiilric 
... ••■:'<^aoi manrins i»iili looth-like gnniiUiions. 
I led. likv (hi! BitUTior cunipBrtmeni^ i>r the 
:, .-3iii|$ iitUi 3 rnthiT ptotoiiii^iit beak. Ii^auinu 
liu- p<iswri<ir luoncin; from iioiler thu bvak aril' 
■■ 1, Uiipwied in a simdai lUBniior t« tliMe un the 
viUvc, llviiler mrinrrouN thick, broad, rough, 
-cm-nLiL av i>iaiic;K-«il')nnMl, uiiil in the yaun^fcr Kpccinien.s 
^^utUcdvilh blunt ipiDea: but iri ihn M ^v]l^ 
■ AW abort anil Hcaniy, andt^nrraU^covcn!!! hiiIi 
•-jiuIXiiits; the inner edge of th« hotilFr. mscrtiiig iLttlf 
uuiler the imsteriar angles of itiv valM"<, ha.i thr appeai'- 
anco «f beioi; decplv wparatcil. (Ptcnilih-v.) TbU Mpn-ics 
grovi to (he Icngtn of flro vt sLx InDhi-j, but hiu then 
noenlly lost all ft» esieraal bcnuty. "S^'r have wicn iiiaiiy 
individuals in alllhc stui^oa iif growth, ami hnvc invimublj 
fannj the iipinrt of tlic o^vd ones cuvvrt.il with thai cal- 
careoiu inalti-r which i?> ^o (Vecinently found Qilln-ring to 
ihcIU uid EubiasiiiK- tii'ii^-;. liul Yfe hftvi- m-vcr (Il'IiI It^d 
Mirlhtnj QTjtn I ' .^Ui^^h was atlmlicd lo llic 

(piQcs of lilt' ■ . liiy. Chili and Valpaniiw. 

•h««t Mr. Fr«uibUiy ruuii<l Mivertl »pcrinivns in very ex- 
poxO fitustions; *o itinch ao. that cullimtini; ihcni waa 
tlt«ndc(l vilh much ditiicultr, and not unlhri|uunlly with 
<Un(cer, from Ihv vialeiicr .jf thi; i>t» brcakinj:; on the ror^ks 
to Which th«y Btlach U»eiB»eUx-!i >eiy MrDDgly, They aro 
generally covewl with Bca-irocd. 



U' 



Biuawr 







r. Munflft-horiH senly. Eiamplo, ChtiM CiquiuSiaiuiM, 

Ftfuibloj'. I . 

Shi'll o\Mv. iinmw. iipa(|iiir, gmcnixh-btinrn, sliming; 
iiiaiilc lilifki-Hh: Mw arti-mr \ah(.-s wiili iiiitai-iiiii« un- 
dnluiMl. cunivnirip ridi^e*: tlio ni^xt rathpr 'irMt..'< i, ,.(,..!. 
the ft\p f'jllottini; iilikr; rariria bnml ami n ■ 
Mile rf n'hirh IK a Kiitiilar riditi' il!V<"Ti;iii|( ir !:i !. . ._:, 
aiul forming with thu carina a sagittate flffuif. atiil i»>n- 
npded vriili it by several strongly tiinrki.'d rid^ : Itihd 
iiiiiU't thr braki. III tho anterior aiiQliM of Uin lalvu^ ex- 
li^nd )diuq>. luaiiilirurin ridtres. oadi (■via of VLhii^h it 
coat^ely kirialvd longiludiiially. Border thick, modt-rulcly 
broad, and covrtnl u'ilb coane, Bmd-lik« w-u1p%, which sre 
alt.-ii'hrti Interrilly. LciiElh tbrtNi inchea, brtadlU unii lUjd 
a half ( Fmnibley). Thu deicti)ition itiui (akea frmn a 
young ihell ; for as the shell adTanrm in a^, the mi(MI« 
ofthe vaiTt!*, whirh arr v«ry aolnl, lirariniiw eruilcd and 
«)vered with oillmionit. Utdatti. Puteilnf, &c, Mr. Frem- 
bley says tl>at the anly part of tlt« const vhere ht; Ibttud 
thi* Bijerii-s wn» the iwuih side of Coqinnibo Bay; thiiir 
hnhils. he mliK are vtrry *iiailar lu those of Ch. tpinifo'Uf. 
with Ifac exception that llivy »eeiu more grc^rious. 



t. Mnnllo-bariLer graniiteiia. 
RxanipU". Chiton ma^nifcm. DMbayen. 

enlourixl Kpolh: iikiii4la gluutuiw. The anltriorvulve vilh 
rogulur radintingstriw, crosaedltj- coiK«inirii- nilueo; pin- 
leniir mtrKiu nearly straight. 1>iir?al *ulvcs obiuscly 
baakcd. divided UleriilU iiiia l«u iom|urtmcnliti llio oii- 
lerior haviii); rcuuliir lonjjimdiiial stria:, rri>»Ml with (>lb«td 
verv luiiiule and concentric ; ftvuu iindei the- bcaka divert 
to t^ie lateral mar^iiM of lh« \'alvea coursi: niid nioro irrc- 
irular slriw, nhiih mW the tw&tcrior cwivitiartinoitt uburo 
llie other. The [io»ltrior \M\» hn» a wt'll-deflia-d apex, 
leuninK tov'sids the poftlcrior margin. Burdei thin, uiodc- 
nilely liroad, aad ™\trcd wilh fine shining U-Jid-like gm- 



/THE PENNY CyCLOP^DlAJi 




{CUiDa~>li|BU«iuu,l . M\. v.. -• v** 



C H I 



mditisu. of tint nm* oulour h llie *helU, divided iato 
two diailnct pordoR^ the upper of wbirb b compoaed of 
finer baacU taan the lower, and which are plsma trans- 
venwlf (Frembky). Tliia is iho CkiUm divarrun uf Frata- 
Idv, and Chiton latiu nt Soweiby (Tiuikerville Collecl'On). 
vukh Iftttet mav be perbaps coruidcrod ■ rutciy, remark- 
obla fbr it» bretath. Dwhayefi bail pieviouxl)- giwn \o tbf 
Kpsdw ih4> [lamc here anigntd lo it. The upedua ^ruwa 
to ibe Icnijtb of I'uur or fire iDcbea: wo bayt- ac«n ono tbnt 
rcacbcl (our inches and a half when dmd. Tbvru is an- 
oihrr tnrial)- nariottcr ttwn tbo iirdinar] iudividuak, and 
Mr. l^remblt:)' vbticrvrji ibnt, unions the vcr^- yount; abelbk 
aomo ftf tbem bare ibcir bordcni of a lighlri rolour tlinn 
thriribclbk in*l i^tictt with liWk: tim not buii)|^ a cuii- 
Btunt chamrtvr iit all \\\k Miuiig vperimvns Mr. l-'rcmblo^ 
thinks tbcy may be n.-g<irdod as a varioty. Locelit}-, Cliili. 

Species with the bunlor htj^hW developed, and the 

valv-es very iniall. (C/ttto»fi[ui.> 

Thow nn morn or lout cjUndrioil, ^nd venuUbnu. Die 

valttat buiiti^ very viuaU, uihI in totno ipcciet almost eatiiely 

biilden undur IIil- tkiii of the border, giving the ttaimal an 

■ilmmt nnkcd appoaMnre. 

ExJ!ii[tliM. Chtl'ineUut lavu, and Chitotutlut larvet- 




a.ChiK«ll>ulMU: », CMcMa* Unefkmli. 
Fossit. Chitu.Vs. 

G. B. Sowerbjr ttalcs that ihn CiMil tp<viL« irv rare; and 
tbat detaehod valvos are iotactim«a fauitd in Ihi- ra1'-areou» 
aandof Ihc netghbenrfaootl of I'ariu and in iht? Eii^likh 
craff. l>(shayM in bis tablp* (LvpII) giiw but one raMil 
RpeeiRS (tertiary) ; in the ;th voL of hi* udiliin of Laraardt 
(1836), be says ibat up lo that time < ju«|u*it pr^mti bnl 
one (tail specin wm known; and thai nan diAtm-ered at 
Gna;iioti by H. Defhince. Siucc he addx, the t^nus. has 
beiui found in the uansition rocks (1e terrain Att trani>liiflit) 
in the neighbouihood of Tourney : and be »tates that the 
knowledge at this curious and interesting fbct m due to ibe 
twetwhes oTH. Dueha»(vl ami M. Puzo*. 

Tlie student should refer to tbr ijrait work of Poli 
iTaataoea utriu«quc SKiliat), the MetoDir of Cu>i<^r in tho 
Annales dii MuHi'-um, the sriicle Otcabrioa (liv Dc Bloiu- 
ri]le)in the Dictioiinaire d>^« Sciences Nalurcltei. awl in 
tit* Muliu-uloinc; and that by Deslieycs in itic Encjclu- 

K'ilic M^tliudlqtie. He ilioum also consult iW writings of 
rodcri|t, BiugiiKri!. Fivinbltry. Oray. Kin^-. Iianmrt-k, 
LiiineM^ Montagu, Feunani, Qtiuy and Umiuunl, Kaiuc, 
Sowerhr, and Wowl. 

CHtTONBU.US. [Cmro-fO 

CMITI'ACONa a dislmt iu Ibc KUtb-eort pari of the 
prvvitict) «f BunKal, Iraunded an Ibe north by Ti|>*^rah dis- 
trictt on the asjt by tt» Uunaoac einpirc, on tho itoulh 
by tlio prvvinee ef Ancu, end oo the WMl by the bav of 
BtaaL Tbb dinrkt lies between JEI° and i^ north Ut., 
aud between 91" and 93^ cut loiu;. ; its lenf^h from north 
to south is about 1?" <"!'•■' nnd it* (proaleA bresdlh io 
milcd. but the «MttTi > hM nerer bc«& oc^uratvly 

<lvflnv<l, and the a^' "Uh is etlpiKieed to be not 

ICreeter than 'ii miles. Aaeur4in|; to an <«tii>ute madu in 
l?tf4, tho distriet was eonputad to contain .'987 si)uare 

•Cuiter. iDll'i!U>l(«Uaa(i(lh>Ri|WASia4 bu l^r^lWviat bo|i-i« 
TUso* (!-■ 0>n>lirk<ii>). 'I^M OmbWOm (CWnf.Vi) it Lanunfc M 
lovir* I* xpm* 4> CAdM 4* «awan iMoiit mu-r h-ui <•(*■■* iluvl M. 



rUSo* (!•■ OxMbrkini). 'I.M Overt 

lovir* I* xpm* 4> CAdM 4* «awan uotniit mu-r h-w <•■«■» 

i1b BtolBitU* ■ era dnoti filia una *lMN k ^rl. Qtll Moimt Muflatiipht 



•Hfi|NMBl^llMI««MdlM«»uulBaUlU(i(«ln* 



milcK, abotU Iwo-thirils at vbidi were uoprodiictivc bStj 
CLiuntry. The lerel lands lie near to ilio wa ; iIm: inlenn 
U generally biUy.nnd covered with iunf);W,llwrepid jji uett 
of which u iBvoured by the uuMtnces of tbc rlimWfc ^'~~ 
rainy »caM>ii leta in eurlier than in most olbcr p«rtl • 
pnivinLV of Bengal, and continues later, aoiuetiines till 
middle of November. Tlw country i^ watt^rrd by avtat' 
Tou» KtrcamK, uiicludf of wliidt flow towards tbe bay W 
Btin^ anil the rot into tho Iravi^ddv. Thu iriort. ad- 
hidcmblo of thtst: streams is the Ksmapbuli. or ChittaftiDg 
riviT, which, ni iti tnniiili, funub & sceurc harbour, bu tn 
eiiil)U)£d, tlwt ilunnic ibt-- continuance of the BuUth-i*c9l 
nioiuooD it is gciicr^y iLQleult fur ftuwcb lu put to Ma 
Tlic channel of this riivr st tlw mpital, labmuliad, is abon 
a mSo broad \ but a liithi higher up its width docs Drt 
e.tceed !Mi yardii, altht>u)(h the tide otntinues Vt tin 
stroni^y up the river. The souroc <if this ri^er i:i tu Avfc 
whence it flows wiulli-wwl to tbc district of Chitiagonfb 
which il enlen by the Mugh moantains. where rasay 
waterblls oocur. 

The ri^xr Nauf. wfaidi fomut tbu souUieru boundary irf 
the <U»Irict. » about TD tnilnt south of laUmabed ; it u 0.4 
uuvigatile: tile bunks of this river aje, lor tbc most |wt, 
covered with thick jungle, and exbibit only • (cw s|«(» 
cicnrcd for cultivntton, and u few utiecrablu dwwlltn)fs *l 
hunlaiuen, who eutuhanildtmc ckphuits, whidi ere wat 
^tn Qiittagoi>K lo every ^ait uf Iluiduslui. In tliv- < >Ei7 
of llic Kniuuphiiii arc »uiii<^ rich tracla of Luid, • 
by Beii^-*4lo»'.-. itbii.h }idd iilaiMuins, Migvr, t 
biiirar-eone, coltuu, indigo, sntl tobacco. The tanil a- |W'- 
celW out into very small diiisiuiw, ha^^np funurtU tlw 
»i(»igne<l for the »uup«rt of the mil.i ■ 
ilitli'ict, to pr<!vciit Inri incursion* of lli< 
WMn tlm military ettabtithment ccuk-i i.- w 1 
tltu farms tHxaiue xaraindurios, and have b««n r^ n 
in tho arlminittrslinn tif the eountrj. Btitwuon 1 
areeovcr*] wvll-v*nteredplxun» and VBlle>'a, of smui 
whwb uri- cultivated partly by Hindus of Bui^. 
(lurlly !■> Muglij uf Araean. who laifirntcd int.. ■ 
trict upon the ciinfiuent of thnir country by tl»e Bute 
17&3. Till) majority of the MugUs wbii Ibuii wtUed tit 
Uhtttagon;; nrfi irndcN and mechauics, onh a smell prysc 
tion h3.ving beromo cultivalorfL. Ksdit&ive ef the klujck 
sutller*. Ibc inhnbiumts uf Chitlogung went eatuualcd. ta 
18V1, at \,'20V,aott; but thi> ouinbof u probably exeentn, 
eonsiilering the physical circumstftnre* of the eoVBlif 
Tbit Mohammedan inluiliittuits exceed tlw Huidus lu Wini' 
ber In the proportion oflhree to two. 

Il i; ,.,.,,.. ,^,^ that Chitlugon^ wssonos a fVnnlierpn- 
vlnr^'. til Ibrtndi'pt'iiilcnl kinsdotniif Tripuni.and 

ItiBt d ..- i-Liiilltet.i lK-iui--cn the Buddlu«Ia arid Brafe- 

mins, it vm govi'med tonwlimes by ebieCf of one and 
Sfiinolinicf. of tho other religion. I hiring the wars botwsHi 
l)u> Moguls u:id Af^huna. tlte dixirici uot held by Iks 
Buddlii»l-i of Aracan, und yet at itie hcffiuniiiB of tlw im- 
ihitit reniurr tho pnnulelien coulaiitcd scamHj a singk 
BuddliuL III l^^2 IhiM diilricl wu* ennuiLTiiied by .AmI 
KazI nniong ihe dominions of the }kIo^l sovi'rtri(.iis, j<4 tt 
dofti nut »pp«-ar 10 have bwri adualj')' in tlirit {inMeatioe 
until l(,(,e,. Neiirly a <«ntiiry later (IfAO). Cluttairon;: «at 
ei'ded to the EaM lodia Company, by Juftlcr ^\li Kbsa. 
In Injo, when Ammn was Uktrn from thi- Mwv — i'm- 
|K>liiicaliiup«tiutc:ideuceof Chilbwon^wits 1 

the go^ernuicui of Araoan. and nes so col _: . 

prtwnt time. 

{Agini-Ahiitti ; Benucll's Memoir; Hamilton's Ratt 
Initiu GaseUrrr ,- Report q/ Commilln tff Hatuf */ Cam- 
mwn* (lM;ti> on affain 0/ /tuiui.i 

CHITTOOIl, a towii and siuell pollau or di^trirt on 
Ibc wcsicm Mde of the Carnnlic, in 13^ 19' N. Uu and 
79° 10' E. long., eitfhly-tWD miles west frou Mudms. 'fW 
fiiliiatiun is uulimiiry tAronv;, beiitK between two nnicm «f 
bill». one of wliich bounds tho wlachwil, and Ihe otiwt 
^rins an irrc^lat sweep of varieua clt-^ution. and s^ 
piuoclies within a few mile* of the ms nt > nhurt dulAiico 
BvinMudnu. This tnclwaaaoquircd from the Nabob of the 
Camaiic in liiiil.aDdBn aaaeaaotentuf tl>r lur.U ^d- i^u<W 
ill till- E^lloviiti){ vcv; but it wea no! 1 ><,- 

Bnliah tilitaineil compleloand (|uiet !>•>■ ' •]>* 

expuUivii uf the Pi>liuars,vr «iddI1 tnVuiun ■ \ . m 

llw land* viir« Ui Id, uud who bid neier b. < ^iiry 

subdued hv the Mohaminedan*. (Us(aiito&'» Hatt InJia 
Ctufllwr.] 



cm I 



ff9 



C H I 



CHtVAtHY htt onarrumlf been rcprcMoM m a ijt«I 
imtinitinn, inwnted in th* ckionth oenturr, ftif ■ grtntl 
noret ]iurpo«« that of ttrug^tng agtirvK the (feplomhle 
\ eBBdition of doHety aI ibat penod— of protcetinj; tb<f venk 
' iriinst ttw- ftKTtg, ami wdre«ini( indivtdnal injuritw. 
J 8r> pr<-ra)(<nt nnrl lb deeplv-TiMlvd li.ii. )>«(■» t)iu notion of 
(ihp ontrin nf Chmlry, ihai »* find it »t fiirth cv<^ in llt« 
|lifw llntnfre df» franjatt of M. dp Siinmnfli, • wrilor 
Ibtually so rlMr«igbt«dnnd m little a litre In the ronlin^ 
|«f hit rrcdmwMora. But a rloscly atlfintirc m woil u 
Bhilc'KbjihiMl BR&ljRis nf 1hi> hixtory ttt Ruraprnn tocHttr, 
tile middle sgM, prftTvti (his tlworr. ar rather thijt rnip- 
Atlioii. to be d<'r«itfiil. It shorn os thai Chivalry was 
int, in ibe t-1«f «nl)i rontury, nil inn(i\-nli(in, nn iii*liluti<in 
night about Ly a vpecinl origrm^ which it w" oxpro**!;* 
iidM[iii^l to mcvt. It arose much mote timbly. man nata- 
raJl). ami raiiro silently; it wss but tlie drVrtnpRK'iit of 
'"psierinl UtM langbofbreuximing— tho*panl&nmii« rotutt 
f the Germanic nuinnen Rnd iheti>iidal relations. It tnnk 
I birth in thu interior of the fmidnl ^n^sir>nl^ u-ithoiit any 
. iDirpurfi brj'ond (list of docJarini^. flrot, the adtniu-ion of 
Dung m*n to the nuik and oecupolloo of the vnrriar; 
'Iv, rhe tio irhirJi bound hiiD t» his finidal siipprivr — 
0, vho conlbrrcd upon htin ihn nms of t;ni^bllin<id. 
ItbwelllKlui irrdngable proof in th« history of the 
nUt tlMlt vliich wai conttantlr xised in the latinity 
BDJddle aoM to ilosignal" tho rhi-tiilii^r, or kniuhl. 
U the end^of tbe Roman ein[)irf, tlw lert) mHifart- 
^ iifl«-d (tRiPly to wr^-e, to disoharze som» aeniee towards 
I siiitoriur. wIwiIkt ihe snTire itwif twre of a niilitnry or 
|civij nature. Tlw wrvie" origtiudly deDoU-d by this ex- 
~ ion. indeed, waa. n-i doubt, the military serriro rx- 
iy ; hut ibn uk- nf (lii> trini had in rminv of time 
[landed until it ciiilinirud en-ry anlwrilinate ofR*e 
nctinn. After ihe Ocrmanic inrntions of the tlu- 
I Rnnwin rmriio. wc find it fmjurntiv eniplnjcd in 
_kg nf iIkIiiiiiu'IhiM >tf ilic harlxriitn icin)^. aiiil the 
, whirl I llietr (iiiipiiii^in* hHd ali"Ut ihe-.r i*rsons. 
iSatutal toliii;{rrs>Kin. in conformily witb the 
Jvcn to the »"ciiil sUii; ihc term aiUrs n^iumwi 
tclu^vely a^rliki! iluinidrr, and dcnnled l)ie 
Llbithful to the service of hia tuporbr. It thus 
wnii'niotis nilh rtUHtt. or r<usaBii.t. and indi- 
Itfrrtain maiil)(^ld<>rttiiiillii.Tnbencllciiiiii, or lev, 
ifbp'l t-> bin) by (hot tonwdLTnlion ; in nhnrl, 
1' : ' iiiury, ibc word milo dc- 

tiitt i .1, ft* nrdinurily runeciix-il 

. nii^ tii:i;M.'irha3 de»crt1wd bim, hut 
;ho vabmI, of a fciulnl superinr. 
V if ^le and nirCtsMirj origin <jf chivaln.'. 
aunt! of its develojimuut. whi-ii unce thv ftudil 
It^iuirrd »omo (U.'t{rcc of Mability and »clf-coii' , 
IUki^s Ihf fvctiii^K, the rirriinijt»witi of etoiy 

I »l(eud«d the yutuii( uiaii's udnus^ioQ among I 

t1 warriora, c^rae under tvfo inflvwnoes «htfh eoon 

a frmb direction, and imprvMcd them with n 

l»ar»ett>r. Rdigion and imasiiiBt iun, poetry and the 

__fc, laid h-^ld on chivilry, and used it m n powerful 

itu of flttaininj; tbc ohjc<t th«y bad in vii^, ot meeting 

moral want* whieb it wm llieir buam««6 to prnvido for. 

r as the nini!) c«ntiiry we fl&d aome rvligiooa eer«- 

nuwviitrd vrich the Gcmftnio pmttiees on tbc« 

It. .A nupcinrt account of the rewplifm of a ebe- 

_«. aa prairltied in Ih« twelfth **ntiiry, will Omw nliat 

";;tv»s tim c«rabinstii>n hod made, and bovr powerAiJIy 

ehureh had Inid tu t^mp on ev«ry paitieuuiror that 

pn -I"! of iTio foitdal life. 

r>. the K|iiiro, B^iHnff tu knighthood, na 

tf ' il nf bin nnniTits anil pul into a tath, the 

•if punlication. On his ratsinf; out of the hath. 



^ dad hlin in a «hile tunic, tho (^inbi>1 of purity- u roil 

iblematic nf the hlivid which he wu lu t^tiivi in (lie 

'ths faith, and a bUek d'luhlet. in token ■jribi- div 

. wliieh awaited bin as wvll as all nnnkiml. Tltiia 

p^BctI and rititbcd.tlu norieo ItRpt a risorcus fisi for 

^6)Ur liiiupi- When wenin; r.irae, lie entered tb* 

, and i»a£«!d th* iiicl.i ui r>-if.Li, uiinrtiiiitT* atone, 

'UMiiiiiii vilb a prie«l and -Mib '>|>::ii>:'i« ivh« prayeil in 

By irtlh him. The m-xi riiur;ini;r, his flrkt act was 

after which the pries) aitii^niiKleretl to bim the 

J ; and after commutiuin liu lizard a moM of the 

noBi, nnd eoiDioonl; a serroun oik ihe dulic* of a 

BT, and the now cdhtm of life on wbirh he waa 



*0»k. 



about to cnler. When the aermon vai 0Y«r, tbe nnn'i^ 
adrani-ed toward* the altar, witb tho sword of knittbthonii 
iiut]>ond.>d from bis nv«l( : tho priett took it oti; bicasod it, 
and aMiii.-b<)>l it to his nock nKuui. The novice then went 
mid knelt brfore the lord who waa to knight bim. 'To 
ibhut end.' the lorl then asked hiia, 'do you diMiro to enter 
into Miia order? If it is that you may ba rich, repoae youV- 
wlf, and bo honoured without doing honour to kniehthotid, 
then you are unworthy of it, and would bo to the kmshl- 
ho'>d von H)u>tib) receive, whjt the limoniaeaJ clurgynuLD is 
to the prelacy.' And on tlio younemana anawarini; lluit 
he (iromiMd well to diaobarf^ the outiea of a kn ii;lil, tbfl 
lorn i;mnt«<l hta requeU. 

Tbi'n Ani knij^hta in ottendanee. and Mmetitnw ladies 
approfteh the noriet, and array bim in bis now. ifarb. 
pnttint; on flrtt the apart, next the hauberk oreoatof inBil, 
ibcn the minus or brvast-plale. then the bromrta or nrm- 
piec»«, and the xauntlttts, and lastly cirdin^ on tlio snonl 
Then, ho wns duMfti. to nee (ho moiWn En^ub ciprce* 
tion Herive'l fmm tho French adouM, wbiiUi, neeording la 
DiiKmge, simiflod lubjOtd. The lord rosi* ttam hm mwt, 
went up (o him and ptve bim the aeolrt.i^. th.it is, tlirre 
strokes with the flat of his awonl upon tbu sbMiMer nr the 
tinp<> of tlie nr«k. and soinotimeti a blow with tho pnim of 
hi* hand upon the eheek. aaying, *In the name of God, 
Saint Michael, and Saint Georgw. 1 make thee a knight :* 
and Bomelimns adding. 'Be thnu brare, hold, and loyal.' 
The yonno; man \mmv ihos knii;bt<.-d, tbp}- handed him hw 
helmet, and hroucbthiin a borne upon which he upront 
usually without thw aid of lh« stirrun. and caraeolMl uithin 
the chureh. brandishina; bis Isnccund linurtikhinc hi* swonl 
Then quilting the cliurrh. lie went and oxhihili'd himself 
inlikem^mner in {niblic.lienuHlb (be castJe walls, befuru the 
populace, whom he found eagerly awaiting their share of ihe 
spectacle. 

It is cnsyto rmi^isc in nil this tbe>infltienc« of the 
priesthoixl, stndionato aaMieiale reUgion with crery cireum- 
stanco of a solemnity so important in the warrior's life. 
Not only have tlie Christian saeramenta their place in the 
ceremonial, but several of the oIncrmtCGS more pecidiarly 
cbivalric arc assiniilut'sd as inurb lu poMible to the admi- 
niatmlion of a sacrament. 8ucli was the share (aken by 
tho ecelesiasliral order in whnt may ba colled tlic cxlcriur 
maivrial part of tbe rci-e[ition of a knight. And when we 
look into the moral eharaclcr of chivalry, when we eitiimine 
the ecricsfifoatlui required of the kni^bls at various pcri'xis 
from ihc tlrTenth tu the fifurtcenth century, aiid mark the 
ideas and ilic fi:elin;in> ^ith *>hich it wax sought to imbue 
thcro, wcfmd the clerical influcivc no lew dislinett}' ap- 
parent, Ortain it is. that in the obligations tbusirapQied 
Upon the chevalier, we find a moral dereluptnent exlreuely 
fuTPii^n to Ibo »tat0 of by society at that period. Moral 
notion* «) o\alt«d — often no ilebcaldy scrupulous — abpve 
an, a» bumanc-, an<l an constantly iinpresaod with the rv- 
lirit^Ui eliunirt*r. evidently emanated from the clcrg;. Tliey 
ftpine then vieuvd tho duties and relations of tneu in such 
a lifcht ; and their influcnt^e, it tnuat bo owned, was eoa- 
Blatilty employed in dirM'ting towards the ftilBlment of 
those dtttieis, and tho improreraenl of those rebtiens, the 
idfu and the usoKes to whicli ebivalry had g;iTen birth. 
Vfhatever evils nvultetl Trom Ihe unaerupuloos and impro- 
vident UM* wh^t-h ■)«■ Human church made of Uiis direct 
inllueneo m-er the power of the swonL in promoting to 
many eroaadM againiti the infldal and the scdnsmatie, it ua. 
deniablv made uiie nf Ihe ehi*iilrio iiutittttions which fett^ 
daltiin hadbruui^hr lorih. in bibouring to introdiiee internal 
peaee in society, andairinctet and more a)iDpi«bentiv« 
morality iotn individu-il eonduct. 

In proportion as this endcMovr succeeded, and asebi- 
till)' more and more apiieared under a eharacler at uneo 
milikev reh^ons, and moral, at onii; confurmalile and 
Kupenor to t^ Uittinl inanntm. it seized upon and inllamed 
the iuiaffinntuinsof mm: and in hkcDsnnor as it had intt* 
tnaldr nound itself up'with lUuir lielief, sn it alao heemme 
Hie iileal sLindard of ihcir aspirations, and the soureo (dF 
(heir Mtnl exahed plcssurcn. Poetry, in sbon,laid heULon 
elmulri, a* reli^inn hail nlrrmdy dime. As early as the 
elCTonth ecnlury. the ehivjlric i-ereraonics, duties, and ad- 
renmrcs. formed tho mine to which the poets moited for 
the inenntt of charming the people ; of at once mtifrinc 
and stiinulalini; that cntnni; of tli« iiu >!("»('<'". loot thirst 
fiir inndi-iits UHito \ar)ct] and more ^irrmg, fur cmudooa 
purer awl more oloYatod, (ban real life afotda. If^n'flk 



t^ti 



C H I 



100 



C H L 



fthouia be observod tliat iii ilie earlier elB^t of sociely 
pwitiy is not tueiwly a uulional pastinw ; U is sIho > laeaiiK 
of progntei, cxalang and ilnelop'ing manN iDontl iiuturt-. 
The ]Me(iod mnainK thai linri' deMwiuleil to u> ftum thai 
a^ sliofr. llitl th<! ^uel itiijKiAed upon tli« chevalier tlic 
fiiUihiiocil uTllie samtf duties aiirl the practice of ll)() wiiiif 
TJrtuei. an wi>ro iticulratwl iutlt<iniuro Kulvnin exhortatiuun 
of the |iric»f. 

It u an oft'Tvpfite'd obterralion, tlial all thin mix tncri; 
pottry. n fine HiimHira. bijoniiB no rcwimbliitirc whatever lu 
tho realit}'. Ami iniintl, nliuii vu ruiiviiler the slate of 
maiiiierH in lliow.' three contaries, and the inndvnUof daily 
owurrpncethotfillcii the lives of men. ihc rmitrail tietwi'di 
tli« dtitin ami llic artiuiM uf tba ihrvali' is h Irulv shock- 
iiig. The period before U3 is undtiubledly one of t^ic iiiiJ!"t 
^roasly brutal in tho liUtorr of EMni|icaii Kocii^y, oiiu in 
wUit^li w(* fiiiil th(! grcaleal uniuuul of rntiio mid vioknvc> 
in which the pubhu |:cace wbh most iiicoMantly rli^Iutbi.'d, 
ill irbii'.Ji l!ie tiioBt duwulutu muiucrs prv^uilccL Tu auy 
one alteiidiiii; uiily to llic juisilivu ami ]ira('iit.-al hImIc nf 
Mcicty, all liiia i>tH-lry and loorahty of diiVDlrv Wolut like 
aliccr CUaeliootL Yvt it it uiidcmablu Ibat ttie vhivairic 
mvralit)' and welry vxi»ltHl sim»ltnDvou«lv witli thcic dii- 
otdvn. vritl] tliie barbarism, with ull (hit (Wpkirable Doeml 
vtatu. Till" iijrjiiutiiL-TitA are lirfuFc ua: the cuntrwtt, vv 
ivpcDt, u (Jiookii))!;, but it ii; nmI. 

Thi* very contra*!, howM'i'f, form* Ibo jrwit diitinctivo 
c-bamricriiftir of the middle agea. Wli«n we look into other 
Ko«ial KvMcm^i, 114 tho Grd> and Konutn, whf^n \r(i oxomine, 
tir ln>tanc«, ilic rarly staL'i^ uf Gr*ck sorifty. its lieroic aye, 
of irli it'll tli^ puciiis that b»ar the naine of Homi'r pre^nt 
a fuitbfiil mirror, w? iWrc find nothing ras^mbhut^ the 
«0Dtradimii3u itmt itrikei ui. iti the intdillc a^un. Tin; prur- 
tiei! and tho Iheoty of inaniien arc thorp nearly accordant. 
\Vu flu nut liiiil iiiAt) bavine idrait inui'b {iiirsr, tiubler, and 
more i^eneroui than llit-ir daily actJ. Hoiuer's heruvii mwrn 
quitv iineonM-iouK iif tbtir onn brutality, farocity, selfish- 
weui. and cuvetousnttui ; itutir moral ncicneo in no boltdr 
than iheir candutt; their principle! are on a level with 
their ariM. We Bud it to have bwii (he same with all other 
social hvaiema iti their vi)(oronii and turbulent ymitli. But 
in £iiro)>c. mi the contrary', in the middle agt% while Ihu 
deedt are habitually d«lmia.blc, vhilo crimes and (ligordem 
of OTcty descrI)ition abound, yet wc llnd dwdlint; in the 
minda and imai^naiion* of men Dobler iiiittmL-tH -xnil niuru 
exalted a.ipirnlitHis, Their noliuii* of virtue are niwcli ni«r<t 
doieloped; their ideas »f justiri! iiif-oin|inr!ihly betler than 
what IS practiivd around thi-iu, than what ihi-y (irartiso 
tiiciunel^'tiii, A brii^btrr idoal uf uiomlity hovers as il were, 
above tliat rude ami storiny aiicial Male, nltroeting ihe view 
and comiDaDdini; the respect of men irhuu live* arc little 
cQoltinnablo tn ii, Cbristianity must undoubtedly Ix- nnkjpd 
anvD^ tht) firincipal causoit of this fact: for its grcol elin- 
radcnbtic u, it* labouiiiiK to in.suirc laeii wU-Tl a hiirli 
mortil atiibitiun. lo kci-p ui>nMaiitly before llieir eyts ii 
standard inlinilcly mipcrior lo liunmii rtultty, and slimuloto 
Ibeiii l» nflaui it. ])iil whutoNcr be Ihu caiue. the fad i» 
mdubitublo. We find it cTcrywbcrv in th* iniddle q^w. in 
the puputar iiovlry *a irell aa iu the exborlalions of tho 
pricetA. Tlio moral (>i>o««)>tion!i wf iii«u rwso far above tho 
practice ufthoir live*. Nor let it bo tiiouitht, botauBis thoao 
coneejitiona did not yuvern their actiona. bocaUM their 
pruptice to ftrangcly kcdied ttwiiT llioory. tbol the in^ucaco 
of tJi«tbeur]rwna~Bb«olutelv null. Tim habitual judgment 
of miMi npon hnman actions in not without it:( cffvet. ll 
haa been jmtly remarked, that a bad action in lirtu-r than 
a bad principle: a bad aclion may remain iMlatcd and 
*oli[nry; but a bad phitniplu i» Roiij,tam1v fhictifjing: for, 
alter nil. it t^ ilu> mind that governit ; and u man acta ttom 
reflection much uflener tliaii ho ii himiiGlf awaro of. In 
tl|« ages of chivalry, wo n^pcat, tbo principles were inHnitely 
Ixillcr than the acts. For instance, at no period periiap* 
tua tbe iiitercoum botvreen the texet been nioro lieen- 
liou*: yet nm-«r was purity of manners more Mroiii^ly en- 
joined or more feelingly dncribed. Nor was it a thorno 
for uoetir eulogy elone. Wo dm] from a mnltilude of l<«- 
tiiDoniet that the public thought in this partietdar as the 
iiocl spoke, titui tile pret^liag moral nmiani were pure 
and uubig onudst all the ruwiDMs and lic^atiouuicM of 
cendact. 

Thin, then, ww the ^and moral characteiiuic of chivalry, 
which e.-.tiUcjt -.i lu :i:i imimilanl ['rljii.t 1:1 ll't iiiiiL'rv oftii.). 
4ftp civiiiJtation. If. «n ilie olhvr tuiiid. -ac regard it iioi 



in a moral but in a social point of vttv, not u an ideA,bQt 
OK oil inmittitiiin, it meriiA but »l^ht consider»tion ; fbr 
though it hud u gruiC and Htirrini; part in tliO wvrid't 
alTaii's^ yet. as alreadyiliawn. it did n<acanatitule an actui] 



xpcnflc insiiiuliMii nt uU. Tlitf feudal lords ihe pt 
uf iliifii. wc-rt- alune clievdieri; they oIdbc, with lew tset^ 
liaiift. had the ri;;hi to become so. TLic knijjbta formed n« 
»epiirntr rlnu of is>jrifty with dintinct (Uncltooa aiul diitm 
Thun clmalry, priipctly bo called, being inseparably bou&J 
up wuh feudality, could not xurMve it* cAtiiietiun; ni 
arcorilin'^ly, s" early an tho fourteunlh vtutur^'. when oua 
pared with its cutidilioD in the twelfth, wo &ad it to be ra- 
pidly dtelininp;. 

h had. htfii'in-cr, tpvcn birtli lo the reli^ua order*, ai 
the Temidurs, tliu kuigbta uf !jl. John, and tli« TtiutuOie 
kni^hte ; and it was bci^nin^ to v''<'du<'« (ho counlj «f- 
der« — llioao of gart«r.-> and ribbuiu — the kjiiichth«od «f 
uit:re rank uiid parade. It wuo dc«tiu«d to tineturo yet ■ 
toii^ wliik the mannvra, tbo tangua^ and the litt.T«lurc ^f 
Eiii-opean swicty. But the Iruo cbivalry, lUat to vltidl 
n\iiM- the name cun »trictly bo applied, nourished anil ftl 
inlh ftiudalidUi, 

ClltVICS, u tmulUp«<'ic< of allium called ampdopmsuta. 
Its bulbs have tbe nsual gnrlic odmir of the genus, and ir 
tiseil in toupii and Mcv« : they are hut liUlc eulti^-Atcd- 

CIII.-E'NIUS, a jjenuK of cftioopteroiii iusveti^ of the 
family ffdrpaltdtf, and *eclion PatrllmmanM (OeiMn.) 

Tho «pvcioB of ibiK gciiu)^ rtrit ull of tuletiihly larf^ an, 
very elcj^nt in form, and generally adorned with vatiM* 
hues of green, the colours being rieb, but not rIiscv. 
uwin{t to the upper tiarln boing moru or lews covered ailk 
a very itelii'jttu pube»cen(:«. which produces a silk-like 
appeurunee. Verv many of Ihe species have the lect and 
aiiiciiiUB of a pale yoUow colour, and tliu outer inar^nu r' 
ilie wirii;-cmai» iif tbe name tint, and tome ha\e tbo clitn 
adurnea ivilh larce yellow tpats. 

Tlie ut'nus Chleenius eonitiliites a very loi^ group *t 
Ihi! lIiirpBlido!, nliidi, uceoidliig tn our vSca-s. etobraen 
Ihe genera Epomit und Dinodet, we will therefore biMlf 
iiijiiri,* the distingnishiiig characten of ihcM- three ^Ufs. 

All ihrtie of Iha genera aj^ree in hating ibn lurKi oif ihc 
anterior pair uf lei^s dilated m tlie males, and a btftd loul^ 
in the ouddli^of Ihcemarf^nalion of the nienhitn ; but tbrt 
dilTer I'hicUv in the form uf the tcrmnul joint uf the |nj|u. 
and the dirfi'rciice may be thus expressed: — 

Terminal juint of ihc palpi. 

P.tniiKaled iiiiil tniiiealed at the ajHfX. ChLmiiu. 
Eloiittsti^d end diithiftly securifoini *. f'pamit. 
Short nil J slightly s^curifonii. Dmodet. 

Asrejjard'^tiicfonnnl'lhi-w; inm-rla, the body is genenllr 
rourc or lean ovul, and ver>' Edighllj' convex : the thorai a 
almost always considerably narrower than llie tdytrs. bnad 
luwani* the Anteiior pan, and diiidnishini; !n u idih towkrdt 
the piismrior. The liead in rather loii^ the eycHprujecl cm>- 
siderably, ondorc rather remote fVom theba»c uf the bead; 
llir imrliun of llir head before ibe eyen i» ntllter pointed. 

The apucivn ant fouiiil under ilonect, «eedn, and altamt 
>ny rubliah ^bich will alTord them shullet; somettau* 
uiideir Ihfl l'>oflc bark of old trees, near the root, but ibty 
muht bu auujiht at\er in the vicinity «f n»ler. 

Of the KcnuBChln.>niuKM- LoCviute Uejvau cuumenks 
one hundred und fifleeii ipecici, a i;rea! pijtlion ofnliitk 
are European; many arc fruiu Africa, tbu eitil Indies aaJ 
North America, hut South America and Australia appear 
to be almoi'l det.iituti> of ih««c insect*. 

In Ena;tsnd eiehi 6{>ecieH have Ijeen discovered; of tbe** 
hoitwer'two only hove been found iji any abnndaiioe 
ChiiTHiiu vettitut { C'trabut maraaattu, Lin-} is ver^ con 
men in the south of £nglondi, ana is fimcd under stobti hj 
Ihe odi^ of ponds wb«ro ^vel abounds. It u acerly 
half on inch in length, blaelc brnfath, and of a rieli g>e«a 
colour above : llie elytra are diilineily iilriated, very finsly 
punctured, and coverod with a delieale pubeAoene* of a 
i^olden hue: their outer margin is of a psie vellow colour: 
this tint is confined to a narrow lino towartft tho hose of 
(he el) ttm. but forms 3 broad patch at tbe apex ; th« haod 
and thorax are rather gloi«y ; Ihe latter is finely puncCurvd 
tlirgughont. and has the mo^n slightly tinted with y^ow; 
tho le^. anienns, and palpi an yellowislt-wlute when Dm 
insec:! is oliva 

• F«nilforro (itfwn/h-^Bfi. • WTi-q Uh Utn Jxai Of tla Irrfcr It liifs- 
eul'i.awl UiE {•"*■■■< b**' ■• niiBWSfS valKbevertMof thslruult' 
l.i.»jMMB^B»--,J«W*»ril^lrJgm*SMfcg>.Ta.n,p.aM 



CII L 



101 



CH L 



Of tfU! ffctiufl Epnmu M. Di-juui enum«ntos ux gfvciea. 

fKw or which is »aid ta have been Rtund in £n);laiul. but it 

II ItBM dcciicdljr \wrf ran, nncc only titivu B)>i>riiii<.'ii* arv 

tMoHc<L II i» about thne^okrlcni or aii incli in U-nsth ; 

Iwftd aii>1 Ihonix nreof on obwura bra«>y-f;ra)n colour 

I ilq^lillv punctured; the olylia tuv blacic. «itb llie 

Mit«T miugin pale ycllgv ; th« log* •n'l AOlennn an also 
y*llow. 
Thu epcneo H not uncommon in franca and JMy. 
Tbo ^U3 Uinodsi ooly embrace* four tp««ies. D. 
•"M^s^rU about bairon incli in IcaKtb.ofa rioli bliio colour 
Bbnie, and Andy puinMurvH llirou|i;hout : lb* \o^ and bmio 
of iho uiit«nnn oro of a rcdiUth-vi-llov c«UAir. 

The tbnnuc in ihia (^ui (taki'nt; D. nififtt u the t>-p(<> 
li liiaAder ami tnoro rounded thai) in llu> fcenera Ctiinntus 
■id Epomift- The mxie* dvsotibrd i« found In Franoc and 

CHLAMYDOSAURUS, a ^ntu or SAuriant. r.-iiin(l<<d 
by lilr. (!rsy. upon • vpecinwn bToa|;h[ homu by Oiplnin 
WiiJlip Pwkof KinfT, R.N.. K.R.S.. &p.. on hw return ftwm 
his siirwy of the inienroptcal and ir««ti<rii <'aBSti of 
Auxlrnlja, pi>rforni«d b«tw«on ihu yean 1818 uid lt<23. 
The rullowiiig u Ur. Otny'a dewription : — 

Animal scaly; the head d o p n wa o d; thg nostrils pinoed 
on lb« tidfl. midway bvtwgvii wa vjm and ilui end of the 
haacl: tho drum of tliL'var nakad; the (htnt teeth conicul. 
nrt^uped (eiirhl in the upptr, mid fitiir iu tbo lowor 
faw), tM himlM nne« Iihii^-st: Hip «idi! ur cheek twih 

behind; tongue abirt, ^thy. with an aval mnocith disk at 
»»rh ride of "the lower pari of it* friiiit purl; nerk nlhvr 
lon^, furniKtuTd on each »ide with a l&ri;;? plaited fnll. 
tnpported above by n crvseeiit-sbnpod rarlila^p, nrisiiig 
mm Ihv itppCT hinder part of ttu- ear, ami. in \\\v middle, 
etotigaUon oftliciide forkof ihcbort^orthctonc^e; 
•npiMwi). lega rather lon^. npixinlly ihc hinder 
dmtitnto oftbainnil porr»; twt four, wilh dii: ttii^ 
le lirtl tiaviiiK two. llif secciiid three-, the ihinl four, thu 
Euurlh five, and the lililo flnf^-r and ton lfaTT.f joints ; elan's 
i oM B rcMcd. hooked; tail Intig, nciirly roiunl, h-^iIv. Gx- 
tinple; Chtamydiuiiurtia Kinxii. The culour a yellfiwiah- 
linnrn, varieto»ed nilh black. Tho brad is dcprouMl, 
the flidc^ erect, leaving a blunl ridice o» the upper 
wherein the cycn are phwed. The rii^ omr the ejrji 
nmnd vith lari^or aralea thui ihoso owe tlic head. 

ri are rather hiuII, >Tith a IIe»Ky rUIj^e ubute ihcnt, 
cvelids are covered wrilli luinule «ckIi», and siu- 
'UndetL uy adcUoilu Mtratcd rid;^ of smnU U)m^lit ones 
lip« are xiirroiindcd by a row of obloux fuur-»i<k-d 
ormngcd U.-tii(ihwan^ tlie tixmi »cale of tliv upfivr 
1^ the liirgial. The chin i* covered with itariuw 
ibod tmln. with a flvc-«idcd ono in the cauire, and 
ernl of latxer »ij:e jjist over tbo front of the fork of tht 
iaw> The no»trili wi« lurroundcd by a mlh«r Ur^ 
. .Jar ar«l«, situ.ili^d nearly mid-way bolwocii the ov« 
liw end of the upper jaw, the tubes pointing forwaru*. 
of tbo I'urv liH4 a very uhvuro rid|i;i>^ «\iendin)[ 
an«1i>< of th«i ni'iuih to thu un(i«r uarl of tho ear. 
a ivii-oreil witli Muall settles. The frill ariiei 
:■•• hinder part of iho head, just over the front of 
■« altacbed to the aide* of tlio neck, and extenda 
(he firont pan of the ehehi. stupported abovo by a 
iHilage ariun^ froin the hindor donal part of llio 
', and in lhi> rontfe hy a bnno vhich ustlcuiU about half 
Uit^tb. Each frill ha» four nlait* which conre^ on 
> under jtarl of the chin, and fold it up on llw aide, 
B flnh where tbo two art! united ni Llie centre of the 
of iho neck. The IVont part of ila upper cdjre 
itl; aemited. but the lundo- or Lowor part it quii« 
ins uulor mK»e» m eui-erad with ennnatfd M^alrs, 
)•• in the ranlrobuiiig tbelurtceMl. Thu inner tiirfui-u 
qniid nomith. Tlic lealos of~the bark are o\b1, and 
ijr smooth; IImmc of tliv lownr part of the body and 
|Hit of the lo^a ha«<G a short mid* rib, autl tliuM' of 
la and Jointi: of the limh^ are minute. The tad i% 
a long a> the body, roundi-X cotcrrd «iih acalet 
havii earh a «barp niid-rih. and towards the tenoi* 
which i« bluut, form mx ruwt, so as lo roudur that 
■Itan ulneiirely hexagonal. "Hie toi>« are lonu:. vnr 
unenual, cuuipresM>t and acaly. The clu«!t are Iiuokcil, 
and no m -colou i«d . 

DiMMMni. Lenifth of the toil, t«e1\'e loehea; nf the 
ooif.tvt} tit the luisd, five aitd a-half. Breadth of (lie 



(.bi' 



ftUch 
[laitan. 



I hcsA tmt the tjta, one inch. Ijmfglh of the lliigh, one 
inch nine-tcntltt: of the foot and Hole, tira incties two- 
loiif hi ; of the outer edge of tlic rrill. lea tm^na. 

LocaiHtf anil HabiU. Wc owe thg dlscoverv of this 
extraordinary Saunan to Mr. Albn Cunninaihani. who 
accompaiued Capl. Kiog's cvp-rdilmn n.i his ftlajesty'a 
bolnnicel collMtor for Kcw Gardcui, and in whom nniu- 
Tnhns in gonoral are so much indebted fur tlie xmi du^ 
pbiy«d by him in bvonr of natural hiilory, and lor tho 
liberality with which he ha* communicated the loulls imF 
his Inhoun. Ho found iho ^ipecimcn from wliieh lln; do- 
ficnption wm taken on the branch of a n™ in ^reuninf 
Bay. at the bottom of Port Nelnon, nnd !k;iiI it to Sir 
Kvcrard Hrnno, by whom it was dvpi)«tfd in the Miuoum 
of tliu Kim\ College of Sun;oon». 'ilic foUowiii^ ia ifie 
uc^ountw the enpniro in Mr. Cunnini^lioni's Junrnol; — 
* I Mcurad 8 lixard of extmordinary appearanco, which had 
jM>n>hecl iiiwlf upon the atom of a small decayed tree; it 
iiad a curious i-reiiatcd raembnno, like a ruff or 1i)>pet 
round its neck, covering it* shouldeni, and whon ovpandfd, 
wliidi It na» enablod to do by moans of iran&ventu >Icrider 
cartilaveii, it opreodu tive inuliea in Ihr form of an vpen 
umbrella. I regret llial my co^eniett^ ici neeuro to intereeit' 
iiiE^ an animal did not adinii of sulildeni time to allow Iho 
[iisrd by iti uluniiur irrilabdilv lo ibow how fUr it depended 
upon, or wliat um it made <jf. tniH i-xuiturdinury moinbraiie 
«hru its lilb was threatened, lis bead was i-ulher birj^e, 
and ey«N, whili.t living, mlbur prominent; its (oni;urv 
although hitid, wns short and tliiek. and uppoured lo be 
tubidar.' Aci'urrlini; lo Oipinin King, tlie colour uf llio 
tonifue and tuMde of the mouth wim yellow. Mr Gray u 
of opinion tliat this 2rnus ia nearly allied lo the Affis'nir. 
[Ai;xuA, ZiHilngj.] Wo gi^i! a rrprcseiilation of the ilrad 
nniinal iVom tlio liifiire in the Appendix to Caplnin King's 
' Voyage,' where tlic animal and its catnure are deneribe^ ; 
and, behiw it, a mprcscntalioii of the livin;; hrail, an it ii| 
teca in the illustniliand to the ' Suite* fk BuJTon.' 



. 




:c)ilmniti<«a>*tiu Kl*(in 

■.lloniiul mill* MwiuBof (lis CvtUf* cf ^BreMM ■ k m-mcaUlfoo 
atilw tinBt Inail, 

CHi.AMY'PHOnUS (Zoolnpf>). Dr. Harlan*, name for 
a (i^nuf ol tjuudnipeds of Ihc order HJeftlnla, fint dv- 
wnbed by him in the ■ Annals of the New- York Lvtrcum 
of NWiital HbUotT." vol. I, iTom a *^o.-iiii^ii [T.-w-iitwl to 
the I'hilailelpbiii Miiseuni. on tht- IHth liecemher. 1624. 
Ill Mr. Wiilinui Cluachnrry. accordtni( to whom it ti the 
I'lrAiria^o nf ihn Indiana in Mer.dojn iii« native placv), on 
the QOSl of thu CoHdlenu. in lal. 33^ ii', and loug. t,^ V. 
Il had been obtained on thu T^jiiit in a living glaie, but lived 
in ronlliifniont only a few deyw "Ilie viicem niid lh« 
mater poniun of tl'io skolvlon luul httm letauved hefere 
the auiniai came into Or. ilttrlaii'a ^o«M»:\m\. Vn.'&w7<^, 



m^' 



I frjA, tliB eoniiril uf the ZunluKiettl Society of IiOnt]on,. iti- 
llueiii.-ed by (be recommcnrlBtiun of Mr. Vigora, placed Ln 
tile hands of Mr. Y«ncU u sptxiiacn of the nn> nnd nw 
ftiiitnal, and tUe lalUtr utiln loiJuijist sa CKenulud tliu Inuit 
re)Mwd in liiiii, as to ntoducc a pi^Hevt ttkcleton, without 
tiUUliiut the ikiii, wliic!) wii» muuntcd by Mr. Lcn'lbraier. 
\vlicii Hr. Yarrvll rvlumwt lbs >])i.-eim«ii (q lliv Sucidj'. 
bo unumpuiwil it with a >'aluabl« papvi gii tha oalMiloKy 
of tlie aaiiuaL front which wo ar» cnB.hl«(] to supply iho 
tnfonnatian which the bIucikg of iniloritiLi prercutM Dr. 
Harlaa frcra Xmux- 

Oittviogy. The tuna of thv bead prc««nU th« flf^re of 
ua ifregujar cone, the biMo of whirh is turned toward tho 
•pinv; the citmiuia dcot not o^Lhibil mty itutanm; the 
cftvitycapacioua: thft fTMilslbone MipportiO); Ik-o rounded 
prac««ies projcvliiif^ iipwAxU and M>ai«vhnt fUlTnnls; the 
spare Uelnoi'ii Ibi^iu ijci-upifi by » buIwIsium.' rvsi'iiiliUnB 
in nppcannw wltpoae uiallcrt fVviu vibicU i^AUvd a fluid- 
like mL Froro the oDturior part oflho baan oS l1it!*o two 
rouivled proocotoi* * iMirDw riufEv of bone cxtenda funrard* 
on «*cb ttd« convvrgtnc; lo«nirtU ibi- uoic. Th^ nual 
bunnt dongotcd, the oriftce openiiiff daffTtwurdK. No in- 

risor uor canine tcutit in either jaw : molars ;r, cilindrical, 

Hirpamii^, eiirirck-d witli tinamirl. hat none on Ibe crowra; 
the first tooth an each side (n the Ictwcrjaw, hnvin^ no 
opponmt. H ttc lonf€»(. the rrmninini^ !ic*i.in njjpwd tn 
the Rnl seven of th» iipiwr jaw. nnd takinv an^uliir int- 

Srettidmon their surftn-w by eonlncl: the lUrwiion ami 
epth of ihp Blveolsr cavilict of the unppr jniv dntiiiully 
markcd on the oiitnidr liyparallH riilKn; in ihi- lom-r 
jaw the alveolar mvitU-* art.* j>ierr«t Iht nhdli* depth. Tlio 
anterior jiortion of ihp lower ja-w i» ctrmgaiefl ; iho inferior 
cd^c connive tho fin>t half of its Icitgth, then convt-x : thr 
plalft broaU. riMue; at right nnglcxvith the lino of tho 
teeth ; the randjluid jirocew longvr than thu eoronoid, the 
condyle itself clonii^tcd tmnsvcTHly. The crcternnl im-alus 
auditcriuv i* t'xU'ndc<l in thit (bnn of a Miniirircular cylin- 
drical tube of bone, curvine round ibc bo»c of the lyjfomii, 
and paMiiie ri>rward4 tcmiinatca iu an iipcrtun- intmc- 
diulidr behind the eyv. TIiw orbits and Ivinpurjl lv»»a> 
unilfd: Ihv £)i;uiimlie orcli ia blender poelcriorl}', but be- 
cuiiMi much ktcoiu^er titwards Iho front, cspnnduig down- 
trntdth and funm^i^ with an acute doaoending piooeu. 
IImi occipital funimeu ia uf ^rvat nice. 




OHwaalCMfUfUTM tmi.mm] 
•.•kiill*m>IWaiabvT«|t,lAa«iDeM«fl(romMiiwi cUwmJnr. 

The ewvipal TOitobn wsvon, (be firel large, the articu- 
latiiifC riiffiice broad; the dnd, 3rd, ».id ■Itli. %ery flrmlr 
owAeA together, pierced with romuiiia for the pas»ng« of 
the n-nica] rcaied*; ihn 5th unitwl to tlm tlh on the 
under uiTfBM only; Ibc i;th and ;ib tleiider and separttc, 
alloviu liw head jmat f>e«dam of toolioD upwards; tlie 
whole or the latt nz (croaved on the under surface, in the 
tine of the iMwage of tho iMO|>liaguit. jWmI rertebne 
devan. tha apinou* primsu i^f the ftrst Hiende*'. three- 
oghtlwof an iwh I'ong, iho otberi dimini»h jfrsdually in 
hi^th. but iiKiniuKu in kim ; nil directed baekwordk. Thr 
litat rib id vorv braad. and from the ind U- the 8(h, tiM 
riba of Uie Chiarngphfinu. hlio Ummu of birdu, arc Qnalr 
united to tW iJcrnUTn vrilhout the inlorvention of an 
■loogBlod cinilnur ; nnd. uja;nin like tboM of btrda, an 
sIm NqipUMl Willi a iklao Jviul. at the diHaaoa of about 



an- 
hieb 



two-ihinla of their Icnclh (Vom tlic apine to tho atema 
Tbu !Jtli. lOlh. and llth. beiiiK £ihtc ribs, are uuiltil a 
the Uftualwayto each other, ana ta the ttth, by UoDgalMU 
of carlilairr front their cilrrniitin. The uortiona of t)||| 
iiilerveiii»|t bolwccii llie ful^e joiiiLt aud tnc stsroB 
in the fiih. 7ih. kiid Sih rib% MinsoUdaicd, broad* fla^ 
poriiona of liciiic. nhinh funn ihc bouiidu^ of the an 
and laierul |nirirti,-i. of the ihornx. The vtrtl bnno 
sternuia is l>n>ul and Hat, ilic ttupcrior surlhc« 
concave tho inferior irn>|;^larly convia. Up«n ll 
leriui udav vf the tlrrtiain are two pruuiinenoaa. to 
are atiaclied tha extrtinitir? of naih clavicle. Fram each 
of thc»c arlirulntiuna a i>lit;hlly duvatcd ridi;v proceob 
batkwurd* alnni; thn inferior surfiiw of 'h<- slemum, wn- 
verijing tuwanU thu oeiitir. whua' ihcv bvconio unitod, and 
form a prvuiaeot crcal. Tho lalcial edgu of th» fi»t boat 
of the Bternum ore artievlatcd at il> iTitvrior eTtremil; ta 
thefiratand broodint rib ; frotu Ihiaport tlic hon« KudiWaiy 
boromnt narrowed pMtteriorly, and tsnuinate!! m a concaie 
articuliir aurfacu to which tho eccond bone it ■>•- -r rr.uai 
i* attached. JuOffiiisfrom the iiaperfi>ct i the 

Mcnsd bone, of which thv up^'r |!«n nnh'u;^ --...;u.uS- 
able, it would appmr that ila i-<rea wan ubionp, th« aaperuir 
Borfiuie c^nefcve. The ivtnaining pmtinn of dm aternota 
vrae loo much nnililated lo admit further dctcriptloD. 




FCmiImi i«ricba>. liM t>»*<(tl.r i«muv- "lili |Mrta«f dMlrttod 
•fi>i«4 rl1i>.<c(4i b>>B arldw.) 

Lumbar vrrlvbne lhn:<.-. the Hf»i»c>tu proccates iliort and 
flatten^ ; ihu two l»«l doitfl T^Tlcbr«>, n» vitll ii Ibc lum- 
bar, ftimisbi'd wiih Innt; itlilii)ti4^ preco«tc» dueclod fcrwai^ 
upwunb. nikd outwards: ihu Irans^'ene pmrccMa of tkv 
flrat two lumbar Tertehm- considerably elengi^ated. the bd 
pMMMiinf; n rudinient only. 

The whole eif the laenitn otul innorainaia tA to peeular 
and unique in eharavler. that it isscarcf^lypoMibtoloipwark^ 
Rorraet tden nf thin part, without thir aRsu>ianc« of aeoaratt 
repreaantalinnE. Tbt- luporinr part of ihf ilium ia flattened, 
the upper part bent lo furm an arched plane at hoae, the 
eonravityof which furt* downwardfi end uutnanla: tlie 
vriata ufsr^nt len0h frain ticl'iire iMekwanla The inlanar 
pomon of DiL- ihnni is mueh stron|,;er. iiwliniiiif outawnk 
from ifn junclion with the «arruiD to Ibc aeetabulum. 

TIh> trannvisnu! niid tpinoiiM pniremna of Uw werun aic 
repreMinted by ihrt^.' sk'tider jiialcit uf bone, whieh. appiea- 
imntiDg a* they onhti bockwarda, are united to forta a to- 
turn, exieiidiui; (luwn tlie nKNliaii line of the uicruoi to IB* 
toil. A I'haunl'l n fonnvil uti <^icli ludi- ol' this scptUB bj 
a ihin Hat plate of boiit<. which, ariainf; from tbo yaaltifwr 
and Miperiur part of Ilii! ii^ebiuai on eoi-h side, is brat Oftr 
the boek pan of Ihe mciuui. and fluid to an arrlHd sad 
prominonl plnie of bdnc. which tt cileiidtgd ftam llus uf^ 
tuiii iiulnarilH, tn (iirin a jnn'lion with it. Tfaa chaDMl 
ihuh jrnilurud are Ixninded Wlnw by the saenin, on tkf 
inner vie* hy the septum, on the outer lidw by tho •» 
cendinK plaii^« of hone .iu»l described, and above by the 
juiwiiaii (it'buib. From tliia union a iihort nmrniii deni 
Mwrs hnrizonlaDy an each sida and expanila into a flat- 
it-'iied cirrnlar ptale of bone. b> the rou([h sur&oe uf whKli, 
OS noil Bj le the luUcrCBiijr of thi; iirhium behiw-, jMnioiM 
uf tlic trancated ettorior of ihn aniinil \n Qimly ailachvd. 
The under aurftec of the sacrum is broad and llalimcd, 
nnd marked by an inilittiact eeniral ridm The pehis 
i> open in front, tho oaa pubii nn each side do nat 
iudiiie inwards, but deseeno at riitht anylKs from tbt 
horiiontal kurfuce of the wonim. In the BirciuBalance of 
the pelvis being; open, tltcre ia a aecond nmnUaooe la 
Ihc bony striirture in birds. 

Ilio caudal vcrtebm are fourtocn in nniuber ; tha tianai 
verse prooaaaea of (be last tnwi ore eloaicaled. to auppert 
the thin dilatod lalaral edges of the paddle or spalalar 
extromily of llie tail La^- muscles arv inUiMldod in iha 
two cavities fontred on tho upper aurftjcv of Ihaawrum by 
ita septum and tha two lateral ulevatocl portioo* «f Iha 



£jb 



i%6lbndeienb»d;Knd Uunak hnla^nul mutclet 





of etpul t&w on iho onAar aurfacn. The Ct-ndon« of these 
mnoM verc inwrrivil on ihe upper and under pans 
irf _Uw vaa<U1 TcrtclKKi. giving (jreot po^-er to ilic mil. 
vhirh ia probably cxctrbRd in rcToovine hnckvardt the 
looBB eartli »fruinulai«d muler tl»e M\y of thin hiirrowinj 
*ninnl hj the acuon wf the ruro leg*, and for whii-li pur- 
|x»c ibe cxpaodud uid flaltenod cxtrtaiiiy sBCTca well 
■caicttlalML 



;V*rliblsa(lbadiilJ 

Till' Kspula hn* il> superior inarEin itni^hl. ending in 
1 DDlc-h or tirr*l t\tK ; llic base rouiHleil ; Ihe inferior ntar- 
(ui mtiavt). uid the piMtorWir infbrior tn^k RoiisiiWrablf 
rlotiipilH; tbu cornroid pionsm bni liille produced, the 



%pine etented, the acn»tniati \-crjr laog. fMsinK foTwrds, 
duwnvrards, and invnrils. over iHe hMd «f (tui kumcrua, 
to bn articublrd ti^ a loni{ and slender, but prrffct cUviclc 
There i» a *c«tnd spine of «mallor nzt, parallel lo, but 
b«ncalb tho true npioo. The liutncnu ift Uirec-fDurUm of 
«n iaeli in leoglo, Un^ and brood; the delt^'id civvt 

Eiinaat; between which And tl)» extornal condrk • 
groove ia fi>naed for Die Indf^roeni of inu«cl««, £tc. ; 
condyle! vttj much elouzaied traiikvoiaeir ; the inner 
condjlt' pcrforalnd nbnvo; iho odgf rifing from the ei- 
lernal condyle neiite. The ndiui tmall, anil Mvoii-«ix< 
teoiiihi uf an tueh in leni^ih; the ulna flattened, conc«v« 
upuarda, tli« olcrranon neBrly ua lon^ aa lli« ulna, hori- 
xooially flgatsnacl hIko, and prcwDtinz k niperior momw 
mrito^ eodins in a cune [loiniin); dbwnntmliL TIm (bn 
l\imial»d with neunoid banes tjt the iuaeniun of the 
ii-tidons of Iha llnor nuadsa. 

TliM fntaur, thineen-aixleenlh* of an ittt^h loii);, hurco 
and atronij; Ute len)^li of the neck conaiilenible ; tuv 

S9M troowmter riongatod baekmudft lioyund the line of 
c artinilalion of the head «f iIm femur «ilh thu uwiubo- 
lum. and endii^; ia a lubsrosiiy ; ih«! Itvwr tiorbaiilw 
diivetod downwards; a third trnclmiilnr prujoctiitt; frum 
thv oiitvr aids of tho ahaA of thn lemur Miiovwhatabove 
the inidilte; Oiu condyles moderately e)oiijpt«d tmnii- 
venel^. the outer having a erect direoied bnckvurdi. Tho 
tibia and fibula Afteen<sixl«eDtha uf an inch, flattened, 
ruitcHTit inuaids, firmly nnchyluMid ai each cxtmaiiy. and 
arehed in «ppo«iio dLreetion*. giving an upfneanince uf 
ereat *iz« and strength to tbo leg. Tho m (slcu elongated 
wckwarda, flat. Kiid ending in a curve kligbtl^ inclined 
upwanU. Hind Itet plantigrade. 




{SliNeiaauf i.'liljiiii]plR«iuiinninlui. ■Ill) ibrtwrp"*") o'llf (WLahlcTi an N>iaR4«lltiTlii lni>(nBifmi.1 



Mr. YafTidl ob»a^^'Ml tbr- follevjug p«uil& of ivs«mbUnci< 
IsfWMti the «kflRlon of Chlitmtfpharti* end that of oLlutr 
tjindnipeda!— I. Bwivlt {Ciitar Krt^), in 1!>l- form and 
.ubEioM.'.. .-.( J.. no of theboni>*of llta limbi, in thi> flat- 
l«>v> ind oictnnntty of tho tail, and tho lUiTii^iium 

rf 1 rrte proe«Mi^ of tU« lt--*<^f raixtnl \ort(«bra\ 

l>ai no ftinher. 2. Mule tTatpa Kunjpavti, in the ^hcrt- 
nos and grrat atreti^ of the leovi, and in the iirii<-ulAii«n 
of the elanra i» ih« flnl pluilait^ex iif the lio-*; but in tin- 
forta of the hanen at tlio anlenur exirewiij'. ai well a* in 
iW eomprcsiMid etau-ii, it ia perfectly dit!Vri>iii. nor di> thu 
UticulnliitnH of Itu' limn-s nor liiu uiniiiuvnit-rl uf iIir 
allow any of tliL- luieral iimiiuii sd iruiii|iiL-injus in 
d*. The binder e\trem.ilies v\' ChUmifffihumx ^tv 
BiUT'b raoro ptivinJul. ;i, Hlotli (/(nirtj/j/ut iruiavifflu^i. 
a iIm9 ruriii of ihu tiwili. and iii iht' ucuIq (le&cviiiiin;; 
pixtetsit of Lite ly^na. but not utJiunviae. 4. Annnrlillum 
'iMtypii. in ibi- rent uf mail, in Ihn pijculiar iiuitlcuiiun 
of the cvr^usl tvrifbra.', in pOMUuiuij the lectmuid bonen 
uf ibe feel, and in ilio genenl Ibnn of thu IwitK-s. c.vupi 
thoea uf the pelvia : they diflin' howiivrr in itu! furm and 
~ Igw of the heiul and in the taiL .'i. Orutl*iofitu 
l» and Mfrmi>eopli4i/fa ittlia to, in liuiac of I hv bonea. 
rAitfmi and OrfHthorkynrktu, in ilw fnrm of ilii^ nnti 
benir uf ihu ateinum. and in ihc bony aitirulaiiona as m«U 
u the dilated (Mniiei'ti:u( pbie^ of the true and fali« nl>i. 
r and ^. IhiminiiHlia anA Parhtfdeimiita. in ihc funn of 
llui luw«i jaw. and in iillii-r p»iiit> ei|ualty ubvivuit. 
Tlic uuiifur |Htiiit» ill iiM »lnii'tur« a]i|jear lo lie tlic fiirm 
•f the bead uiid thu uparn ))i-lvis. 

Dr. Uuckland (Bnd<c»-ulri Turiilisu) consideri Chlu- 
mupMona utw "t tlie uvtirul u^ipnminialiunti ti ilt'^iithe- 
riam. jiarlK'uIarly ui nvard In il» coal of tDuiL and m iIm 
aduMatioi) <d' iliv oniniu fur diei;ini;. 

Aecording to Dr. Hnrbn, [jie total luiiKih of tho cntiro 
aainal ia five iucbcK iuii-ei>;hib«. Tlie rA'iV nliicb coven 
the body fa uf a continence Muiovihat mura denae and 



infloxiblv than aolv leather of equal thirkneH, and ia com- 
posed Iif X MTic* of platM of a t<|Utire, rboniboidal, or 
eubieal form, each ri>w ^Rpamted by an i*pidfmial or mora- 
hranoua produeiion, whit>l) i* relleeted abi>\-e and bcneaili, 
tiver the plain, r Ihf niw» induiii; from Qfleen in twcnly- 
Iwu plates, lliu shell being brondcirt nt il» priAlerinr half, 
evtoudinc about une-half round the body. This eovefing 
i* htumi iIimiit>houi, 4>se«pling along the spine of the back 
and toji iif lilt luiad, lmin(» utlacbod to tbo back imiae- 
diately nbove the spine by'n loone nilieular produrtion. 
ntid lij (lie two remarltable bony processes on the tup of 
tlw (tt J'rnnltK, by rui»int' uf iwo lari^ jilrttw, whirh »n 
nearly ineorjiuiMted unUi tho buiii> bi.<ncatli; tnil for tliis 
nrarlinienl the covotiiig uoiit'l be vrry en«ily •lelnrhcd. 
TUf iiuuiber of mws of pliLie* on the liiek, edunting fcoiu 
lilt" vcrii'T, ihere Ibcy I'lunmetice, is twenly-fuur: at the 
tweiilj-fiiiirth Iht ^hejl iwnes suddenly doirnwjinb. ao a« 
lo femia rtalit angle with itmbndy: ihiit Irniicali-d mirtaee 
ts cutupofwd of u|at(>K nearly similar tn those of the bacli; 
Ibty are dispown in seniiorciilnr vom, Hvn in niimlier 
the hiwer manrin, .soinuwliat dliptirnl, pmc-nl* n milrb in 
i(» renire, in "which is ailadied tlie lYee portion of tail, 
vhirh innlir'i an abrupt ruiMiturc. and run* bcncalh the 
belly pamlld ti> the iixis of the body, the extremity of llic 
tail beiru; deprcucd. m> m lo form n paddle: the rent of 
tile tail ciimprefflcd. Tho mprrinr scmicirctdar miirfrin of 
Ihu iTuni-aiL'd fiurfiice. together with the lateral nturL-Iiift uf 
Ihc shell, aro beautiJVtIly (Vinged with silky hair. 

//wd.— PtMtcriwr half, brind, anicrior half, liefure tliu 
e)e.-h tapering; tbeecciput iMemiMisd by the live firrt rova 
ef tho back plates with nliirh they ore continuous; (lie oc- 
ciput not distingutshnblo cxtorndlly. The anterior half of 
the tup of llic bead tKetnored, flnl,hy a row of large plales, 
five in number, which uni firmly uttachtd to the dodo bo- 
ueath, partivubirlythetwu outer; i«eondly, byn fOialler row, 
au 111 numlier, untcrior to nhieb, that la lo»y, thetot; <af 
tho snonl, ii corcred with auaUst v^aX«t '\nvqg<iKiAi 9l«^m«^ 



H. 



6Mfi 



Wi 



CtlX 



Mr. Yiirwll i>l>«r*e« Owt win > > »ldii ftvm 

ll)uuiu.-«rIcsof lilt l^ckillicQlrL .);. llbiLuii) 

liy wkich thi; outer coat vnit BltiKti'-"! u< (in- ;iui.- o( tlic wr- 

Ivbnc wrrc fountl (ott.- atllivrcitt to lli« loUscU-a initnudintdy 

";'■.: ibv ijnuinin priw*-»fi»', nrid cni-li iif thutn, Mr. 

-u|>pijK«, ^mbubly oflordi auidut t'ur vcmcIs nou- 

■ ■■'fciTnl cOTi'hn^; but fliwe atladuiretit* 'lid 

linv ihii ilorjir v^rtcbrjOi I'pocfliiline t\'ni(i 

Is tl>e iiic«it *ixc of tlie mtiwlci of the sea- 

jiutw unit ii't^k w;m ajiparent, fliliazMp th^ n'hol« tfiave, 

lIvL- b»ck. ami iiiii*r p'rtian of fhn nftirt roTinins; one cftr- 

tinUtMl liiw. 'f hfr thii'k ^Idtfl of «palpt rox-onnt; ilw Trontnl 

pATtinn af ilic liMi'l iraa 'v-ithoiit ilitllriillv tu-'punilud from 

tJie *iirfu««of ttipainctilnrbnnypriiri'snpsnr ihe oafmntii^; 

the ptwjpcfina; mflUni^noiw pii-iiim of ilin ihmr; wiw n.-- 

mmvd with iW nkiii. ami Iho teii<i(nis ol' unanl miudai 

giviiii; luulion to the tiioin wvri- ciil thrttugii. 

Tile biminr p<)rluin lA' the budi iilill rumnmoil !□ I«t *G]in- 
ntUid frnm Hut wkii), and ihi^ va* lutind T>i lie a luutU-r of 
Mini' dilliruliy. The puatwior anil iiifijiritir jiortions of llio 
fApruRi 1)11 (snt-b »i(l« nt-m timily iiiiit<-il liy iluJiticl ultni-h- 
niciits differing in lono. I» «;rt»iii waK's ol llie Ininutted 
cxtKm:ty of ilia milL-r (covering. 

The nWaeity «f niewnini; ibU «itt«r covRrin;; entiro 
niKlrn.>dtt iliiluDii of lliriu? ponionaof bo»» iieoeiiury. oiid 
frcm llie mrtiVulw form uf ilif part, this uit» atiVnded 
inlli aoitie nuzard. lull vili tiUtiiulMV accimipltibi.*)! williixit 
iiljurr. (Ill- IwiMS bujiig cut iliroucli a» ui-dr to, and hs 

Knilii.-L V ' inter vurdcv nf lIW )ilalM, 9» thpir con- 

etl Bit' >! Ailriiil. Tliif rnwrihii nl' (hi* tnil wa* 

trf!-:' Ill iiui veileliric us (kr us ilii- tlaticiied ex- 

U( I tbi' fffiMlet .cloiu;aliuit at ilie t^«ll^^r^fc pro- 

«--.-..-.. .. - Ia'I four \(.Tlplirji% mill ibc trniirty of rliis 
flmic-ned iiinuon. made fiirthi-r st-putatiun liilliriill. Tlie 
tiiU WW Ibcn divided Ixlnvmi tbc (rniU and «leioiitk vci^ 
l^■b™^, ntitl li'>lli pnrl-t of lln^ ;iiiiiiiiil rntinrl) scpuntod. 

Oil thr iiii)<.-r hiirfacw of ihu rcuwivcd sluii uetc iwu loii^, 
brt^u i. iitid lluR lau'^IcB, cxtotitlinK the wliuli; kiu^lb of llio 
bad ; each lUUK-Jt wiui divided, u it n]>|irani:li«d thu 
■bMflBahtto l^>o l>ortion» ; tbc outvr ouu v us ultuvlit-O tii 
flM^HBr and grralcr *y<iuc of lliv »rn|iulsr bimc. lite 
hiolRwl longvr tJip iiiun.'vUd fvrMsr'b), uiid v ns iti*<:)t<-d 
tii|i> till- iniiisvti!* nwipitul i-id[;v. The po«f:iot cxtn-iniiy 
of KM-b lautavlc "B« ultoL-bcd to tlw tupctioi cdgu of llie 
B|iii)c vf UjcHium. 

iKT/ei'wtf Hf«r.— nii*, aceoHinfi lo Di. IlutUu, euiitunts 
of B cin;ul«r, euuMwbiit pntutuui oiH.-iiinc;, din.y.lly pot-U-iiar 
to tli««ye, Kuxroundcd wi'b :>ti dcMilcl luatgin, nnd cum- 
niuiiirttirii; wUi u bony '--hdhJ. 

£y(V— Miiii4ib loHll> IJnrk; ond; liko tlio uKi-, nuu'ly 
huMiiViby Vxig 

>f^iiU.— Gape 

J A' ■ '' -niMhf^iwnlt (to onlart^d C3rlilnt»o, u in tlio 
^kc [ii)rnan.>» t'lioning ilowiin-onls lit the inTcrior 

Toi'('-i-. 

T)»e wIipI* stirrni^ of tl>e body i», it n|rpi'un> fhini lh« 
w.mc author, and tlie rtirwtnes* of hw doMnpiian k proved 
bv un irmpwliifii of the ^Iiiflfld spcdinun, colored with lliii- 
nlk-bke Imir, loni»-T nnd ftnor ihiui Ihnt of Ibr niulr. hut 
not BO [bipti M(. Tbc itnterioruflliocJii'tl i» Innie, full, tin d 
rtrenfj; ih« (inferior mtlrMiiitiw short, cluinxy. nnd powcr- 
ftil; ihie hair Ucuntiiiuiril for Mtme diatanco on tbo palm — 
Ilip pbalftngrfinfthe band united ; live piiocrftil nniU rising 

froiluidty one above the olbrr; ihu Gxicrnal i.liiirli^i'l nnd 
roudMt ; tbr vht^Ie uo nrtMiged :im in fonii a sliarp cuttin;:; 
libit luu tent, rallier icooiicd. v>?ry onrenn-iit Tut pr"j;RSsi«n 
under ground, nnd .mji'Ji an must vetr much impede mi>Iii>n 
VII th« Burfnet'. Tlliid lei{« ueak aitdsbort; fi^t Init^ and 
Barrow; tlie sole resembles considiTably lli« hmiimi fwjl. 
havinc a well drlinrd be^. vbicb lests Hat upon tbu 
ground, and bviuy axclied tit ttie middle, toen M'pTiralc, naib 

111 ihtt spwimcn diswctcd by Mr. Yarrcll. the nhdotncn 
and tliorsx biMl Iwcn opened llvou^bout their nhnlc length, 
Btid (lu) ^Lin>ia from bulti cavilira liad biM'n eiilirrly re- 
luovvd. iVdlicriDf; tolhe^kin liiuiu;lbe truncated tiurtiim 
(■f (far animal, ucrc luo kiva whirh bod been lod^d in 
ca>ilia>Qn ciu-huutftmidc of the eucruni.iitiiiicdiatdy under 
Ibu tuperiur pnijecltoa, made cndcnt by lite ctiTTe>i)i;iidiit^ 
tlepntMJoD ill the iD«(»tinE ntiux-lo of that purl. TIk-m- 
plobuUr bwB wcrv liuvd witli a tvieiing tturfHCc. bin bnv- 
■nf( (nSwcdBouiv niuiilulifiit in rcnioval, Uwr mude by wliicb 
Um McretioQ pasted, or Ili [KtrlicuUl use, could not be ascer- 



tained. Mr.V:!!' ! ficy ore probably bimU^mb 

tu ibe wdlrluKiv vurittua iitlicr uuadrupsdl 

Sexual Organ I. IIk -'..v hi iliv specuDcii dueocted In 
Mr, Vartrll, wut ividvnl Intn the ^t-nu rt;«uitining atta^M 
tn oiM «d||;'- vf '^< ' ' abduniiiiiti iiiuscU-a ; au4, Ijin; 

miito lootir in I : i!iu ubdoincu. waa r<;iuud one of 

iW •"•^'■- '"' L.. - oriifinal Mtutttwn lind b«cn ii- 

l-'cn il (•• tl>t' pi«ri«t«s, cotdd |ii>t b« asccrlaiaM. 

Till- J i II M»« Inmn rompntad to ihc am: of ii< 

aiiimaJi, and onu inch una oIK^«tl{lttll in Irmglh. lli.' . ' 
fined cituatifan of ibv fenuili- n^xm! ^r.rnri, in Mt Viirill- 
opinion, prabnhly rrndc^r* niich .-. ■i»r%, tbt 

trUDcaloil portion (if thfront of L. >'Vlwlc«f 

the pottsnoreiLlrcinity. 

Wc miiMt ri-fuir lliii ivnHrr for fnrlber parti«ulus to tbc 

!iap«TB of Dr. Hiirlun nnd Mr. V^m^U, both of wbieb ur b 
III found in tb« * Zou1o^ieul Journal ' frola. ii. (Ad at.t 

Hnbitt. AePiirdinp in Mr. Closelvprrj' Ihi- !,-'-■ ■■ -Ht^ 
mi/phonii roiriitblu ihiii.oof thr moiu, an r - ih, 

inoal pnrL under ^und. I(<.- sddt that t>i -• 

puled tn earry it^ younif l>piiau.th tl>c scaly r' 
It is eoverud, and that iltu (ail poswased liltL _.- _ .. 
TliP earrying tb? ynuiiff in ibi; manner dvsmbpd itioj i< 
roiwidwrdapucryplwl till furthw uvidrnet- at ehiain<^* 





CHLAMYS. rCMBT»cwei.iD.«.] 

OH I.EN'.ArR,*, -A natural onWofimlyiKTlBloaaeixotRiis 
by»nmc accounted im ally of Malvae«i», Itiii morr roimillt 
ru-firred to the viciniiv of Cistacett'. ftrwn whtrli. and * 
(boiw a.*oona(rd wiih l^em in the Ryntilwsie icmup. tb*T 
difTcr in having un invotui-niin lu each valyx. or totvi 
pair of enlices : lliey am b^andsomo Irwa or bhrubs, bol <^ 
no knimri use; their leave? nrr alternate and uudiTidd 
Ihcir ttipuli'i dtviduoua, :itid thtir flovrsrs in imniHas " 
lucernes, alvaja bhow-y.and otlcn red. The vrltiJc oftbiM 
SIC wild in MadngaseiLr. 

■T)M»i»l<>iM t^n» ■» lak«a h«t U*. YhmU^ Hcwa 



.^St 




(Sucvinu DiahMMiil 



B'^^/.mm (f 111* dmir. ihoufnu Ilia igiai tnlx i^iii»>il U-, I1ii< 
■^IfcvllaaHwUif.^.bkffciHrihuni rim olauUisn , i. v>>"li "• "'•'■' 



•r I 

'if, 

■ToMrri iLAtilli •.tmoiivnc mmuh a( frnll /-■• v*iI1i:ii 1 •«. 

HjOSIA. [DOM'SBASCBlJiTA.] 
lUORAL, m liquid prvpued by Lioing with chlorine 
Jcifco l, tnm tho flnt «jruab1e« of wliieh mtdi itt ntune 
tifwd. To forro it, & dtmml of dry ehlorine goa la 
d iatt Wthydroua iil«ohi>l, at fintt kcpl i-ocl, Init uflcr- 
I •nfleitiiil]' htmed to expel the ny^roclilom acid 
id. During the action of thnw >m)iHtnnFt!« nno piribn 
■ eblorinc iinitos with (ho hydro^n of lh« akohut lu 

lljnitrDehlorin lu-iil, nnil amithiir jwrlinn vfilti itc cmyaicn 
Mtbon to ooDitituiQ cUIimiL When the operniion tin 

kng ronlinuoi]. a liqiiul af ihv conitilvnrv i>r a *vnip 
loured, wbich xflerwiinlN iMTomt^a mIIiI: it U 11 h)*lnitc 
ikml ooataining mme uixli'cciTnpcMed alcohol and a 
m of hjdiuchlorio arid, it 1* then in Iw ithnknti «ith 
mlnlBd lulphuric acitl, which comhintA with iht 
r, MoA Iba onlviat rises in a lliiid Mate lo itir surrnrc : 
is to be mixed with 1iiuv.and )>> dUtillutiun ibe cliliintl 
lainc^ fteo from h)'dii:rhliiric nrid. 
ikal i* a culiiiirltMft Irnmparcnl oily-looking Huiil ; ils 
I k pUDKeut. and iia tMte but Blight; lla tiiecifti: f^To^ 
k 1-S02 ; at about 2(K<° Fabivnlwit it boila. and the 
itr cendvusM uncbangwl. Water wlinii waniiuii dis- 
m dilonU, but vrhvii mikod with d nnaU uuantity of ii. 
MUbiiM, whcaagitittcdftiitoasulid cryataUtne hjrtlrali.-. 
A^Ibm with bniiDta«, iodiitv, tux) sulphur; ntivn it* 
nr U pUMdovcrhme luialc<l lo2l'J^it is d«compoMd, 
t 4t carbon in ovolvod, and chli>TKlt< of rakiinn, inixMl 

A littU (hareoal, remninii; by Milut.on of potaith or 

it is alio decompoMd, and a rblohde of catbon ii 



CHLORANTHA'CE.«.analnral oulcr nf aclUnmydoom 
cxoj(ens, allied to the Peppers, and. like thiiin, baving an 
aiuma-lic fni)^nl udour; they arc knoan ttom tia- ciHiTt 
a«9oci«tcd with thwin l>y thmr juinleil s(cm» ond op]i(ttilo 
IcavM, with intcrtDCfliatc atipulos. Tliuir flmivr« pwr In 
tiakwl npikw, niid connist of un ovary next the axis of in- 
nfjifflccnc*', and a rtt-shy antlior on the outaido. Chloronlhiu 
offifituilu is rct^konr-d a stiniulunt i>f llio lu(iht'Bt ordw. 

(Spo Vi\\\mif, Flora Javtf, imdLuidlcy'a Natural iiyttem, 
p. 183.) 




l.ii'tVi-. lip" upr*' lU'I io*' r !!..'• *ri « III". ill •UnifUi; ). niMrvaUvHIl I>> 
tnricl ■ S. ta ibic».i iici- i-ri^ir uiti-p-; •,> lujiniltcl rrviti 1,11m IwiiBldr 
(hi (mil: 6, k ueUoB ut tli« [>a'I. •Iiunlui »w rmWyo, 7, Did tflitm <'( tin 
IVuii, wllh ■ porilaD vf ih* itiL^U nsaoy^i • B. ■ |«ii«i3ilLEiilar pcctloa uT I'tv 
Mnf]'. itumlBt 111* pmnioaar llicatulc. 

CHIjORIC acid. [CHLnitiNR.] 
CllLORlDKS OF CARBON. [Cklorinb.] 
CEII.OKI^R. nu etomentnr^y fpueoiu budy ilisiniverod by 
8i-het;1e in 1 7*4, nhllo axanuQiDfj aa ore of niunpincM. 
Ho tnrc il the namr of depUcKUtwaicd marine aci'l. Ity 
lliu Prutieh chenu-itii, in acDOrtnitoe vilh tfeni viww« at Bet- 
iholleti itvroa railed oxyMoizcil muriatic acid, mhith waa 
i)horI«iii»d by lliu Engliab climuista to uxymurialin arid; 
tlivdo Utter lemu meant that it wva a coupouud uf nmrialic 
oeid, a suppuavd dcmentary or at any rate an undcooui' 
poacil body, mid uxyjcen. Qay-Luoaae and Tbf-nard in IBU9 
puUiibod some c^Liicrinienta Dram vhich tbey inrvm.-^ tliaC 
uxytnuriatic acid nii^b I bo a ainiplv sabatuiw. but tb«f imC- 
uillutanilinK adhered tot a «ouaidvrabla periKl to llii> 
opinioii of lU bcini; a evropound. About Ine aaiiM tiuo 
Sir H. -Davy cumniv»c<:d his exmninalkin of fh« nniB body, 
anil tmtt hi« nuiacrous rencaichua h« condiHled that it 
ouf(ht It) U re^rdod ai an undMouipoaed body; and on 
aocount of ill groea colour, bo gave uiia ;pia ino naiao of 



1^416. 



rrilE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA.) 



NwuN\\v-'» 



C U L 



um 



O U L 




ehbritw. Thtt optiuoa wan ut flnt «<n>u^ly oombated l>y 
Ur. Murny wid Bofxduu. but iIm Inller in now & c«iiv«rt 
tv wbat lui Umu («nn«d tlio new theory urcbluhne. CUIo- 
nnv wts flnt oblaiDuil liy Si'tKNile, liy UMiliii^ tlio binuxidi? 
of tnangbiMtW vnlh natiriatic. acid. During tlin mutual ope- 
ntionorthMeMinpound bodiM, the oxygen of the binaxiiJo 
ounibiaofl with the Jirdrogeu of tht uul, Bnd u-itt«r ie 
fbrmMl; thit tuetnl of the nxiilo ruinniuK oumhiucil wiih a 

Ertii>n of the cUlorJiia, whilo tho exvo^ vliirh tho ni^ial 
Miwlunit«vrtUiBtgi\im out >iiih»giuouiu«iutu,uiiil \ni»- 
BDSMS the IbUowing; ptnpenio*: it uof d greenUh culour, 
and lioncv the name chkinno. Avra x^P*^ (chlnriw), gnian ; 
il Lu« a \aty ]ic)Wurrut uiiil duaun:u:ilil« mluiir, U wry xiif- 
focaiiiig, evoii when emuidtTaliTy liiluied with air, and ii& 
Ustu U MlrLitgsiiL AccatAiuf lo Uarj', 100 cubii-' inctirM 
weigh beiH««i) <6 and 77 cr-aiitii ul lixn average teiuiieru- 
lura uid proason^ >nd with this (letenninmiDii Ihp px|icv 
riineniii oi Oay-Liusao aTi<l 'I'hf ii'iid neail)' uun-o ; iIn 
aptriflr (rnvil)- is coiuM^ucnil^ aluut ST. MrFanulLiy 
fautitl lliaKvlii^n thisgM is tutqcclcd tu a pmMurv nf nlic'iil 
ftnir atraosplicrck, and ke|iG nfiil. it is njiidviucd iiilu a 
jwlluw Uiiipid lluid, wfaieli U ostrcmdy vMoiik, wid which, 
when the pieaourct is ntaoinii, n(|>iOly rcagauiucH ihc 
f^UKioui Ibcm ; its ancdfii: grai tty is about 1 ' 33 ; it* ntnr. ■ 
tivo p4w«r ia last than that uf u-atvr; aiid it U a ii^ii-cvn- 
ductor of ulcctncity. 

Cblonntt fpx u abiMcbed and diMolvod liy it«t«r, and 
iHiKit tiiiK fluid haa twon re>.-outly hoiltol. il n'ill lulto un 
Imfc ild bulk uf tho git* tt *y>Riiai>n tintipc-ratuiv* nnu 
fn<H»<(rv: th>.< nqiwuuw »<iluliuii hu* tliv vutvur, smwil iiiid 
tiiAte of tlu f;is iljM.'ir. Tht) iitjni valiant rif ehlnrina is 3&, 
giiA when iiutjii uUuriito ni» u cxim-wd lo n tt'iniiLTai uti.> 
111' :ii' l-'ahr, yullovr cryttau are futtnod. nliii h niv^ liyilmiu 
of dikirittv, miiHiaiii^. OMwrding hi Mr. Kiimbi, ul' very 
nvftily I C4iiiv«letil of t-falohnv =36+ Id txjuivaiL'iils of 
amtvr = 9U. Nmihci liiclit, huat, nur vlwiri'-ii}, uradtiCfK 
any rlian^ ia llic pn)|MriiL-« uf dtbiriiw gan, jiruvioed it In- 
dry; btit~ir it tic niuitt, llicii h(lht oiiimm it to ilotxiniiit»<- 
the wuier. t)u.> hvibuLji-n of irliicli uiubifiM niili it In luuii 
liitimiwBirii,!, woilu lliu uxv)^a in uiultod In ihe )n<i(>i}Mb 
fuiucuiid il wiuibii>L-t^penia«i)l whii'h rliit-lly birtiw-tnl Hi^r- 
ihiJlot Ul urli.ipl ihc ojiiuiiiu of ilf> iiaturu wliich Iilii ulri-mly 
b . ! ■■ i-,id. In i!ii' ■'■ iiinti -if till- i-ini|«nitHl,i 

111 il.it ii I- ■.\jnt!ii lit ilic poaitLki' 

j>j.L. II, n.r.tlo; vx<H.'IiI nl^ii M[mi,i(i*d fitiln nxy;;ull, Hud 
ttiG[k it gitui lo the tic.ciili^u<McailiiKl.'. 

Otic ut tlio nc^l curiuuK aod imparUutt fiofmr^es of 
chluriiic u ihu |ai»iT nhii-h it pocwcasea of dirttniyiii^ lltii 
cvtMurufitniuuil audvi-jriilabivRiallur infCttti«nd. mil Ui-.r.-u 
il> u:(t>ii»ivc aiiididitigii tu titc yvixnyt-e of 
[Bk.BACiii-'ft;.] Wlieu acid» (dUT vegulublu tio\ 
may in many ooaof bu rcvtwi-d liy (lie upchuatwM vf "" 
alkali; bnt ki cim)i>lo4(i in tlm doairuciivc |H>worar rlib>- 
ritM', tliat nuttiinti; ulialDver o-nn rppru'lu>-ci thi.' rulour whirli 
it Imt rt'Oiuvud. Ttiu p'lu-er jpf^itra )uuvM-r to <icp<.-iiil 
in the iiiierracdiais ui-imu and dwi^nipoki) i»n of tnV'i'i 
'hy chl>jriiw< pis woducM no lileadung cfrwl, It-ful. 
ii thun-'IVm-, ihiit lU iUH'iii(>urtiii( favvr i» luit dhort, 
but iotsmiediatL'. dependmit upLiu n* doisiniixfti.iit wuiir, 
aiid romUmi)^ with iu h}dn>^mi to fjnu niviri:trie nvid. 
vltile ibe ua«c(iiit osyyen oT the walvr (iruducn Ihc bkMCh- 
ing elTuct. 

Clilorine mi, liko ox>-gfn. in a paveTfiil «i])>p»ner of 
rombusiion, If cvriniit uieiuli, and c.i|ii-ciiilly iiitiuiiinr, in 
tii« lUaiv of powdrr, I>r iliruwn into chlorint ^^a», thej iiuui 
t1»nlui«o(isIy ; pho<>phi>nu alM viltd>ii« »ira3ar phciio- 
incniu 

Uhlonno b alaa a powerful dunnfeulaiil; for this pur- 
pw it WW firel ctapbiyvd by Guyton da ifnrvcnti. and 
ivilhin ft t«w year* cuiupoundi vf cliloriiic. or puthapi of 
irlilorout or bvpocblorous atid (lur ilw i|H«iiiiija is nude- 
i*td<.-d>, und hiuv or vodo. bava bucn mttviuivwly luud for 
ihu; j>urpti9i«. 

Chlarine iiin gMMtnl oa*ily (ku-clcxi by im o<kiur and 
rolouf, trbeihet in i|a ^msiiu niuto or in wduiioii in wuiur. 
It orcowMu a tthilo pN^ipiuie in »o|uli«a of nitiato tif 
whor, *ludi ipoiadily datkeiui by ex|>o«urv lo hghl. Tbii 
c<ja)|NHiiid iti oillml chloride ol uWer, and was £>rm«rly 
knuwn by iho nuaaa of horn u\n>t or uunaU' ot >i^cr. 
In thia oom iMVevcr a poniuti only of ibr ph)unite it 
IhroViii down; juri uf it uniiini; uiib tb« i>xy<^<<ii of rli«r 

uaity midw nMBlioo. ll will bu obtetvud ttum the above 



slaltrtucti t Hint thuM! cumpouud.i which t«ntMn chlorio* in 
culli-d cliltiridiiK i but Uii. in thu atsv only wb«n tueh ««m- 
pijiin'U do uot patitKttf ucid prupt-Tlic-*. 

Cbliiriii« coinbiti^i uilh almost cvtry other r^lnmftntari 
Indy, fonning copipmiu'U of givat tmpurtanre; we ahu 
Bni elate llk« nkturo of ihosa to vhicn it givos riw bjr 
uniiint; mtit oKyeon- 

Oxygm and fOiortne fomViina in Mreral praportioiiLbDi 
Ibccanihinalitm tii never iTnintidiaio; and iLffifnint viva* of 
ihi' kuiiiIh-t iind nuluru of th« i-onipouiiiht are fnlcfliinrd 
by dUTeront diuniLstii. "niiis Baneliua menlioox one ojudt 
and thnw uiids^vi/., 

CntMLAaafdihinnacsafaHdaf lf«l>.af(UM<M4.| tuUaf «;■». 



Clikiran*uM 
Uhlarle »ld 
Okr°l'l>'0< K'<l 






Bcncclius honcTcr admit* that there probably c\is1» ■ 
[>oruxjd« ofohlorino oonipoKcd oftfjual t-otumcx uf cUonac 
und rixyijoii, llwu|jli it hna uvvlt bo--s <>bluin«d. Count 
Slfldii'ii. who dwaivort'd OKj.-hlimi^ u.iid. huppostn it at>- 
tiiim a^von \ulumM uf oxygt^n inntead vf >ix* as nhmo. 
Or. Thiinison give* 

Vm'.Hlitc a[ GiiIuTijif otiapcMd 9t t Tdlii of vtilartM .^ 1 Iti, pCoan'*' 
Cii'tA^lh^KUcifrhlAiiu* », f,. ■■ +4,. .. 

rwuiic ■Did ., 3 .. (1 +5 ,, ,. 

IVn'liluii«(iii}cliluda)aU'l 3 >, ,. 4-7 .. ,. 

I>r. Turner agrBOa witli tho lasl uattmenUt whidi in- 
Hvtid diflor from IbMo vf Bcmliiu only with nrntt la 
i^\yvdiUirie aobd. Dr. Tur[U:r buwrr«r tulla tlto nlaiM 
(lold of Bcntolitii, wliich iit lh« iiuadrwuda uf I^. Tliumaffi. 
pcruxide of ^liluruw. AiMMrdiiig hmrvt-or to buabnnn. 
Iltf unjipoMld pri>Tasida vf (4)ii>n'><' '• " nif^ni iLii\iiit.<..f • 
pcraxidii and ehLorino. The 1<: 
Kcomlo prove the cu^lcniM of v 

nt'iil, lairmi'ij oi tv*i> voIiiidm of i-faluritiu »wd aau «-u4ui»r •-• 
o.vyi>uii. wliU'b is iho (•import ion ^B>>ignod, a« ju<t r»tT<-!. 
ii/ihir proiiixid'- BaUrd rpmiii-k^, itui if bntb af 
iwrceci it wmld bu an nildiluttinl raw of ieom. 
h" moras ratbvr iiirlinedlo adupl lb«iWHUon of <-^ 
uabn.-i.pt!i>l To Ibi; Mi-<«]lvd pratusido gftUtirini' 
however ibene uneeriaiiiUnL fiir tbu proMmt, «v siuti«- 
wnba ibv variiia« mni[KHiiuli> ulmtiMnuniioiiud. At Hi 
di)ubt eibl» wiih nwi'Kci m iii. cunpu*iiK>n, and alui b 
nlliiT miann'-, ve lifion witli 

<:HI'/ric ,Uiii.—li tias bi-on ulruady nivBliulwd iW 
oxysrn and chloriite di» wA i-iNt()>i)iii by diroM M!Uon ; vhen 
hnncvi^r rblnrini* nicc» viTh ii.'t-ixjia mygMi tbry vaiu 
If chloi-iiR- Kua lie Ri.iMd intif wak^^ roniiiiiiaa onideut 
>ilvei ditTuuTd ihrau^li it, a purtion nf tho rhlonne ow 
biricn with iliu silvvr and forms n HiluriiU'. wbidi )■ pnn- 
pilnli-d; mid the ntyuicn cxpclli-d rrooi it tiniiing aub 
tuwlhvr yiitwaa of chiitrinu. uinouiiiu-n uhloric acid, wbiob 
ivuiaiti* in Kiliilion. Any c»<:rw nf «'ii1i>riiu- i* In be r.t pvDeJ 
br liciil. Or •.'biiiric nvid may )ic niudi: lij adding ddniesul- 
phunr acid ki rhkmiv ul' biti) t«». 111 wiucb nat tnlphkle "f 
iinryti^ in pniipitainl, und diluric acid remain* in «itnti»n- 
ll is a oLurli^M inudonjua ai^id, wbicfa hiiaa «out laitlf. wd 
Tc<Hcn9 iv^uiublo blue culouia. Tha culution luay ha opo- 
contmifd by o g<iullo h«al till il itci]uircs an altwntvly 
nmsiileiR-e ; it hac then a ]«11i;w»b (int. a pocubar laLm, 
and It »elii fire lo dry v<-geiablc iiinuvis. ItcMnbitm nib 
ha»ei III Hinn Mills loniicd rJtIoraltA, which vcfw (unaeH; 
kuowii by the name of itxygvnisml murititsa, or hnvr 
iir oxyiuiitiikliM. HodioD which bani a ttrobg alliuily in 
usy^vn ili-i»iiii>twu ^hlurio acid, by M-paruunc tbaJ vle- 
iiii'ni: ibiu tiul|>Iiurt)Ui ncid la oouvariad mtii *uluhitnc 
uctd by dfiviiipui-infj it, und taking iu exygou. ukihc 
acid is ovmpoufd of 

1 equii-alenlofohlimnc ' 3fi 
ftcquiTOlania ofuxygcn = 41) 



Tho cbloralm. i-xoopi that of poiaith, are not Itnportanl 
«ll{i; tlii-j liiiwc^LT u ukmI for many purpoM-s; thu* when 
il it, hMia-d it ivolvi-s veiy purv oxyH^nn pw, and ohiorido of 
ptitB^>iuiu remain* ; tbo o\yg*n ii viiililiid Uith by ihc and 
and tlinalkah Chloialeor|i..imj'h [PorvsinM] igpt<wrf 
on Iho lartje sralc by |Musin^ cbliinna gas into ■ nulutjon cf 
the alkab ; part iif ihc chtonne l«k«a oxygra fVutii part <^ 
tho (*iln*U and fotnu wiih il rhlorie aciiT, wliicli iinirN 
with the roimiindcr of the poia>li tn fonu ihc rlilnrati-, 
while <h« rematn'W of thoehlorino iinitea with the poia*- 
tiuiu to ftinti chloride; both salts diMoIve in walw, but ttw 




iW B lft l W ^^cl^ina Itni, nnd in rhnmltle ]tT«t(!t. Tlil« inlt 
delatlKtU wh»n tnlUMtr'J «il1i mllphur; lui'l wh<«n •rtrurk 
wifh Bbocphnfui it «x)i>iMln» kml intfAine*, an4 in both ctt»at 
ifl finds oxjsea. 

Chtorati; of poUsfa IS iMmposed or 

1 (i<|nns)«nt of dtlorie aci'il = 70 
1 oi)ifiT>lent«f potash . . = 49 

Equivalent ... 134 

Orj/Morie or TVrrWoriV jieW is prooured hy ihe pantsl 
iieouutpiNiiliuii uf Ibo chlorio itrid jtiM dvirntrMl. Il iit otr- 
tftinttd by rnixinv lUiy i^Tviita of (-bl»ral(r of i>uTasb wiili 
■bitus &iur iia>M ite-wi^uhi of sulpbiiria acid, kdiI healing 

fcIIlixlan below 2t-jr in n x'ua reurr.; k gu. wbkh mt 
II prcMOlly destribc. in ci^'"> out, osd thera irnnains tn 
lb« ratort K u)t.ltHn^ of bisulplxtic uml iwvrblurnlr uf pot- 
i^i by wmeluiiK; with ojU «atur llio Iii.-<u1|>IibIv in ilia- 
tolvcd, u>d ifav DXfchlun'v iciaaiiia. Wboit this •«ll ia 
nixed in A relurl with hnlf ila neiicht uf vulpbtini; and 
Itlulnl witb one Uiinl of walur, anil tliw niixlura in hutited 
Id about iHf^, the vliit« vapour vrliicli iin»o» u vx^chluric 
Icifl. which «iuiK-r»M!a in tbi; r«c«ivor. 

TliM u-id iH a litnpiil colourlnts liifiiiil, hat m iihttrp taato, 
ia<i redden* litiuu« papur, oitiiQui •intrajriiw itccoloor. 
Wbeo eAnMntnt*d % m a|H>mt>>>ii it« vpwi^ KM"!*)' i* 
l'C5, and Je then MBiu Tvpnur wlu'ii ^TCfMwed to thuoir; it 
hoiIa Bl ^y^. and ntpi'lly til>»>Tl>A nu'Lituri' friini tboatntot- 
■harv. Wlioii inivr-d mih tul^diunK uc-iil und lulled, ilio 
teidlflditfilled, *ndtin>ncrot«oti MN>liDKinlu»Halid,«'hK7h 
lljliHillif iliiniiiiiii Itappraratu In' the tin (ft slnbloofall 
Im adnfonuMU of 4ihIorini and oijj^ii, iiot ouffunng dv- 
■foiteon sitber bj the action of light, ■nlphiuonti, or 
Jphnrin aaidf tl diuolvM irau and ein^ witli the 
I of bydiQam fB». 
adu fonMHi hf' ihu add into twKra a» lermed aiy> 
or pmchtornlpf : the llr!il is ih« bullur name: 
ilMuinpaWd hy bwal. yiviititMf iDueh oxygen ^m. 
'. *m «iavMt£d niM ebland». IW usiyEhlonUM an not 
Mi inparlMil cilua Bf nita. 

■ ParaxiSg tfCktorint, lbs chlonnK acid uf IkTieljtit, 
b a gBMOOB compmnMl eaoKed during ilie ftinuaiioii of 
torrtaniata of |»taah jtwt doMsribed. This f^ baa a 

fc•D Boloac; it hu no Mrnell of chlorino, bat. «» lbs con- 
ry. Ml onnnatie odnor : it is foadilj diKoUed in water, to 
■hirl) il ttnparta its awn raloUr: tbo mlution do«* not act 
I mtMfun, Bar doM it coubine with alkalin ; (t dcal reyi 
nnrtabM bios colour* vitboiit pra\-iMnlT reddening 
, Wlian boated to 21f ibh gaa ttxplmfa]* Tiolenllf, 
■ aimiK In^ht, and iho rasdw ganca oecupy inotc 
than tbo camtxnmd did irbith tbcy foniwd; 40 
vluirmi of ilw ^i beoomia); M< of which 40 an oa^gni 
Wl •<} ohkfliio- 

Tho ebanna whtrh occur in thus p i ppa ri nf oocjchlorato 
IfpofaMhand pmusidv uf cMurinv are Ibwe: Uw sutpliurio 
krid d«<v>ijip«unf a jurtion «f the chloratit of potash evolves 
rii'onc acid, «bii;h. at the otomcnl of ilt hWnliun, la vo- 
|ar«tvd loiA oxyi;en and iwrmiide of ♦■hlorin* ; tl»e oxr^i-n 
•tmbinea with tbe chloru acid of Ibo unducntDpctKid ehlo- 
iuo, and «o(iv«Ti* il into ovy^htoric acid, and eeiiMqitontly 
LjaMorala of poiiwh ii Rinniyl, vrliilo Iha paroxida of ehltv- 
M, aa alraad* nolicod. i^ oxulvcrd in the gaaaain aute. It 
pcohable, tnat «)ien thnxi riiiivulaiit* uf cbkuaio uf 
'i ara attiiA upcMi hy nuljihuric a<rid, there aro pro- 
l«u eqiiunlcnls of peruxuloof chloriiw and one oqui* 
: uf ()X)i;li|iino and. 
ProioaiuU if Chlorine, ilie oucblotiao of I>avTf. hy whoTo 
X «Ba diMOvercd in Isil This j^Huhtained i>) vxpuiinij 
intloualy to a niudetate heat two parta of chlo- 
! of potash, one of raurialic or bydrochlorio acid, and 
uf tnlor; the prodiirln urn vai^r, rhlonnt:, and xhn 
tide of cblorfaw. The traics should bo rweirod o\rr 
try, wbirliabNGibB tbo cliloriuc nnd leaves Iho pn- 

Thia gas hu a jvUovish ^tefro colour, more brilliant 

an tliBt of chlorine 1 lis :miiv1I rMembles thiit uf hurot 

^fa^i; uaiiT iliuolics eight or ten times its volumo »f ihi» 

jSmihr < Ikalii, but It Ant rcddoiii^ vc^vUblK Mui», 

'ind af^nrwunhi dotruys ibeoi: this a^u a \w{ <.'.vplu««v^ 
Moa tbo hvat of the hand t» luffiocnl tu prodii<>tf ibis 
JAct. Aircordmi: (o Suu1i«iran, &» alroadf notic<>d, this 
*pt k not a d»ttiiil« cvmiMund, but a mixtiut of pcrosidi? of 




«hlAnne and Mtlorino. nnd il has liMn dIm observed, that 
Biiljifd'9 i>xp< rinwnH tend to nhow itit>i tlw> nonione «f 
ojtytf** and phlorino iti«iini»] lo lUi* eomwmnft aro *iioh 
as'fortn h>'po«hlorou!< and. nhtidi we Btmll now mcniion; 

firntoxidc of ehUirinu will thOTtrforn l>e probably rsouxved 
rom tho oompoundti of iheM elements. 

Hypoeiitr/rmia Aeiii, to which w» bare Ju« alluded, it, 
ucr^irdiiit: tn Ralurd. an udd exiMui^ iii what in u»u3llf 
culW ahloride of lime or bleactiinf; powder: and ihin, an 
tho drKt-muntioiied naim Indira tux," «n» Unit tuppniwd by 
Berxol)U« tu beaohlorideof Unic.andant.'ro'ardsaehloTit*; 
but the more renent and Eninulu reseercbes of Qalaid aeen 
to pr(iv<t (li*l il io n hypc>'*hl'iriie. This airld ia thus oh • 
tained: add DiKly-powdeied peroxide of tnevcurr, mixed 
vTlh twetre tini«s its wtstefat c^ dtMilled valor, lo chlorine 
^a in a bottir, and ahttKe it Wul); the trddc of memiry 
Hhniitd be slightly in cxrvM, so u that when ih« obeorptiein 
uf Ihr chlorine, which piM on rapwlly, i» <rtcr, thie residue 
idmuM hnvi^ a reddisli mrher than a whim nolour. The 
wlvdcr conimts of the bottle arv to hr put in a (Illor, upon 
which ihvrc rcmamii tixychloride of mcnniry, whilo the 
Altered li<|unr, wlien dislilK-d in vacuo, fields weak hypo- 
chtorous arid, wliicb may bo concentrated by r«diM illation. 

nyrwchbroufl ocid IhiM prucurpd is a tr«i»i|i«rcn( 
sti^btly vHlow-oulourDd fluid: its imcU i* pooctniiini; and 
very di»ttnct from Ihot "f t-hlwrino or thi- por-ixiJe; its 
taste is extrcroelT strong b«t not acid. It MitiK-ks ilie epi- 
ilnrmi' with ^rcat ii<-litilv, (ven rmm ho than ^lonit nili-ic 
add, and imparlA a hroirn slain to the skin. It is a vtvj 
un>4luble i^nipatinj, di»-cinpi>«!n^ pmhahly oron at rom- 
roon tctnpenfurM. In h<rt wmith^r il can be prmerveil 
fat* fi?wiiayi only, wiihnnt imim-nnin In iea; nhrn wrakpr 
fliid hnpl from the lighr. (l may be pTMorved fi>r a lonijpr 
time. During decompMition it i^vc« out mnsll l)uli)i]e« <if 
chlorinn m*. aild ioino rhlurtr^ iwid is (ttnnod, nnd this 
dermnpnallon is accelerated by agitation with flUi^ulDr 
boditH : it is decompoard by tlio action of Irjht at veil as by 
that of heaL 

Vbm lo a eonecninited solution nf hyp^M-hknons acjd 
an equal bulk of nli<l Art niirare of limo m addeil. « bjwk 
effprvoctnoe in \mA\irea, which Is owine to the scp-jratum 
of puro hjpochiorous acid ^s. which Tin? the t<\\fntin% 
properties: its cotmr is tpry little d^jwr than that of 
ffhlnrine; il« utijrtl t.i penclraiinit like that of tho sntiilinn ; 
It b eamplfiiely absorbed liy mcrrnr)-. irhich '» iransfGrrmod 
into a red oxychWide. It is l>cat prepared by pasflinr up 
a litllc of (he k^ls at a lime into a jar filled with nnd in- 
verted in loon-iiry; tlio nitrate of liioo which la dfcnoltod 
prorcnts the nclb'n cit the liberated n* upon the metal; 
mier disaidvcs neatly 190 tiiues its vulumc uf fhi* ^yt ; it 
il decompo««d l.y > ■ ' ■^'"' '■TpUwifto. The (ix«d 'si Italia 
and the alkaline V e with hrpochtorou.* add. 

Tbe hyporhloriic .: _ , .■■ially f*lf^d ^-lilnriili—riitne, 
or h loach: rig p..irder, t* a cenrpound of - ■"IKt, 

both in tlve ortii {Bi.aAcntKc] and as a '! : It is 

propured hy expoiing hydral? of Umc to the ac'icu of chlo- 
rine (piK, when a l.irpe quiintin' of it is ahsorhcd, atid th..' 
ivsult Tomt to he (Ue fbrmatioii of chhiridv of r < ) 

hy])oehlorii#of limff; tho exact coruposhfon ii ^ 

powder is hrmcvor a subjset slill iiniler diwni-iiri. .\n- 
Olhcf wmpound, ihi- iiaiure of which Is flfll irr-jrc pio- 
Wctnuiitiil. u thai furnied hy pwing rhliiiim- gas into a 
■ululioii r,r carborutlt' <if noila ; Ihe K&a a plenlifiilly ahAirluft 
wilhoul (iv<ilvinj; anv corbunic pcid. This ctmijiound, hkw 
the liypocblorilo of liinr. i« UHed n* n dishlfeciiint, under 
Iho nacne uf Laharnwiue'* m>da liijuor. 

A rote and chlorine rombiiic to form llvo 

Chloride of asote. or miiro corrcrtly tlw niwdrichloriila 
of azote. This ccunuound was di»«>vorc4 Iiy DulutiK •« 
1^11. TbcAu );aMS do not coiubinv hy direct nciiuii, hut 
when chlorine ican nicctit azotic Kas In the na.v-«nt »tate 
thety unitiv It way ho prcporcd by dlMolving nn ounce of 
muriate uf iiainonk'n in twvUo to »i1ccn Mmti its aciqht of 
wetor, and tlicu invurlinn a Mllo of chlorine ({a* in tho 
solution. Tlw chlorine t» erodiiolly obflorbed, and there 
ari-' gradually formed »io«ll dr>>p« of an (■d-liku (luM which 
sink lit Ibo iolutiMi: those are Iho chloride of aiolA. de- 
rived ftoiu the comliiiifilion of Ihe chlorino wllh the uoie 
of llic arntnortk. 

ilvu ( ' ''ii>t tl {■ vxtromely 

eXpIoM. , usly. but always 

on Iho i-cnuci i.r r-Mly ;.i.-i-i'.-, imo-i'iiiirus, nnd virWiua 
otherbodies. Iw MWiiflc grnvtrx- in PBiS. Il 1> imt k>'J- 



C H L 



108 



C H L 



dtfltibr the moat inlcnte nrliflcuil miU. AllGO°it mny 
te (Ifaniiloit. bat St 2011" tu ^11" it cxpludcs. Tlui prQiluct* 
of ibo «iplo«ion nro four votuinca uf uliturine and oDa 
vnliimt of nolc. ontl m iheiu! rk-unsont cquiriilcikbt it ii ft 
(piiMLnchlorHW ufivxolc oaiuposod uf 

•4 btiuiTnlunU of dilori»0 36 K 4 = l-N 
... 1 o(|uiMkliMit i>f Ofalu . ■ . . = N 

Eqnivolont IA8 

Chlunno nnil lij-lrog*!! comliiae t* form tho 

Jljfihve/Utiric Ai^id, "oouioionlj* callwl Ihc luuriark- aoid: 

vtwR ttiual ^olumen of those i^iuuc are luLxcd niid 

kttffl in thi? liati., tUey ilo not unile^ but if BXjwsutl li> day. 

lizUt iJwy wniltin* slowlj", nnd liy ibu ilirtct raj-a of ibe 

kuti. Iii« olcolri^ BpiiTk, or a U[ier. lliey unilo willi explw 

Muu, (Mill lbor« U <urme<l a >qunii(ity «f inuriutic acid uc|ual 

in \.>Uiinc lo ihu of tlia two ^a»e« employed. As M cubic 

inche* ofhvdrpupri tvoigl) ro'75 grain, miil 10 of rbloHne 

3S 07 grttiiiK, tbcir corabinwil wwghl givw thai of lou cubic 

inrliiBi of iho pas, = 39 "Ui grains, or im spcpiflt eraviiy i» 

1 -Zia. This gn* ii culourless, htm a wry puiiaunl oilour, 

uiil ltd ni'iil untl acrid uirtc It cxciics couj^liiiig, iiiilc«« 

liurgolv diluk'il uiib *ir ; cxliuiniiiiliM biiniiiiK budiei 

ttbuii limy are immersed iti tl; ami rtdilcns vcseiiUc blvic 

colgur* strongly. By Iitat ii u merely rxponflcil. but by 

eloctricilj il i* decomposed. The JvlTuuiy gf lltU f^h tor 

wutvr u &o gicfti. thai ftliiMi it escapes into the air, it form* 

Rwliilevipour by c«ml«miig witb a.linu9phi.-nr moiuturc; 

v^Sor absarbA -ICO tituM ita bulk, uf tJii» f;iu),itiiil ibu rMult 

I| liquid inurinlio luiJ, usually callgd uuriulic acid. 

: Aa lliis ttuid i* lai((tlyciaplojx'd,i( n j)repnrcd in a more 

oo»»uini(^ mwintf lliiii Ibc airect fDrmfttioii of llw; can, 

by decoiBp*j-*»UK fommoii salt with Bulphupif aHrJ, Vor 

tnis jiurjtOBc, 24 parta of eoramon Mill, li-rmuc] clii'inimlly 

clilon'W of Hodtum. ara mixad in a n-tori wiiU 'If) parts uf 

Kulpliuri( anil, atid IJ of mtter, and iiitu tho reirui^or 

(U). u<|ital ({aaiitity of water u put; by dii>iillation lo 

4rync«i, n cutourlutt* acid is obtained. Kiiiuh iiiui a apiKJlIu 

sraviiy of nbout 116. 

, Durinjj tbo niutuul attioit of the Mill, acid, and «nter, n 
poiluin i^thQwalac i& docaiiipOM:(l, vbitli yiirldit hydroj^n 
to the cttlorino, mid lli»u lutia murintir acid, wlulc its 
oxyifcn uiiilw \rilb llw: uudiuin, lo f win smla, vhirh with 
Itie kuliihuric ktad conxliLuiua sulpbalc of auda, widch 
remaiiix in tlur miuci. Tim solaiion ul' munatic acid bas 
dm Mitdl and aciiJ propettivnuftbir^fiui iUt-lf; it oinila wlulc 
fuiacs. ninl rcddrui litiiiuj paper. Il diiUQlves miuiy 
Rirtiilx, audi a.-i irun. Eine, and tin. uiid form* wilh tbeui 
clJuDdc^ the Bcidbcini^ilvcoiuii'psird andyiuldine hydroKvii 
goa ilurins '''*^'>' Mluliftii. ahcte cotapoutids wiJt be 
inuiud uf as cUoridtM. uodcr tbo iu»pocliv« luulda. Mii- 
lialic acid it largely itm|)luyW in the arta connected with, 
or lijpondcnl upon, chomicul opi-nUiaDS. m in dyctng »nd 
ndico printiiiK. Aiid in malun([ inurinto of unmonia, or sal 
•mioonuio [Auuoxia]; it unilai dIm witli tho vugtiiablc 
tlkflli*, u morphia, (|uinii, be tu form uurialun: but 
^iili melallic u&idt^, and with ihu oarth^. which iud«o<l 
Arc AD, Hlrictly spealiinK- 't foniui thluriiUui. luid not 
muriate's on account ut'tliv decampoiiiionwliich il HUiru'r*, 
OK jii»l cxpbiiiit'd. Wbcn mixed with Ihti nitrio ;irid also, 
it Li deconipowd. and n muIuiiou of obloriiiu in obt^tint'd, 
vhirb ii UKL^d uiidiir ibc name of aifua regia, or iiitiu-inU' 
iialiK acid, fuf diMolving gold and tilatiiiuin. 

' Clilorini: unites with w;vcnil of the non-mcl&llic Iwdieii ; 
tBRo«i:*if, luoiMiE. Piio^imoaifi, Rkl»:*ivm. and Sttt- 
riim]. Ilavini; aUoady t^vcn an accouut of boron and 
earbon. wc shidl briody >Ui<i tlio natuiu of ibu ihluridcs 
onbiTii! uluiuunlary bodies. 
Cblonnc and boron form 

Cftl-jridc or p«rbapa terchhridf <// boron. Il vaa fvund 
bv IXivy that boron, when recently prcparc<l, buruA in 
^hlorino git; Bcnt<iliu& romukcd Ihut if llui borou hv 
pMnoUftly rondor^d compact, combuition docs not orrur 
itntil theM deuenli arc tufitcd. Tb>^ r^tulling ooni- 
^niid i« a colourlcM gnu, vliicb, trben Cteed tVom exceu 
«f rhlorino by mcani of mercury, ha* tlio fcllcm-iw^j pro- 
p«rii«3: it i» cnluurluiw; iis sptttrille ^\iiy is 3'9'1'J; it ie 
rraibly culiibto tu u'Al«r, bv diNLuniDuiiiiig n pLictiiin uf iihii-h 
intulatte and boraci? uciiU aic oitaint'd: tbti aaoi} tlfi-ct 
ill Ti^ iiJiii'i'iI, iccuiupuiiiod vith a wlulc iniiour. wlivn Ibo 
g into llic alraosphere. It comliinet wiili am- 

111 I \n a Cfimp^und, Ihu naluru uf n]i)i:)i lias nut 

Ifcvit ukxuiuuviL Dr.TlivDuoa c^lb iLlwrocUlocic ttcid. 



It IiDS boon EUfpoeod to be a tereliloridtt, Vut Ihc tubjen 
nK|uirc* further iiive>><i^tjiiii. 
CMorine and cub«a lotu four diffcniil eldotidtt; 

vii. tho dichloridct pTotoclilciridc parchloridc. and - 

chloriilB. -Nn ronibinaliou can be ftfTucled belwi^n ibnu 
(.■Icmonts by direct Action ; carbon, ffwn braleit to wbilcnm 
in tho gaK, AiK* not form unv roiupound with it. TIk di*- 
cov-ery of these comiKiundi u duo to Mr. Faraday. iPkii 
Tram. 18>I.) 

Tliedicbtoride of carbon was an ncHdmtal prodactwiMcl 
has bceii only nnce obloim-d, and ^iu f»nni.il during ihr 
|>rcpan(ion uf«iiiric uiiil frtim crude nitre and sulphate tf 
iron. It occurred in tuiiall tioti colnurlcM fibres; it fuwl 
when hosted. and at jiD^iHiblimvdandoondenivduuchan^td. 
It in, inMilubk in water, acid, und alknlia, but inny bv dti- 
fiolvcdin hot oil of luqHmtinclud in alcohol, rc^-ry-Malliiinj 
M tlic »olulioiu cud; it buriu with a rod llamc, jiclfK 
much btnoko ami mtirintio niid vipour- It I'a eoin^«^^ 
1 cqutvubint of chlorine ■ . 3fi 
'i i<(|iiivalent* of carbon . IS 

Equivalent ... 48 

Tho p^reitlorid/! n/ earhon, wliiidi il will bfl mott rOKU' 
ninnl, nlihougli not in Miiet order, lo coiuid^T nf'M, '■ 
compose A iif 

.^L-quiv.of chloriiift 108, or I^etiuiv. 54 
3 „ enrbon \t „ 1 „^ ;|/B 

Equivalent . ISO Equlx'nlont 1^0 

As D sc«iuicWon4? 

liVhcn olnriant (put. a cniiipimnil of hyiln)grn >i 
[Carhox]. i& mixed wilh chlorine, thej- eombino li' . . 
»il.1iWc litjiiid which if roiuptiiivd of chlorine, cnibon. olA 
l>ydri>gen : by exposure to thu direct rayi uf tbt- nun. laittn- 
tic Rcid and chloride of corbon ure formed during ita dr- 
cumpubition. , 

TtuB chloride is solid ; its smell is rather aromalic ; il it 
& non-condurtor of dcclriHty ; its spcriflr gru iiv is 3. It 
mclt« at iiff, uodal a hiulitr tcTupcnvlurc*may briUriillMl 
wiLbout suflV'rin^ any clisnz«; water dibsolve:^ it but Sj)t- 
rinj^ty, and it is also soluble In alcoliol, a-lhcr and oiIl 

it bums when »trun(;ly.hcatod, but is not acted upoii «tll>u 
by mdds or alkalis ; when pawed with hvdroei-n thr«ugli • 
red-hot tube, muriatic acid is fomict und cartfon dncfitfd 

Tlie proto'i.'blonde of carbon ix obtained by |)«sKn|{ |1w 
pffrchloririo in vapour thri'ni;h a n-d-hot porcclKiii lufc«; 
clibirinc (fa« e*rstlK« in Micb priijiftrtion at t'l reduce the 
nerchloridc lo n proti»hUTidc, which U a. hmpid Mlouriw 
luiuid (if itppcil^cgritviiy t-5S'J: it iinot soliilifi«d %\,tfWK- 
and at about I ;tl' ik ninori»id. Wlmn rcpvatodly tliaiillfd 
It auflen no phanjp*. It in eoTniicicd of 

1 oqui^ent uf chloHno . 36 

1 ,. eubon . 6 

Eilui\'B.k'